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The (im)possibilitiies of biological protection in interior landscaping

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A presentation about all technical, biological and legal aspects of biological plant protection by Paul Tremellat from Biobest.

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The (im)possibilitiies of biological protection in interior landscaping

  1. 1. 2019 PARIS Paul Tremellat, Biobest France The (im)possibilities of Biological Protection in Interior Landscaping
  2. 2. Founding Principles & Legislation Part 1
  3. 3.  Legislation become stricter everywhere  Logic of sustainable development in constant progression at all levels Context  Chemicals treatments as a singular means to control plant pests is no longer viable or acceptable for indoor plantscape  Considerable damages to the ornamental quality of the foliage
  4. 4. What is IPM ? • Definition • Appropriate Control Methods Use natural mechanisms against pests Promote and participate to the installation of natural enemies to prevent the arrival of pests. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the coordinated use of appropriated control tactics to reduce pests and their damage to an acceptable level.
  5. 5. Biocontrol Solutions BIOCONTROL Micro organisms Biorational Synthetic Volatiles Natural substances Macro organisms "Composed of substances found in the natural environment (plant, animal or mineral origin)"
  6. 6. MACRO-ORGANISMESMACRO-ORGANISMS French Ecology and Agriculture Ministry Article R. 253-, since July 1st, 2012 MICRO-ORGANISMS Biorational Synthetic Volatiles & attractive / repellent NATURAL SUBSTANCES * For non-indigenous macro- organisms already introduced before 2007: exemption from authorization (based on a simplified evaluation conducted by ANSES, Order of February 26, 2015, T0 list) Submitted to an application for authorization to enter a territory and to be introduced into the environment Biocontrol Legislation
  7. 7. MICRO-ORGANISMES MEDIATEURS CHIMIQUES et autres attractifs/répulsifs SUBSTANCES NATURELLES MACRO-ORGANISMS MICRO-ORGANISMS Biorational Synthetic Volatiles & attractive / repellent NATURAL SUBSTANCES Biocontrol Legislation Considered as phytopharmaceutical products Subject to a registration but lighter than for conventional chemicals
  8. 8. Part 2 Using Biological Protection for Interior Landscaping
  9. 9. Many situations Main problematics - Plants diversity & most tropical - Exotics pests - No chemicals (public places, plants too high, resistance…)
  10. 10. IPM starts early Maintenance considerations and plants management can prevent or reduce pest problems A proper plant selection (seeds quality, varieties, origins) Good cultural practices (soil health, plant nutrition, watering, cleaning) Managing environment parameters (temperature, humidity) Example : avoid dry air and increase humidity The planning and planting design phase Main goal is to strengthen and stabilize the landscape = more favorable for plants than for pests
  11. 11. Sciarid flies Thrips Aphids Two spotted mite Mealybug/scale insect Main indoor plant pests
  12. 12. Attracted by moisture, heat and decomposing organic matter Adults live about a week and can lay up to 300 eggs Larva feed on organic matter and soft parts of the plant in the soil, such as roots and also stems SCIARID FLIES
  13. 13. SCIARID FLIES  Fast wilting, loss of vigor, weak growth and yellowing  If severe infestation, risk losing a considerable portion of the plants Symptoms
  14. 14. Set yellow sticky trap Nematodes Steinernema feltiae Predatory mites Hypoaspis miles How to control sciarids? Be careful not to overwater soil > 12°C 3 times
  15. 15. Lifespan of the adult: 10 to 30 days Parthenogenetic reproduction most of the time APHIDS On creeping plants Feed on the plant and suck the sap, transmission of viruses
  16. 16. APHIDS  Marbled leaves, yellowing, slow growth, curled leaves, browning, wilting, and death of plants.  Honeydew = ideal growing environment for many types of fungi that will form a barrier on the leaf Symptoms
  17. 17. Chrysopa Ladybug Adalia bipunctata Predatory larvae Aphidoletes How to control aphids? Parasitoïds mix species > à 13 °C
  18. 18. THRIPS On trees and shrubs most of the time Complete life cycle only lasts a few weeks Make the transition between pupa and adult in the soil or on the lower leaves Injure the plant to insert its eggs, suck the sap, transmission of viruses
  19. 19. THRIPS  Injects toxic saliva (reaction of the plant)  Necrotic spots, greying  Deformation of leaves, flowers and fruits Symptoms
  20. 20. How to control thrips? Predatory mites A. swirskii Nematodes Steinernema feltiae using sachets applying loose material or> 15-18°C
  21. 21. MEALYBUG/SCALE INSECT About 8,500 species of mealybugs Female can lay 300 to 500 eggs in a cottony pouch Sexual dimorphism (winged male and wingless female). Feed on the plant and suck the sap, transmission of viruses
  22. 22. MEALYBUG/SCALE INSECT  Fungus on honeydew, gives surfaces a blackened appearance and affects photosynthesis  Sticky and dirty plants  Reduce plant health and growth, may cause wilting and death Symptoms
  23. 23. How to control mealybug? Ladybug Cryptolaemus Adults release Larva release or > 20°C Humidity > 50%
  24. 24. Spider mites Breeding at a phenomenal speed 10 to 20 eggs a day Newly hatched larva are almost transparent Feed on sap and produce web to move faster
  25. 25. Spider mites  Bites on plant = lower photosynthesis  Thin spiderweb on the folliage  Desiccation, leaf turns yellow, fades and eventually falls off Symptoms
  26. 26. How to control spider mites? Predatory mites A. californicus or A. andersoni or P. persimilis Keep the T°C cool (<25°C) and humidity high (> 60%) > 10°C and humidity > 60% Fewer requirements
  27. 27. Part 3 Global Strategy, Pros & Cons of interior LS IPM
  28. 28. Global strategy think 1. « Tailor-made » strategy for each situation 2. Regular beneficials’ releases from starting and every 2 weeks - Helps to be always ready when pest population arrive - Two periods : spring & automn 3. Latest solutions (biological treatments) IF courtyard isolated plants creeping plants shrubs and trees global dose approach think by dose units use loose material use sachets or loose material SoapEntomopathogen fungi/bacteria (B. bassiana, I. fumosoroseus, BT…) White oil Other physical action products
  29. 29. Global strategy 1. « Tailor-made » strategie for commons cases 2. Regular beneficials’ releases from starting and every 2 weeks - Helps to be always ready when pest population grow up - Two periods : spring & automn 3. Latest solutions (biological treatments) IF courtyard Isolated plants creeping plants bush and trees global dose approach think by dose units use loose material use sachets or loose material SoapEntomopathogen fungi/bacteria (B. bassiana, I. fumosoroseus, BT…) White oil Other physical action products
  30. 30. Keys to an effective strategy Create good conditions for beneficials and bad conditions for pest Know the behavior and development of pests and natural ennemies Monitoring (define a strategy, adapt) Involve all staff (prevention and reactivity ++)
  31. 31. IPM Pros & Cons  Takes time if already infested  Good looking plants and less maintenance  Restore biodiversity  No chemicals curatives solutions allowed  Difficulty and cost for isolated pots plants  Exotic pests come with plants but we don’t have exotic beneficials  No pesticides residues  Avoid pest development by staying below the damage threshold BENEFITS LIMITS  Need to train staff
  32. 32. Summary  Priority to a preventive approach from starting  Monitoring, observation, maintenance  Regular beneficials releases to ensure plant protection and develop long-term solutions for managing pests  Can’t define a miracle recipe = Human role New age, with many questions to answer, strategies to find…
  33. 33. 10/3/2019 Thank you for your attention !

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