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comparison of fuel cell based hybrid vehicles with other alternative systems

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here the slides describes about hybrid vehicle with other alternatives briefly.

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comparison of fuel cell based hybrid vehicles with other alternative systems

  1. 1. „Comparison of Fuel-Cell-Vehicles with Other Alternative Systems Dr. Johannes Töpler, Deutscher Wasserstoff- und Brennstoffzellenverband (DWV)
  2. 2. 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 1920 1960 2000 2040 2080 Coal Nat.Gas Oil Nuclear Energy Wind PV SOT Biomass Mtoe [Millions of Tons of Oil Equivalent] Quelle: LBST Alternative World Energy Outlook 2005 Jahr A possible Scenario of World Energy Solarthermal Electricity Geothermal Heat Geothermal Electricity PV Electricity Water Power Wind Power Solarthermal Heat
  3. 3. Future primary energy supply
  4. 4. Supply cannot satisfy demand Supply outreaches demand by far Vertical load curve and feed-in of wind power in E.ON grid Vertical load Wind power 2007 Estimated wind power 2020 Date Fluctuating renewable electricity
  5. 5. HydrogenElectricity or: Hydrogen as secondary energy carrier
  6. 6. Comparison of netto-storage capacities 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Zeit in d WindLeistunginMW AA CAES Pumpspeicher H2 (GuD) Bei einem Speichervolumen von V = 8 Mio. m³ 8 Mio. m3 correspond to the biggest German natural gas caverne field For comparison: Pump storage Goldisthal has a Volume of 12 Mio. m3 Pump storage 5 GWh AA CAES 23 GWh H2 – Gas /vapor turbine ca. 1.300 GWh (1.3 TWh) Time (days) WindPowerinMW Storage volume of V = 8 Mio. m3 Source: KBB UT
  7. 7. Electric Drive System Module Fuel Cell Stack Power Distribution Unit (PDU) Hydrogen Storage Cooling System Daimler, FCell Packaging Battery
  8. 8. Fuel Cell vehicle Mercedes-Benz B-Class Lithium-Ion battery Electric motor Air module Hydrogen tank Hydrogen module Fuel Cell Hydrogen module Essential Facts 1) Vehicle is constructed, fabricated and approved under serial condititions. 2) It was tested by a turn of 125 days around the world with 30.000km 3) Start of serial production in 2017
  9. 9. B-Class F-Cell Next generation of the fuel cell-power train: • Higher stack lifetime (>2000h) • Increased power • Higher reliability • Freeze start ability • Li-Ion Battery Size - 40% [l/100km Consumption - 16% [kW] Power +30% [km] Range +135%Technical Data Vehicle Type Mercedes-Benz A-Class (Long) Fuel Cell System PEM, 72 kW (97 hp) Engine Engine Output (Continuous / Peak): 45 kW / 65 kW (87hp) Max. Torque: 210 Nm Fuel Hydrogen (35 MPa / 5,000 psi) Range 105 miles (170 km / NEDC) Top Speed 88 mph (140 km/h) Battery NiMh, Output (Continuous / Peak): 15 kW / 20 kW (27hp); Capacity: 6 Ah, 1.2 kWh Technical Data Vehicle Type Mercedes-Benz B-Class Fuel Cell System PEM, 90 kW (122 hp) Engine IPT Engine Output (Continuous/ Peak) 70kW / 100kW (136hp) Max. Torque: 290 Nm Fuel Compressed Hydrogen (70 MPa / 10,000 psi) Range ca. 250 miles (400 km) Top Speed 106 mph (170 km/h) Battery Li-Ion, Output (Continuous/ Peak): 24 kW / 30 kW (40hp); Capacity 6.8 Ah, 1.4 kWh A-Class F-Cell Progress Fuel Cell Technology Next Generation FCVs
  10. 10. Concept of Honda
  11. 11. After 2015, with lowered vehicle production costs and further developed hydrogen infrastructure, Hyundai will begin manufacturing hydrogen fuel cell vehicles for consumer retail sales. The ix35 Fuel Cell Specifications The Hyundai Strategy, published on Feb. 27th 2013 Hyundai plans to build 1,000 ix35 Fuel Cell vehicles by 2015 for lease to public and private fleets, primarily in Europe, where the European Union has established a hydrogen road map and initiated construction of hydrogen fueling stations.
  12. 12. „Phileas-Bus“ in Cologne in daily use in public trafic Source: HyCologne -Wasserstoff Region Rheinland
  13. 13. Source: Vossloh
  14. 14. Anode: H2  2 H+ + 2 e- Cathode: 2 H+ + ½O2 + 2 e-  H2O --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sum: H2 + ½O2  H2O CnH2(n+1) + (3n+1)/2 O2  nCO2 + (n+1)/2 H2O Comparison of Power-Trains I Gasoline/ Diesel- Vehicles H2/FC- vehicles Battery- Vehicles (double range) I Cathode: LixCn  nC + x Li+ + x e- Anode: Li1-xMn2O4+ xLi +xe-  LiMn2O4 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------- Batt.: Li1-xMn2O4+ LixCn  LiMn2O4 + nC
  15. 15. Electricity- Management Powertrain of a H2/FC-hybrid-vehicle
  16. 16. Market segments for battery- and fuel cell vehicles Original-Source: Coalition Study Annual range (1000 km) < 10 > 20 10- 20 Compakt Class Medium Class Comfort-Class c l a s s o f v e h i c l e s Fuel cell vehicles hybridised Battery- Vehicles Plug-in-Vehicles FC- Vehicles
  17. 17. As personal mobility, EV is viable for inner-city travel, and FCHV for inter-city travel. Cover Area of FCHV and EV EV: inner-city FCHV: inter-city travelSmall Middle Large Short-range Middle-range Long-range Commuter Town use Long-distance trucks Expressway buses Middle & large passenger cars City bus Courier vehicles EV FCHV PHV (Biofuel) Concept of TOYOTA
  18. 18. Number of passenger vehicles (hybrid) which can be supplied per ha 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Biodiesel(RM E)Ethanolw heat Ethanolshortrotation forestryBio-m ethane BTL CGH2 shortrotation forestry LH2 shortrotation forestry CGH2 PV LH2 PV CGH2 w indpow er LH2 windpow er [Passengervehicles/ha] Diesel engine Otto engine Fuel cell Bandwidth Annual mileage passenger vehicle: 12,000 km Reference vehicle: VW Golf *) *) *) more than 99% of the land area can still be used for other purposes e.g. agriculture Source: LBST
  19. 19. Comparison of Fuel Cell System and Internal Combustion Engine Power in % Efficiencyin% Medium Power Passenger Car Bus /Truck with Hydrogen Fuel Cell Systems Source: IBZ
  20. 20. 50 ltr. E 10 5 ltr. Ethanol^= 12,5 kg Wheat 106 MJ (29,4 kWh) 80 MJ (22,2 kWh) 9,5 kg Wheat 22 kg Wheat Necessary area of farmland: 39 m2 Consumption: 6l/100 km 2,5 kg Bread /100 km E10-Balance External Energy Not CO2-free ! Alternative Annual range :15 000km 375 kg Bread = 585 m2 Farmland^
  21. 21. J.Töpler η(%) 100 70 54 30 12 Comparison hydrogen „ Wind-Gas“ for mobile application Efficiencies: η (elektrolysis) = 70% η (Sabatier) = 78% η (NEDC, ICE) = 22% η (NEDC, FC) = 42% Electricity from Wind&PV Elektrolysis Methani- sation (Sabatier) Transport Distribution Fuel Cell Combustion
  22. 22. J.Töpler Eprim 8,3 4,5 2,4 1 Electricity from Wind&PV Elektrolysis Methani- sation (Sabatier) Transport Distribution Fuel Cell Combustion 3,4 5,8 Efficiencies: η (elektrolysis) = 70% η (Sabatier) = 78% η (NEDC, ICE) = 22% η (NEDC, FC) = 42% Comparison hydrogen „ Wind-Gas“ for mobile application
  23. 23. “Optiresource” (Daimler AG) See: http://www2.daimler.com/sustainability/ optiresource/index.html
  24. 24. Thank you very much for your attention! And see us occasionally at www.dwv-info.de! Which are the questions I can answer at first?

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