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# Approach the future of cities by the singularity of technologies !

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Approach the future of cities by the singularity of technologies !

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### Approach the future of cities by the singularity of technologies !

1. 1. approach the future of cities by the singularity of technologies !<br />What&apos;s the nextstepsfromnow ?<br />
2. 2. What&apos;s the Singularity ?<br />Overview, definition, SingularitySchools, …<br />
3. 3. MathematicsSingularity<br />In mathematics, a singularity is in general a point at which a given mathematical object is not defined, or a point of an exceptional set where it fails to be well-behaved in some particular way, such as differentiability<br />When x=0 this function fails to compute. As x approaches zero from either direction, it aproaches either negative or positive infinity<br />
4. 4. Singularity Concept<br />The Singularity is a common matter of discussion in transhumanist circles. <br />There is no clear definition, but usually the Singularity is meant as a future time when societal, scientific and economic change is so fast that we cannot even imagine what will happen from our present perspective, <br />… and when humanity will become posthumanity.<br />
5. 5. TechnologicalSingularity<br />Technological singularity is a term used with varying meanings related to self-improving artificial intelligence, superintelligence, breakdowns in the predictability of the future, accelerating change of the exponential or superexponential sort, and more generic &quot;big events&quot; in history.<br />
6. 6. Three Major SingularitySchools<br />Accelerating Change, Event Horizon, Intelligence Explosion<br />
7. 7. Event Horizon by VenorVinge<br />Lemma !<br />For the last hundred thousand years, humans have been the smartest intelligences on the planet<br />All our social and technological progress was produced by human brains<br />Shortly, technology will advance to the point of improving on human intelligence (brain-computer interfaces, Artificial Intelligence)<br />This will create a future that is not to far than most science fiction, a difference-in-kind that goes beyond amazing shiny gadgets<br />But what&apos;re the facts ?<br />To know what a superhuman intelligence would do, you would have to be at least that smart yourself<br />To know where Deep Blue would play in a chess game, you must play at Deep Blue’s level<br />The future after the creation of smarter-than-human intelligence is absolutely unpredictable<br />
8. 8. Intelligence Explosion by E. Yudkowsky<br />Lemma !<br />Intelligence has always been the source of technology<br />If technology can significantly improve on human intelligence - create minds smarter than the smartest existing humans - then this closes the loop and creates a positive feedback cycle<br />What would humans with brain-computer interfaces do with their augmented intelligence ?<br />One good bet is that they’d design the next generation of brain-computer interfaces<br />Intelligence enhancement is a classic tipping point; the smarter you get, the more intelligence you can apply to making yourself even smarter<br />But what&apos;re the facts ?<br />This positive feedback cycle goes evolve, like a chain of nuclear fissions gone critical - each intelligence improvement triggering an average of &gt;1.000 further improvements of similar magnitude - though not necessarily on a smooth exponential pathway<br />Technological progress drops into the characteristic timescale of transistors (or super-transistors) rather than human neurons<br />
9. 9. Accelerating Change by Ray Kurzweil<br />Lemma !<br />Our intuitions about change are linear<br />we expect roughly as much change as has occurred in the past over our own lifetimes<br />But technological change feeds on itself, and therefore accelerates<br />Change today is faster than it was 500 years ago, which in turn is faster than it was 5000 years ago<br />Our recent past is not a reliable guide to how much change we should expect in the future<br />But what&apos;re the facts ?<br />Technological change follows smooth curves, typically exponential<br />Therefore we can predict with fair precision when new technologies will arrive, and when they will cross key thresholds, like the creation of Artificial Intelligence<br />
12. 12. 12<br />Information Technologies (of all kinds) double their power every year(price performance, capacity, bandwidth) <br />12<br />
13. 13. 13<br />A Personal Experience<br />Measure MIT’s IBM 7094 Notebook Circa 2003<br />2003<br />1,000<br />256,000<br />\$2,000<br />1967<br />0.25<br />144<br />\$11,000,000<br />Year<br />Processor Speed (MIPS)<br />Main Memory (K Bytes)<br />Approximate Cost (2003 \$)<br />24 Doublings of Price-Performance in 36 years, doubling time: 18 months not including vastly greater RAM memory, disk storage, instruction set, etc.<br />And today a notebook priceis 250\$ for the samecapacities !<br />13<br />© KurzweilAI.NET<br />
14. 14. 14<br />Moore’s Law is one example of many…<br />Moore&apos;s Law describes a long-term trend in the history of computing hardware, in which the number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years<br />14<br />
15. 15. 15<br />15<br />© KurzweilAI.NET<br />
16. 16. What&apos;sreally important with the singularity concept ?<br />For you, your city and yourcitizens ?<br />
17. 17. Usages !!!<br />Someways of challenges :<br /><ul><li>Domestic life
18. 18. Education, hobbies and culture
19. 19. Transportation in cities
20. 20. Food
21. 21. Health Care
22. 22. …</li></li></ul><li>Impacts and Future Challenges<br />What&apos;llbe the Cities and Citizens challengesfor the future …<br />
23. 23. Categories Challenges samples<br />Domestic life<br />Education, hobbies and culture<br />Transportation in cities<br />Healthcare<br />
24. 24. Domestic life : Intelligent home<br />Which kind of home ?<br />A home with ambient intelligence ..<br />which recognize me, which help me, ..<br />open to the world<br />Home Automation : light, music, temperature, …<br />Redistribution of private renewable energy<br />As like Sarah in Eureka : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y0Fsq2OOZ7g<br />
25. 25. Domestic life : one robot in each house ?<br />The advent of robotics in home .. In South of Corea (ex)<br />Robots for Security arrive by 2010<br />Robots Surgeons for 2018<br />Each home will have its robot between 2015 and 2020<br />Ethics Editorial define relationship between humans and robots<br />
26. 26. Domesticlife in the future ?<br />Many questions about the future of our home :<br />A home with ambient intelligence .. What&apos;llbe the impacts ?<br />Home Automation : light, music, temperature, … <br />Redistribution of private renewable energy<br />The advent of robotics in home .. <br />A home place or a working place ?<br />…<br />Which kind of roles and actions for governments ?<br />Financial support for the deployment of networks for ahomogeneous territorial coverage<br />Supports research and development on and robotics technology for domestic use<br />Incentives for innovation for home automation meets environmental criteria (energy, water, recyclability ...) and affordable price<br />
27. 27. Education, hobbies and Culture ?<br />Pedagogic Univers<br />Evolution of NetBook, TouchBook<br />Numeric Books<br />Multitouch, virtualization<br />Pedagogic Robot (Virtual or Real)<br />Virtual Agents<br />Semantic Web (Web 3.0)<br />Ubiquitus usages<br />
28. 28. Education, hobbies and culture in the future ?<br />Many questions about the future of Education, hobbies and culture :<br />Which kind of investments and when to do ?<br />How to safeguard our children the excesses of the computer? <br />What cohabitation between robots and human in education, hobbies, culture?<br />What to expect from a Virtual Agent? ... What is a Virtual Agent?<br />…<br />Which kind of roles and actions for governments ?<br />Integration of robotics (robots) in schools <br />Improve teaching with the Web 3.0 (semantic) <br />Better coverage of the internet bandwidthin the cities<br />Develop feedback and uses innovative digital arts <br />Create a public offer<br />…<br />
29. 29. Transports in cities<br />A new way to move ?<br />Urban density and the fight against climate change will foster innovation<br />Teleworking and teleconferencing<br />For private transport, the vehicle will use more and more divorced from his possession<br />Real-Time Ridesharing<br />Electric or hybrid Car ? Consume what you use !<br />Car or Computer ?<br />RoboCar ?<br />Darpa<br />
30. 30.
31. 31. Transports in cities in the future ?<br />Many questions about the future of the transports :<br />What uses and what costs? <br />How to raise awareness or educate people? <br />How to move quickly to electric transport and leave the transport fossil fuels? <br />What security or what dangers with robocars?<br />…<br />Which kind of roles and actions for governments ?<br />For long distance: fostering integrated planning of a European transport system balanced and homogeneous<br />Creating the conditions for a technological breakthrough in the automotive sector by supporting research <br />For the intra-urban: urban mobility shift in investing in environmentally friendly transport<br />…<br />
32. 32. HealthCare<br />A new way for the HealthCare ?<br />Your home medical with the domotic devices<br />Remote Diagnosis with our doctors<br />not treat diseases but to prevent disease<br />redistribute the locations of patients<br />fewer patients to hospital<br />gene expression offers new therapeutic perspectives<br />Connect technology and neurons<br />…<br />Microsoft Future Vision : Healthcare<br />
33. 33. HealthCare in the future ?<br />Many questions about the future of the HealtCare :<br />What&apos;llbe the impact of the nanotechnologies in the healthcare<br />Can I trust : robot for myhealth ?<br />how to evolve my relationship with my doctor ?<br />Whatwillbe the cost of this future evolution for hospitals ?<br />…<br />Which kind of roles and actions for governments ?<br />Strategy anticipation, prevention and assistance by technologies<br />Detection and treatment of disease stage molecular Early<br />Protection of Human Rights <br />Coaching Ethics, Communication and Transparency <br />Financing and analysis of multi-year cost-benefit<br />
34. 34. Conclusion<br />
35. 35. A changing World ! It&apos;s a fact !<br />What are the Basic trends ?<br />Increased globalization <br />The depletion of energy resources and food and energy dependence <br />Climate change <br />The limitation of public finances <br />The growth of services in French GDP <br />The aging population <br />The shift of certain activities of non-profit sector to the commercial sector <br />The growth of urban concentration <br />The emergence of new forms of risks and threats (cyber ...)<br />
36. 36. The search of wellness<br />A society in search of wellness<br />Interest in health, body, beauty, well-being and form <br />Increased expectations for quality of life and safety <br />Environmental concerns and ethical <br />Individual autonomy and the need for customization <br />The need for convenience, ease and flexibility <br />The rise of social networking and collective intelligence <br />The continued spread of the Internet and the immediacy of access to information <br />The change of work / privacy activities<br />
37. 37. So… Whatelse ?<br />Prepareyourself to :<br />More important integration of technologies<br />Genetic, Nanotechnologies, Robotic, …<br />The future usages of technologies of yourcitizens<br />The future usages of technologies in the cities<br />Working on the legislative …<br />Prepareour futur world <br />Prepare the cohabitation between human and technologies<br />Don&apos;tforget the Train speeds !<br />Actual speed <br />Proposed Speed !<br />
38. 38. You want help for your future choices ?<br />Gregory RenardCTO and Research and Manager gregory@wygwam.com<br />