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Beyond Milkshakes - Using JTBD for Innovation & Product Design

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Beyond Milkshakes - Using JTBD for Innovation & Product Design

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We’ve all seen the Clayton Christensen drive-through milkshakes video, heard the Snickers story and possibly brought the mattress; but many years on, JTBD (jobs to be done) still means different things to different people. At Redgate, JTBD is now a key part of our design toolkit. It gives us a top-down, solution-agnostic understanding of users’ needs; along with an understanding of the situation and context in which those needs manifest. We’ll talk about how JTBD helps us to discover new opportunities for innovation and to connect design decisions back to the jobs our products seek to address.

We’ve all seen the Clayton Christensen drive-through milkshakes video, heard the Snickers story and possibly brought the mattress; but many years on, JTBD (jobs to be done) still means different things to different people. At Redgate, JTBD is now a key part of our design toolkit. It gives us a top-down, solution-agnostic understanding of users’ needs; along with an understanding of the situation and context in which those needs manifest. We’ll talk about how JTBD helps us to discover new opportunities for innovation and to connect design decisions back to the jobs our products seek to address.

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Beyond Milkshakes - Using JTBD for Innovation & Product Design

  1. 1. Beyond Milkshakes: Using JTBD for Innovation & Product Design
  2. 2. Who are we? Natalia Rey - Product Designer Matt Godfrey - Head of Product Design
  3. 3. What we’re not going to talk about...
  4. 4. A little bit of background...
  5. 5. “Customers don’t want your product or what it does; they want help making their lives better.” Alan Klement
  6. 6. What is a Job?
  7. 7. What is a Job? What I’m buying: A better nights sleep so I can focus & be more productive. What I’m sold: A ‘Gro Clock’...then a sleep tracker...then? Customer: Matt, a busy dad of two with kids on a different body clock! + = Where I am now Where I want to be Situations
  8. 8. Key Principles of JTBD 1. Outcome focused What customers want to achieve vs. the tasks or activities they currently do. 2. Solution agnostic Rooted in better analysis of the full problem-space vs. solution-space. 3. Stable over time Whilst situations, technology and expectations change, jobs are stable. 4. Functional, social & emotional A single job comprises of functional, social and emotional components.
  9. 9. Key Influencers Anthony Ulwick - Outcome Driven Innovation Alan Klement: The Job Story Bob Moesta et al: The Switch Interview Clayton Christensen: Theory of Progress Jobs-as-Progress Jobs-as-Activities
  10. 10. Why did we hire JTBD? Reasons for switching
  11. 11. Why we hired: The Pushes Connect research with strategy Limited understanding of customers and their goals compromised our ability to identify and articulate new, potentially more valuable opportunities.
  12. 12. Why we hired: The Pushes Point tool vs. Solution mindset Mindset of designing for point tools, when customers are actually looking for solutions that might enable them to accomplish their bigger goals.
  13. 13. Why we hired: The Pulls Get to the primary ‘why?’ JTBD promises a way to understand what customers are really trying to achieve. The underlying motivation and struggle that caused them to buy (hire) our products.
  14. 14. Why we hired: The Pulls Higher order of analysis JTBD provides a top-down, outcome- centric approach to design and innovation. The job (rather than your product) is the unit of analysis.
  15. 15. Why we hired: Habits Teams work largely in silos JTBD required us to think outside of what we’d normally consider to be a teams’ problem space. Would have to change the way we work as designers.
  16. 16. Why we hired: Habits Focus on evaluative methods Traditionally we’ve focused on evaluative research methods, but we’d have to change our approach to discover and analyse customers’ jobs.
  17. 17. Why we hired: Anxieties Right level of abstraction? Struggled to find right level of abstraction - What jobs can or should we reasonably design for that still aligned with our business goals?
  18. 18. Why we hired: Anxieties Finding emotion is hard Functional, more utilitarian jobs are easier to identify. Harder to extract emotional and social motivations, particularly with business products.
  19. 19. “A lense through which to understand value creation.” Jim Kalbach
  20. 20. Case Study/Example Provisioning
  21. 21. Context Databases - boxes where data lives When shopping with your credit card, details of your card, your account and the transaction will be stored in a database and passed to your bank for processing.
  22. 22. Companies Production databases Companies have to be very careful with their use of data, restricting who can access these production databases. New regulations around it.
  23. 23. Target audience Personas and JTBD. This is John, our database administrator. He is the guard of production, and thanks to him, no data can be missed, shared or saved in non-secure locations. He is like a librarian, and he has to mind his books.
  24. 24. Updates in databases Engineers need to make changes to their systems frequently and these databases need to be updated. A very important part of his role is to provide copies of production database to developers so then they can work on those copies - without touching production.
  25. 25. John has some Jobs-to-be-Done
  26. 26. Redgate We are a technology company that innovates in providing SQL Server solutions for IT teams. Here’s SQL Provision, a solution that serves most of John’s jobs. We are going to talk about this solution that designers at Redgate have been working on.
  27. 27. Hiring Jobs-to-be-Done To provide a better understanding of John and his functional jobs: Monitoring, provisioning and troubleshooting. Emotional: Loves tech and he is constantly looking for better solutions. Social: He needs to be seen as someone reliable, who can always save the day.
  28. 28. How well does SQL Provision serve John’s jobs?
  29. 29. John’s Journey
  30. 30. Job story “When copies fail John wants to be able to know what happened - why they failed, when they failed - so he can fix the problem and create the copy again faster - as he knows what happened he won’t make the same errors again”
  31. 31. Job story “When copies fail John wants to be able to know what happened - why they failed, when they failed - so he can fix the problem and create the copy again faster - as he knows what happened he won’t make the same errors again” PROBLEM FRAMED NOT SOLUTIONS AT THIS POINT SITUATIONN MOTIVATIONN EXPECTED OUTCOMEN PERSONAN
  32. 32. How we might solve it? John’s problem becomes our problem too - it’s our business goal. IDEAS BRAINSTORMED TOGETHER - DECIDE - MATCH BACK TO THE JOB STORY
  33. 33. The experiment WE EXPECT PEOPLE USE THE ACTIVITY FEED TO IDENTIFY WHAT HAPPENED WHEN SOMETHING FAILS. 1. PEOPLE SPEND A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF TIME USING THE ACTIVITY FEED. 2. PEOPLE GIVE A POSITIVE RESPONSE WHEN SURVEYED ASKING “DID IT HELP YOU TO UNDERSTAND WHAT HAPPENED? WE WILL KNOW IF WE SUCCEED IF
  34. 34. When copies fail I want to be able to know what happened - why they failed, when they failed - so I can fix the problem and create the copy again faster - as I know what happened I won’t make the same errors again.
  35. 35. John has some Jobs to-be-done REDGATE HELPS JOHN TO BECOME A BETTER DBA: FUNCTIONALLY, EMOTIONALLY AND SOCIALLY
  36. 36. What have we changed?
  37. 37. John’s JTBD John’s AS-IS scenario Job Story (problem framed) Ideation Experiment TO-BE experience 1 2 3 4 5 6
  38. 38. Summary
  39. 39. Key Takeaways 1. JTBD is a great framework for understanding causality & motivation 2. Focus on outcomes (personal or professional) vs. products and features 3. Learn by doing. Practice and apply JTBD to your own business context 4. Principles & mindset are more important than the tools! 5. Start small. Think about your last purchase...what was the real JTBD?
  40. 40. Recommended Reading
  41. 41. We’re hiring Product Designers! Find out more: Redgate Design @MatthewGodfrey @mikitcha @uxredgate

Editor's Notes

  • Matt, Head of Product Design
    Natalia, Product Designer at Redgate
  • We’re not going to talk about: Milkshakes, Snickers bars or power drills
    You’ve seen, heard these examples many times now!
    We’re going to try and describe why we (the design team at Redgate) hired JTBD…
    ...as well as our account of how we’ve been using the framework
    Call out from the beginning that we’re still on a journey and not there yet!
  • Just a tiny bit of background to help set the context...
  • Less about your product, more about how it helps them make progress in their personal or professional lives
    Look beyond your product or service to find the real Job your customer is trying to get done.
    Pivotal change in mindset.
  • The Jobs (and the need for a solution) come about where there is a gap between your actual self and desired self
    Theory of Jobs-as-Progress therefore sees people hire products in these moments of struggle: Mario > Super Mario
    Emmett's example of tools/product amplifying or enhancing users’ abilities
    Ultimately, your product/service is a means to a greater end! A sense of self-betterment.
  • I’m not buying the product because I need another clock or a nightlight...I’m buying the clock to get a better nights sleep
    JTBD is to ‘Improve the quality of my sleep, so that I can focus and be more productive during the day.’
    Current situation (kids not sleeping through) has given rise to the need for me to seek a solution to this job
    Now kids sleep through I’ve hired a sleep tracker...situation has changed, but my jobs remains.
    Products that will help me make progress with this will come and go but the job remains!
  • Amongst different (and in some cases competing) interpretations of job theory there are four key principles that hold true:

    The JTBD or the outcome (as opposed to their ability to perform a task) becomes the focus of your research & analysis: How/to what degree do we help someone make progress in their lives?
    Encourages us to operate in the problem-space, open to finding new/creative ways of enabling customers to get their job done, or get that that job done even better!
    Solutions will come and go but the job is stable - focusing on the job allows companies to reliably & repeatedly innovate
    Think beyond the utilitarian aspects of products and design for social and emotional needs (Be goals vs. Do goals)
  • On our journey to find out more about JTBD...we came across these key influencers (job theorists)
    Jobs-as-Progress - people hire products to make progress with their ‘Be’ goals i.e. achieve self-betterment e.g. Be a better parent
    Jobs-as-Activities - more utilitarian view and focuses on Do goals, thing we do in service of our Be goals e.g. Get a better nights sleep
  • This is a Forces diagram that I’m going to use a metaphor to illustrate why we adopted JTBD
    What were the factors triggering a search and pulling us towards a new solution?
    What habits and anxieties have prevented us from adopting JTBD sooner?

  • Realisation that we had a limited understanding of customers and their true motivations (goals)
    We knew how products were working for them from a functional perspective. How easy can you use it? Does it function as expected?
    But, lacking any critical analysis of how and to what degree our products were meeting customers’ desired outcomes
    Therefore, difficult to reasonably prioritise how and where best to add value.
  • Designing through the narrow lens of existing products (bottom-up)
    Small tweaks to usability or optimising individual products/point tools
    But, customers are looking for solutions & experiences designed to address their bigger goals…
    They don’t think about individual tools/products...just their business or professional outcomes
    Because of these pushes we started to look for solutions….
  • JTBD helps us to understand customers’ underlying motivations - the real reason why someone purchased our products
    What progress were they hoping to make as a business, as a professional - aka the Job-to-be-Done
    Insight into the forces at play when people decide to buy/not to buy our products - what are their reasons for switching to/from a competing product
    What other solutions does your product compete with? E.g. the Gro Clock competes with the sleep tracker in the job of improving quality of sleep
  • Top-down, outcome-focused approach to design & innovation
    Bottom-up: HMW improve/optimise product x (local maxima)? Focuses on the product
    Top-down: HMW help customers to better achieve their broader goals? Focuses on the customer and their goals
    Integrating or interconnecting products or creating entirely new solutions - that help customers get more of their job done
    The job becomes the fundamental unit of analysis
  • We had to think more holistically than our currently team model typically promotes
    Broaden the gaze/scope of any individual Product Designer and Product Team
    Work more collaboratively with other designers, when they have been used to working more independently
    But hard to change mindset of teams with their own personal missions and goals!
  • Build up a lot of muscle memory with evaluative research methods e.g. task-based usability testing
    Easier/more comfortable to anchor conversations to the product and how it was performing
    Had to improve generative methods and analysis e.g. introduce switch style interview questions
    At the same time, balance and re-prioritise our research efforts - strategic vs.tactical on different horizons (ref James’ talk)
  • As you peel back the layers you start to abstract beyond something you might (as a product company) reasonably design for.
    Gro Company are unlikely to tackle a broader Be goal of ‘Improving people’s quality of sleep’’.
    But, they would tackle ‘Reduce the struggles of parents battling with babies not sleeping’.
    And with that job in mind they have released a whole range of baby sleep products including the Gro Clock
    The job you choose to serve should still align with your mission and company goals
  • Customers will often describe task-oriented needs associated with the current solution
    Less natural to start with conversations about the person and how they felt in particular moments of struggle
    But, ultimately we’re still designing for people, even when we’re working with business products.
    Can differentiate if we learn to design for these social and emotional factors.
  • We decided to hire
    But we’re not there yet...
    Still lots to learn, many others to convince
  • Jim Kalbach sums this up perfectly for me...
    JTBD is starting to provide us with…”a lense through which to understand value creation.”
    Natalia is now going to give us an overview of how we’ve applied this in a product scenario
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
  • TO be experience under testing now and receiving great feedback. We are choosing one possible solution, it’s not the only one and can be failed.
  • TO be experience under testing now and receiving great feedback. We are choosing one possible solution, it’s not the only one and can be failed.
  • TO be experience under testing now and receiving great feedback. We are choosing one possible solution, it’s not the only one and can be failed.
  • From the interviews we uncovered motivations from John. DBA is a librarian and he has to mind the books and everything is working well. No book is missing. Using analogies. Interviewing John, type of interview, we focused on to understand what’s a day to day life of a dba.
    Switch interviews needs to be mentioned. Persona identified, Key activities, Behaviours, Pains, Goals
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