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Encoding Video for the Web
Presenters:
Robert Reinhardt - VideoRX.com
Larry Kless - OnlineVideoPublishing.com

Moderator – Mark Robertson, ReelSEO


                                          Audio Portion:
                                          Canada: 1416-900-1162
                                          United Kingdom: 44 (0) 121 368 0265
                                          United States: 1 323 417 4600
                                          Access Code: 600-886-533
Agenda
• Encoding 101
  • What is video compression?
  • What is bit rate?
  • Video codecs vs. container formats
• Shooting tips for web video
• Tools and resources for encoding
• Tutorial: Create high-quality H.264 encoding settings
• Discussion & Q/A

Download presentation @ tinyurl.com/reelseo-slides/
Larry Kless – Online Video Publishing Genius
•   President and Founder of Online Video Publishing [dot] com

•   20 year veteran of the enterprise video space

•   Award-winning producer of corporate and educational videos

•   He writes a personal blog and is a contributor on ReelSEO,
    Vator.tv and other online video blogs

•   Awarded 2009 Streaming Media All-Star

•   Frequent speaker/moderator at industry events and webinars

•   Co-chair of the 2009 Online Video Platform Summit

•   Long-time member of Canyon Cinema, Inc. and Filmmakers’
    Coop
Robert Reinhardt – Flash & Encoding Ninja
•   Creator of service videoRx.com ”Prescription Encoding”

•   VP of the multimedia consulting company, [the MAKERS]

•   Expert on multimedia application development and online
    video deployment (particularly in Adobe Flash and H.264)

•   Author of the first 7 editions of the Flash Bible series (Wiley),
    as well as Video with Adobe Flash CS4 Professional Studio
    Techniques (Adobe Press)
     •   Over 200,000 copies sold worldwide in over 13 languages


•   Featured speaker at FlashForward, FITC, Flashbelt, Flash on
    the Beach, SIGGRAPH, and Adobe MAX conferences

•   Robert is also an instructor at DesignProVideo.com
What Producers Need to Know About
         VIDEO COMPRESSION




     Larry Kless - Online Video Publishing [dot] com
What is Video Compression?




•   Compression is central to the video production workflow
•   Video and audio streams are compressed, contained and output as files
•   Compression reduces the amount of data
     – Redundant information is removed to reduce the storage and bandwidth
•   Combo of spatial image compression + temporal motion compensation
•   Quality is reduced as the file gets more compressed
Video Codecs and Containers
Common Codecs                         Common File Containers
 –   DV/DVCPRO                           –   MOV
 –   Sorenson Spark                      –   FLV
 –   On2 VP6-S                           –   MP4, M4V
 –   H.264/MPEG-4 AVC                    –   OGG
 –   Theora (.ogv, .oga)                 –   3GP, 3G2 (mobile)
 –   VC1                                 –   MP3, M4A, MP4 (audio)
 –   MP3, AAC (audio)
            * MPEG-2 is both a codec and a container

              Example - “I’m creating a MP4 file using H.264 encoding
              compressed at 700 Kbps and AAC audio at 64 Kbps.”
What is a Video Codec?
•   Codec = compressor/decompressor
     – The software or hardware engine that converts uncompressed frames
       into the compressed domain (vice versa)
     – Codecs can be both lossy or lossless (typically lossy)
     – Reduction in information at each encode

•   Typically asymmetrical
     – Decompression is often >10x faster than compression

•   Example “lossy” codecs
     –   H.264, VP6, VP8, Divx, MPEG-4, FFMPEG, Sorenson Spark, VC1, VOB


•   Inter-frame (acquisition and editing formats)
     –   DV, MPEG-2 (IMX), AVC-Intra, JPEG-2000


•   Intra-frame compression (distribution formats)
     –   H.264, MPEG-2 LongGOP, WMV, VP6, etc…
What is Bit Rate?
•   Bit rate (AKA data rate) = amount data that is transferred per second
     – Kilobits per seconds (Kbps)
     – Megabits per second (Mbps)

•   Higher data rate = less video compression = higher quality = larger files

•   Lower data rate = more video compression = lower quality = smaller files

•   For smooth video streaming playback, data rate must conform to available
    bandwidth (i.e. size of the pipe or storage size of physical media)

•   Variable (VBR) vs. constant (VBR)
What is a Video Container?
• AKA “wrappers”

• Can contain:
    – Multiple types of codecs (audio, video, etc…)
    – Animation, music, speech, text, subtitles, etc…

• Used to identify, interleave, and synchronize the various components
    – Critically important for successful playback
    – Most device or distribution mediums are in the container specifications
    – Single biggest source of incompatibility is in containers rather than codecs

• Example containers
    – MOV, AVI, OGG, MP4, WMV, FLV
What is a Video Format?
Combination of a container and a specified set of codecs and metadata
   – Example: MP4 with H.264 video and AAC audio

• Detailed parameters
   – MP4 container
   – H.264 codec
       •   720x480, 29.97fps, upper field first          Video
       •   2-pass VBR, 3 Mbps data rate,
       •   Main profile, ATSC closed-captioning
       •   …and about 50 other parameters
   – AAC audio
       • Stereo, 16-bits per sample, 48Khz sample rate
       • 128 Kbps data rate
What is Aspect Ratio and Display Resolution?
• Aspect ratio = Ratio of the width of the image to its height
• Display resolution = # of pixels in each dimension


                                                                 Standard definition = 4:3
                                                                   QVGA
                                                                   • 320x240
                                                                   VGA
                                                                   • 640 x 480
                                                                   NSTC
                                                                   • 720 x 480

                                                                 Widescreen = 16:9
                                                                 • 640x360
                                                                 • 1280 x 720 (HD)
                                                                 • 1920 x 1080 (1080 HD)
Is Encoding the Same Thing as Transcoding?
Answer: NO
•   Encoding = Outputting a file or video stream into a format using a specific
    codec profile
•   Transcoding = Converting one file format to another (e.g. WMV to FLV)


Tips for better quality
•   Always start with a high quality source (e.g. directly from your video master,
    editing program or video file)
•   If you have a DVD master and plan to edit, rip it without video compression
    (e.g. 8-bit uncompressed vs. H.264)
•   Every time you recompress a video file you reduce the quality (think copy of a
    copy of a copy)
Video Compression – Why Should You Care?
Important points to remember
•   Motion degrades video quality

•   Bandwidth and delivery
     – Progressive download
     – Streaming


•   May need high and low quality versions

•   The greater the complexity of image
    = the greater the loss of detail
Choosing a Format
• Before you start, you must learn
   –   Who your audience is
   –   What do they want to see
   –   How do they want to see it
   –   What’s the business application


• Once you know, you can decide
   –   File format
   –   Resolution
   –   Compatibility
   –   Distribution and syndication
Shooting for Web Video - 4 Need to Knows
Watch the amount of motion
    – Limit camera motion
    – Cuts compress better than dissolves

Manage your backgrounds carefully
    – The best backgrounds have no motion and low detail
    – Don’t use high contrast colors or wide open spaces
    – Break up the background with some texture

Lighting is key
    – Use soft lights to reduce artifacts and noise
    – Create contrast between subject and background
    – Both 3-point and flat lighting work well for web video

Shoot in progressive mode (p) vs. interlaced (i)
My Export Settings for Corporate Intranet
Medium quality
•   Encode video for Flash 9 player
•   Video codec: VP6 @ 400-500 Kbps, 2-pass VBR
•   Audio codec: MPEG Layer III @ 64 Kbps, 22 kHz mono
•   Advanced settings: 30 Fps, Aspect ratio: 640 x 480 pixels,
    cropping, deinterlace, Key frame placement: Automatic


High quality
•   Video codec: H.264 @ 700 Kbps – 1 Mbps
•   Audio codec: AAC @ 80 Kbps, 44.1 kHz stereo
•   Advanced settings: 30 Fps, Aspect ratio: 640 x 360 pixels,
    Key frame placement: Automatic


* Videos are wrapped in JW Player and deployed to web server and delivered via progressive download
My Export Settings for Uploading
Export using QuickTime
   –   Encode video for MP4
   –   Video codec: H.264 @ 3000 Kbps
   –   Audio codec: AAC @ 128 Kbps
   –   Advanced settings:
        • 30 Fps, Aspect ratio: 1280 x720, Key
          frame placement: Automatic


Upload to Tubemogul
   – Distribute to YouTube, Blip,
     Dailymotion, Viddler, Vimeo, Yahoo
Try the Bit Rate Calculator




         http://tinyurl.com/bitrate-calc
Tools & Options for Encoding Video
•   Editing software

•   Desktop encoding software
     –   Sorenson Squeeze
     –   Flix Pro
     –   Adobe Encoder
     –   Compressor / Mac
     –   Handbrake
     –   QuickTime Pro

•   Web-based encoding tools
     – Encoding.com
     – VideoRX.com

•   Video hosting platforms
     – BitsOnTheRun, BrightCove, Fliqz, Kaltura, Ooyala, Sorenson 360, Vzaar, etc… 70+ Visit
     – http://www.reelseo.com/vidcompare/
TUTORIAL: CREATE HIGH-QUALITY H.264
         ENCODING SETTINGS




             Robert Reinhardt
Free Tools for H.264 Encoding
• x264: Open source encoding library

• ffmpeg: Open source command line encoding tool

• Handbrake: Open source GUI tool for x264 and ffmpeg, available for
  download at http://www.handbrake.fr

• Web Video Bitrate Starter: My encoding preset tool, available for
  download at http://flashsupport.com/resources
Why is x264 Important?
• x264 can produce higher quality output for equivalent file sizes (or
  bit rates) than most commercial encoding products

• x264 requires a more thorough understanding of intricate H.264
  settings that other encoders might automate behind the scenes

• Some H.264 encoding options may not significantly enhance quality
  with drastic reductions in bit rate
Handbrake in Action




  [DEMO: HQ H.264 for web desktop destination]
Thank You
• Follow Robert on twitter: @flashfreaker

• Read my blog post: http://tinyurl.com/whyflash

• Latest project: videoRx.com, online encoding service

• Training:
   – Esynctraining.com

• Next events:
   – Flashbelt, Minneapolis, June 13-16
   – Flash on the Beach, Brighton, UK, September 26-29
Q&A
Bookmark ReelSEO = Video Marketing News, Trends, Tips…


Thank You
Mark R. Robertson, Founder
www.reelseo.com


     @reelseo

     Facebook.com/reelseo

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Encoding Video for the Web - Webinar from ReelSEO.com

  • 1. Encoding Video for the Web Presenters: Robert Reinhardt - VideoRX.com Larry Kless - OnlineVideoPublishing.com Moderator – Mark Robertson, ReelSEO Audio Portion: Canada: 1416-900-1162 United Kingdom: 44 (0) 121 368 0265 United States: 1 323 417 4600 Access Code: 600-886-533
  • 2. Agenda • Encoding 101 • What is video compression? • What is bit rate? • Video codecs vs. container formats • Shooting tips for web video • Tools and resources for encoding • Tutorial: Create high-quality H.264 encoding settings • Discussion & Q/A Download presentation @ tinyurl.com/reelseo-slides/
  • 3. Larry Kless – Online Video Publishing Genius • President and Founder of Online Video Publishing [dot] com • 20 year veteran of the enterprise video space • Award-winning producer of corporate and educational videos • He writes a personal blog and is a contributor on ReelSEO, Vator.tv and other online video blogs • Awarded 2009 Streaming Media All-Star • Frequent speaker/moderator at industry events and webinars • Co-chair of the 2009 Online Video Platform Summit • Long-time member of Canyon Cinema, Inc. and Filmmakers’ Coop
  • 4. Robert Reinhardt – Flash & Encoding Ninja • Creator of service videoRx.com ”Prescription Encoding” • VP of the multimedia consulting company, [the MAKERS] • Expert on multimedia application development and online video deployment (particularly in Adobe Flash and H.264) • Author of the first 7 editions of the Flash Bible series (Wiley), as well as Video with Adobe Flash CS4 Professional Studio Techniques (Adobe Press) • Over 200,000 copies sold worldwide in over 13 languages • Featured speaker at FlashForward, FITC, Flashbelt, Flash on the Beach, SIGGRAPH, and Adobe MAX conferences • Robert is also an instructor at DesignProVideo.com
  • 5. What Producers Need to Know About VIDEO COMPRESSION Larry Kless - Online Video Publishing [dot] com
  • 6. What is Video Compression? • Compression is central to the video production workflow • Video and audio streams are compressed, contained and output as files • Compression reduces the amount of data – Redundant information is removed to reduce the storage and bandwidth • Combo of spatial image compression + temporal motion compensation • Quality is reduced as the file gets more compressed
  • 7. Video Codecs and Containers Common Codecs Common File Containers – DV/DVCPRO – MOV – Sorenson Spark – FLV – On2 VP6-S – MP4, M4V – H.264/MPEG-4 AVC – OGG – Theora (.ogv, .oga) – 3GP, 3G2 (mobile) – VC1 – MP3, M4A, MP4 (audio) – MP3, AAC (audio) * MPEG-2 is both a codec and a container Example - “I’m creating a MP4 file using H.264 encoding compressed at 700 Kbps and AAC audio at 64 Kbps.”
  • 8. What is a Video Codec? • Codec = compressor/decompressor – The software or hardware engine that converts uncompressed frames into the compressed domain (vice versa) – Codecs can be both lossy or lossless (typically lossy) – Reduction in information at each encode • Typically asymmetrical – Decompression is often >10x faster than compression • Example “lossy” codecs – H.264, VP6, VP8, Divx, MPEG-4, FFMPEG, Sorenson Spark, VC1, VOB • Inter-frame (acquisition and editing formats) – DV, MPEG-2 (IMX), AVC-Intra, JPEG-2000 • Intra-frame compression (distribution formats) – H.264, MPEG-2 LongGOP, WMV, VP6, etc…
  • 9. What is Bit Rate? • Bit rate (AKA data rate) = amount data that is transferred per second – Kilobits per seconds (Kbps) – Megabits per second (Mbps) • Higher data rate = less video compression = higher quality = larger files • Lower data rate = more video compression = lower quality = smaller files • For smooth video streaming playback, data rate must conform to available bandwidth (i.e. size of the pipe or storage size of physical media) • Variable (VBR) vs. constant (VBR)
  • 10. What is a Video Container? • AKA “wrappers” • Can contain: – Multiple types of codecs (audio, video, etc…) – Animation, music, speech, text, subtitles, etc… • Used to identify, interleave, and synchronize the various components – Critically important for successful playback – Most device or distribution mediums are in the container specifications – Single biggest source of incompatibility is in containers rather than codecs • Example containers – MOV, AVI, OGG, MP4, WMV, FLV
  • 11. What is a Video Format? Combination of a container and a specified set of codecs and metadata – Example: MP4 with H.264 video and AAC audio • Detailed parameters – MP4 container – H.264 codec • 720x480, 29.97fps, upper field first Video • 2-pass VBR, 3 Mbps data rate, • Main profile, ATSC closed-captioning • …and about 50 other parameters – AAC audio • Stereo, 16-bits per sample, 48Khz sample rate • 128 Kbps data rate
  • 12. What is Aspect Ratio and Display Resolution? • Aspect ratio = Ratio of the width of the image to its height • Display resolution = # of pixels in each dimension Standard definition = 4:3 QVGA • 320x240 VGA • 640 x 480 NSTC • 720 x 480 Widescreen = 16:9 • 640x360 • 1280 x 720 (HD) • 1920 x 1080 (1080 HD)
  • 13. Is Encoding the Same Thing as Transcoding? Answer: NO • Encoding = Outputting a file or video stream into a format using a specific codec profile • Transcoding = Converting one file format to another (e.g. WMV to FLV) Tips for better quality • Always start with a high quality source (e.g. directly from your video master, editing program or video file) • If you have a DVD master and plan to edit, rip it without video compression (e.g. 8-bit uncompressed vs. H.264) • Every time you recompress a video file you reduce the quality (think copy of a copy of a copy)
  • 14. Video Compression – Why Should You Care? Important points to remember • Motion degrades video quality • Bandwidth and delivery – Progressive download – Streaming • May need high and low quality versions • The greater the complexity of image = the greater the loss of detail
  • 15. Choosing a Format • Before you start, you must learn – Who your audience is – What do they want to see – How do they want to see it – What’s the business application • Once you know, you can decide – File format – Resolution – Compatibility – Distribution and syndication
  • 16. Shooting for Web Video - 4 Need to Knows Watch the amount of motion – Limit camera motion – Cuts compress better than dissolves Manage your backgrounds carefully – The best backgrounds have no motion and low detail – Don’t use high contrast colors or wide open spaces – Break up the background with some texture Lighting is key – Use soft lights to reduce artifacts and noise – Create contrast between subject and background – Both 3-point and flat lighting work well for web video Shoot in progressive mode (p) vs. interlaced (i)
  • 17. My Export Settings for Corporate Intranet Medium quality • Encode video for Flash 9 player • Video codec: VP6 @ 400-500 Kbps, 2-pass VBR • Audio codec: MPEG Layer III @ 64 Kbps, 22 kHz mono • Advanced settings: 30 Fps, Aspect ratio: 640 x 480 pixels, cropping, deinterlace, Key frame placement: Automatic High quality • Video codec: H.264 @ 700 Kbps – 1 Mbps • Audio codec: AAC @ 80 Kbps, 44.1 kHz stereo • Advanced settings: 30 Fps, Aspect ratio: 640 x 360 pixels, Key frame placement: Automatic * Videos are wrapped in JW Player and deployed to web server and delivered via progressive download
  • 18. My Export Settings for Uploading Export using QuickTime – Encode video for MP4 – Video codec: H.264 @ 3000 Kbps – Audio codec: AAC @ 128 Kbps – Advanced settings: • 30 Fps, Aspect ratio: 1280 x720, Key frame placement: Automatic Upload to Tubemogul – Distribute to YouTube, Blip, Dailymotion, Viddler, Vimeo, Yahoo
  • 19. Try the Bit Rate Calculator http://tinyurl.com/bitrate-calc
  • 20. Tools & Options for Encoding Video • Editing software • Desktop encoding software – Sorenson Squeeze – Flix Pro – Adobe Encoder – Compressor / Mac – Handbrake – QuickTime Pro • Web-based encoding tools – Encoding.com – VideoRX.com • Video hosting platforms – BitsOnTheRun, BrightCove, Fliqz, Kaltura, Ooyala, Sorenson 360, Vzaar, etc… 70+ Visit – http://www.reelseo.com/vidcompare/
  • 21. TUTORIAL: CREATE HIGH-QUALITY H.264 ENCODING SETTINGS Robert Reinhardt
  • 22. Free Tools for H.264 Encoding • x264: Open source encoding library • ffmpeg: Open source command line encoding tool • Handbrake: Open source GUI tool for x264 and ffmpeg, available for download at http://www.handbrake.fr • Web Video Bitrate Starter: My encoding preset tool, available for download at http://flashsupport.com/resources
  • 23. Why is x264 Important? • x264 can produce higher quality output for equivalent file sizes (or bit rates) than most commercial encoding products • x264 requires a more thorough understanding of intricate H.264 settings that other encoders might automate behind the scenes • Some H.264 encoding options may not significantly enhance quality with drastic reductions in bit rate
  • 24. Handbrake in Action [DEMO: HQ H.264 for web desktop destination]
  • 25. Thank You • Follow Robert on twitter: @flashfreaker • Read my blog post: http://tinyurl.com/whyflash • Latest project: videoRx.com, online encoding service • Training: – Esynctraining.com • Next events: – Flashbelt, Minneapolis, June 13-16 – Flash on the Beach, Brighton, UK, September 26-29
  • 26. Q&A
  • 27. Bookmark ReelSEO = Video Marketing News, Trends, Tips… Thank You Mark R. Robertson, Founder www.reelseo.com @reelseo Facebook.com/reelseo