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Manpers Chapter 7 Presentation


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Manpers Chapter 7 Presentation

  1. 1. TRAINING CHAPTER 7 Auyong . Davies . Tamura . Villegas . Villar
  2. 2. High Leverage Training Strategy: A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH <ul><li>TRAINING: A planned effort to facilitate the learning of job-related knowledge, skills, and behavior by employees. </li></ul>
  3. 3. LO1: Discuss how training can contribute to companies’ business strategy <ul><li>Training can contribute to companies’ business strategy because: </li></ul><ul><li>- Training improves employee performance </li></ul><ul><li>- Training can also offer a competitive advantage for the company </li></ul>
  4. 4. High Leverage Training Strategy: A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH <ul><li>HIGH-LEVERAGE TRAINING: Training practice that links training to strategic business goals, has top management support, relies on an instructional design model, and is benchmarked to programs in other organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>High leverage training practices also help create working conditions that are ideal for Continuous learning. </li></ul>
  5. 5. High Leverage Training Strategy: A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH <ul><li>CONTINUOUS LEARNING: A learning system that requires employees to understand the entire work process and expects them to acquire new skills, apply them on the job, and share what they have learned with other employees </li></ul>
  6. 6. Designing Effective Training Activities <ul><li>Training Design Process </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A systematic approach for developing training programs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. LO2: The Training Process <ul><li>Needs Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Person Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensuring Employees’ readiness for training </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes and Motivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating a learning environment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of learning objectives and training outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful Material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observation of others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administering and coordinating program </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Training Process <ul><li>Ensuring transfer of training </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-management strategies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peer and manager support </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Selecting training methods </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presentational methods </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on methods </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group methods </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluating training programs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Identification of training outcomes and evaluation design </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Cost-benefit analysis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. LO3: Needs Assessment <ul><li>The Process used to determine if training is necessary </li></ul>
  10. 10. Needs Assessment <ul><li>Organizational Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 factors in considering training as the solution to any pressure point: Support of Managers and Peers, Company Strategy, and Training Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned with identifying whether training fits with the company’s strategic objectives (Company strategy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies whether the company has the budget, time, and expertise for training (Training resources) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Needs Assessment <ul><li>Person Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies whether employees need training, who needs training, and whether employees are ready for training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Needs Assessment <ul><li>Task Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of identifying the tasks, knowledge, skills, and behaviors that need to be emphasized in training </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. LO4: Evaluate employees’ readiness for training <ul><li>Readiness of training: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employees have the personal characteristics (the ability, attitudes, beliefs and motivation) necessary to learn program content and apply it in the job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the work environment that will facilitate learning and not interfere with performance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. LO4: Evaluate employees’ readiness for training <ul><li>MOTIVATION TO LEARN: The desire of the content of a training program. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that employees’ motivation to learn is as high as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors that Influence motivation to learn: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the benefits of training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being aware of training needs, Career interests, and goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding work environment characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring employees’ basic skill levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input, output, consequences, and feedback </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. SELF - EFFICACY: <ul><li>The employees’ belief that they can successfully learn the content of a training program. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers need to increase self-efficacy because it is related to performance in training programs. </li></ul>
  16. 16. SELF - EFFICACY: <ul><li>Managers can increase self-efficacy by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letting employees know that the purpose of training is to try to improve performance rather than to identify their incompetence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing information and purpose of training to employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showing employees the training success of their peers who are now in similar jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving employees with feedback that learning easy and they have the capacity to overcome learning difficulties. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Understanding the Benefits / Consequences of Training <ul><li>BENEFITS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning a more efficient way to perform a process/procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establishing contacts with other peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increasing opportunities to pursue different career paths. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CONSEQUENCES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>negatively affects the employee’s motivation to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(If there are unmet expectations about the training) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Awareness of Training needs, career interests and goals: <ul><li>Employees must be aware of their skill strengths and weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers should make sure that employees understand why they are having training programs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sharing performance appraisal information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>holding career development discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>having employees complete self-evaluations of their skill strength and weaknesses, career interests and goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make employees choose which program they want </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Work Environment Characteristics: <ul><li>Situational Constraints: include lack of proper tools and equipment, materials and supplies, budgetary support, and time </li></ul><ul><li>Social Support: managers’ and peers’ willingness to provide feedback and reinforcement. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Work Environment Characteristics: <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the necessary materials, information, and other work aids for employees to use new skills or behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak positively about the training </li></ul><ul><li>Let employees know they are doing a good job when they use the learnings from their training in their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage work group members to communicate with each other in trying new skills </li></ul><ul><li>Give employees time and opportunities to practice and apply new skills to their work </li></ul>
  21. 21. Other factors that Influence Motivation to Learn: <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>BASIC SKILLS: Cognitive ability, Reading, writing, and communication skills needed to understand the content of a training program </li></ul><ul><li>COGNITIVE ABILITY: Includes three dimensions: verbal comprehension, quantitative ability, and reasoning ability. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Other factors that Influence Motivation to Learn: <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>READABILITY: The difficulty level of reading materials </li></ul><ul><li>Options: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video or on the job training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees may be reassigned to jobs more congruent to their level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify employees who lack required skills and provide remedial training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine whether the job can be redesigned to accommodate employees’ reading levels. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Learning Environment: <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE: Groups of employees who work together, learn from each other, and develop a common understanding of how to get work accomplished. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Informal gatherings at cafeterias, web databases or forums </li></ul>
  24. 24. Ensuring Transfer of Training: <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSFER OF TRAINING: The use of knowledge, skills, and behaviors learned in training on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate for Transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manager support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity to use learned capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Management Skills </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Factors that Influence Transfer of Training: <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>CLIMATE FOR TRANSFER: Trainees’ perceptions of characteristics of the work environment (social support and situational constraints) that can either facilitate or inhibit use of trained skills or behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGER SUPPORT: The degree to which trainees’ managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize the importance of attending training programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress the application of training content to the job </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Factors that Influence Transfer of Training: <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>ACTION PLAN: Document summarizing what the trainee and manager will do to ensure that training transfers to the job. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>goal identifying what training content will be used & how </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies in reaching the goal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies of getting feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expected outcome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule of specific dates and times when managers will discuss the progress of the employees. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Factors that Influence Transfer of Training: <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>(Peer Support) </li></ul><ul><li>SUPPORT NETWORK: Trainees who meet to discuss their progress in using learned capabilities on the job </li></ul><ul><li> Examples: Face to face meetings Communicating through email or websites, newsletters and providing mentors </li></ul><ul><li>(Opportunity to Use Learned Capabilities) </li></ul><ul><li>OPORTUNITY TO PERFORM : Trainee is provided with or actively seeks experience using newly learned knowledge, skills, or behavior. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Factors that Influence Transfer of Training: <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>(Technological Support) </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRONIC PERFORMANCE SUPPORT SYSTEMS: Computer applications that can provide (as requested) skills training, information access, and expert advice. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Providing help tabs on employee’s computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: Process of enhancing company performance by designing and using tools, systems, and cultures to improve creation, sharing, and use of knowledge. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Factors that Influence Transfer of Training: <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>SELF-MANAGEMENT SKILLS:  Employees set goals for using their skills, identify conditions under which they might fail to use them, create own reward systems for themselves, and ask feedback from their peers. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Presentation Methods <ul><li>Training methods in which trainees are passive recipients of information </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for presenting new facts, information, different philosophies, and alternative problem-solving solutions or processes </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional classroom instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audiovisual techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile technology </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Instructor-Led Classroom Instruction <ul><li>Typically involves having the trainer lecture a group </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemented with Q&A periods, discussion, or case studies </li></ul><ul><li>One of the least expensive, least time-consuming ways to present information to many trainees </li></ul>
  34. 34. Instructor-Led Classroom Instruction
  35. 35. Distance Learning <ul><li>Used by geographically dispersed companies </li></ul><ul><li>Used to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information (e.g. new products, policies, or procedures) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide skills training and expert lectures to field locations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Features two-way communication between people </li></ul><ul><li>Involves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teleconferencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal-computer-based training </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Distance Learning <ul><li>Teleconferencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous exchange of audio, video, or text between individuals or groups at two or more locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainees attend training programs in training facilities where they communicate with trainers and other trainees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses telephones or personal computers </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Distance Training <ul><li>Personal-Computer-Based Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees participate in training anywhere they have access to a personal computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May involve in multimedia training methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Course material and assignments can be distributed using the company’s intranet, video, or CD-ROM </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Distance Learning <ul><li>Webcasting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom instruction provided online via live broadcasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that the employees received the same information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows participants to ask questions </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Distance Training <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Company saves on travel costs </li></ul><ul><li>Allows employees in geographically disperse sites to receive training from experts </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for lack of interaction between the trainer and the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Most don’t like reading a lot of material about products online </li></ul>
  40. 40. Audiovisual Techniques <ul><li>Includes overheads, slides, and video </li></ul><ul><li>Used for improving: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewing skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer-service skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrating certain procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used in conjunction with lectures </li></ul>
  41. 41. Audiovisual Techniques <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Trainer can review, slow down, or speed up lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Trainees can be exposed to equipment, problems, and events that can’t be easily demonstrated </li></ul><ul><li>Trainees get consistent instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Videotaping trainees allows them to see and hear their own performance </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Too much content for the trainee to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Poor dialogue between actors </li></ul><ul><li>Overuse of humour or music </li></ul><ul><li>Drama that makes it confusing for the trainee to understand the important learning points </li></ul>
  42. 42. Mobile Technologies <ul><li>Makes use of iPods, PDAs, iPads, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical users include employees who spends most of their time travelling, visiting customers, clients, or various company locations, and has limited time available to spend in traditional training activities or e-learning </li></ul>
  43. 43. Mobile Technologies <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Allow training and learning to occur naturally throughout the workday or at home </li></ul><ul><li>Allows employees to be connected to communities of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Gives employees the ability to learn at their own pace </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring that employees know when and how to use the technology </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging communication, collaboration, and interaction with other employees </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring that employees can connect to a variety of networks </li></ul>
  45. 45. Hands-On Methods <ul><li>Training methods that actively involve the trainee in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-the-job training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business games and case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviour modelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based training/E-learning </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. On-the-Job Training <ul><li>Peers of managers training new or inexperienced employees who learn the job by observation, understanding, and imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Can be useful for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training new employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrading experienced employees' skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orienting transferred or promoted employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apprenticeship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-directed learning </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. On-the-Job Training <ul><li>Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Credible trainers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers or peers who models the behaviour or skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication of specific key behaviours, practice, feedback and reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. On-the-Job Training <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Needs less investment in time or money for materials (compared to other methods) </li></ul><ul><li>Managers or peers who are job knowledge experts are used as instructors, who pass on useful skills </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Managers and peers may not use the same process to complete a task </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of passing on bad habits </li></ul><ul><li>Can result in poorly trained employees who use ineffective or dangerous methods to produce a product or provide a service </li></ul>
  49. 49. On-the-Job Training <ul><li>Self-Directed Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A program in which employees take responsibility for all aspects of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could involve the company providing employees with information, but they are in charge of taking the initiative to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apprenticeship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A work-study training method with both on-the-job and classroom training </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Simulations <ul><li>A training method that represents a real-life situation, allowing trainees to see the outcomes of their decisions in an artificial environment </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as a risk-free environment </li></ul><ul><li>Used to teach production and process skills as well as management and interpersonal skills </li></ul>
  51. 51. Simulations <ul><li>Avatars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer depictions of humans that can be used as imaginary coaches, co-workers, and customers in simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer-based technology that provides trainees with three-dimensional learning experience. Trainees operate in a simulated environment that responds to their behaviours and reactions </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Business Games and Case Studies <ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situations that trainees study and discuss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Games in which trainees must gather information, analyze it and make decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate learning because participants are actively involved and they mimic the competitive nature of business </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Behaviour Modelling <ul><li>One of the most effective techniques for teaching interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on interpersonal skills, such as coaching or communicating ideas </li></ul>
  54. 54. Interactive Video <ul><li>Combines the advantages of video and computer based instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction is provided one-on-one to trainees via a personal computer </li></ul>
  55. 55. E-Learning <ul><li>Instruction and delivery of training by computers through the internet or company intranet </li></ul><ul><li>3 important characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves electronic networks that allow information to be delivered, shared, and updated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-learning is delivered to the trainee via computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on learning solutions that go beyond traditional training </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. E-Learning <ul><li>Blended Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines online learning, face-to-face instruction, and other methods for distributing learning content and instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning Management System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology platform that automates the administration, development, and delivery of a company’s training program </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Group or Team Building Methods <ul><li>Training techniques that help trainees share ideas and experience, build group identity, understand the dynamics of interpersonal relationships, and get to know their own strengths and weaknesses and those of their co-workers </li></ul>
  59. 59. Group or Team Building Methods <ul><li>Adventure Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning focused on the development of teamwork and leadership skills by using unstructured outdoor activities </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Group or Team Building Methods <ul><li>Team training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates the performance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-training – team members understand and practice each other’s skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination training – trains the team in how to share information and decisions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Group or Team Building Methods <ul><li>Action Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams work on an actual business problem, commit to an action plan, and are accountable for carrying out the plan </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Group or Team Building Methods <ul><li>Six Sigma Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An action training program that provides employees with defect-reducing tools to cut costs and certifies employees as green belts, champions, or black belts. </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. LO7: Advice for Choosing a Training Method
  64. 64. LO7 <ul><li>Step 1: Identify the type of learning outcome that you want the training to influence </li></ul><ul><li>Some learning outcomes: </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal information, Intellectual skills, Cognitive Strategies, attitudes, Motor skills. </li></ul>
  65. 65. LO7 <ul><li>Step 2: Consider the extent to which the method facilitates learning and transfer of training, costs related to development and use of method, and its effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of training – extent to which training will be used on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Two Types of Cost: </li></ul><ul><li>Development cost – costs relating to design of training program, including costs of buying or creating the program. </li></ul>
  66. 66. LO7 <ul><li>Administrative cost – costs incurred every time the method is used. Inclusive of: consultants, instructors, material, trainers. </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness: </li></ul><ul><li>- There is considerable overlap between learning outcomes across training methods. </li></ul><ul><li>*Group-building methods affect both individual and team/group effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>- When compared, presentation methods are less effective than hands-on methods. </li></ul><ul><li>*E-learning vs. face-to-face instruction </li></ul>
  67. 67. LO7 <ul><li>E-learning/technology-driven: </li></ul><ul><li>- Good for geographically dispersed trainees. </li></ul><ul><li>- Cost will be higher, but will be offset by other factors (e.g. travel and housing costs), resulting to long-term savings. </li></ul><ul><li>Hands-on/face-to-face: </li></ul><ul><li>- Proven to have better results compared to e-learning/technology-driven methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, companies simultaneously use both in a blended learning approach. </li></ul>
  68. 68. LO7 <ul><li>Step 3: Check budget </li></ul><ul><li>- Budget is also important when choosing a training method. </li></ul><ul><li>- OJTs are inexpensive making it an ideal training method. </li></ul><ul><li>- If larger budget is present, consider simulators, a method that facilitates transfer of training. </li></ul>
  69. 69. LO8: Evaluating Training Programs
  70. 70. LO8 <ul><li>To better evaluate training programs, we should examine the outcomes. These outcomes should be related to the training’s objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Training outcomes can be categorized as cognitive, skill-based, affective, results, and results on investment. </li></ul>
  71. 71. LO8 <ul><li>OUTCOME </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS MEASURED </li></ul><ul><li>HOW MEASURED </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE </li></ul>COGNITIVE <ul><li>Acquisition of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Pencil-and-paper tests </li></ul><ul><li>Work sample </li></ul><ul><li>Safety rules </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical principles </li></ul><ul><li>Steps in appraisal interview </li></ul>SKILL-BASED <ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Work Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Ratings </li></ul><ul><li>Jigsaw use </li></ul><ul><li>Listening skills </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching skills </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane landings </li></ul>AFFECTIVE <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction to program </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Focus group </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction w/ training </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs regarding other cultures </li></ul>
  72. 72. LO8 OUTCOMES WHAT IS MEASURED HOW MEASURED EXAMPLE RESULTS <ul><li>Company payoff </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Data from information system or performance records </li></ul><ul><li>Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Patents </li></ul>Return on investment <ul><li>Economic value of training </li></ul><ul><li>Identification and comparison of costs and benefits of the program </li></ul><ul><li>Dollars </li></ul>
  73. 73. LO8 <ul><li>For example, if the objectives identified are business related (e.g. increased customer service, product quality), RESULTS outcome measure. Though the company usually collect both the reaction and cognitive outcomes, these measures do not help determine the extent to which the trainees actually transfer the skills learned from the training to their jobs. </li></ul>
  74. 74. LO8 <ul><li>Reasons for evaluating training : </li></ul><ul><li>To identify the program’s strengths/weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Did the program meet the LO, quality of the learning environment? Is transfer of training occurring? </li></ul><ul><li>2. To assess whether the content, organization, and administration of the program contribute to learning and the use of training content on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify which trainees benefited the most or least from the program. </li></ul><ul><li>To gather marketing data by asking participants whether they would recommend the program to others, why they attended the program, and their level of satisfaction with the program. </li></ul>
  75. 75. LO8 <ul><li>5. To determine the financial benefits and costs of the program. </li></ul><ul><li>To compare costs and benefits of training to non-training investments. </li></ul><ul><li>To compare costs and benefits of different training programs to choose the best programs. </li></ul>
  76. 76. LO8 <ul><li>Evaluation Designs: </li></ul><ul><li>There are 6 designs that can be used to evaluate the training program: Post-test only, pre-test/post-test, post-test with comparison group, pre-test/post-test with comparison group, time series. </li></ul><ul><li>*Comparison group –A group of individuals whose characteristics are similar to those of a program's participants. These individuals may not receive any services, or they may receive a different set of training; in no instance do they receive the same services as those being evaluated. </li></ul>
  77. 77. LO8 <ul><li>The table, which is provided in the next slide, compares each evaluation design on the basis of who is involved, when outcome measures are collected, the costs, the time needed to conduct the evaluation, and the strength of the design for ruling out alternative explanations for the results. </li></ul>
  78. 78. LO8 DESIGN GROUPS Pre-training Post-training Cost Time Strength Post-test only Trainees No Yes Low Low Low Pre- and post-test Trainees Yes Yes Low Low Medium Post-test only with comparison group Trainees Comparison group No Yes Med Med Med Pre-/post-test with comparison group Trainees Comparison group Yes Yes Med Med High Time Series Trainees Yes Yes, several Med Med Med
  79. 79. LO8 <ul><li>In general, though pre-test/post-test with comparison group design is more costly and time-consuming, the design reduce the risk that factors other than the training itself are the reason for the evaluation results, which builds confidence to use the results to make decisions. </li></ul>
  80. 80. LO8 <ul><li>There is no one appropriate design. These factors should be considered when choosing a design: </li></ul><ul><li>Size of the training program </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of training </li></ul><ul><li>Implications if a program doesn’t work </li></ul><ul><li>Company norms regarding evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of designing and conducting an evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Need for speed in obtaining program effectiveness information </li></ul>
  81. 81. LO8 <ul><li>Determining ROI : </li></ul><ul><li>Cost–Benefit analysis – process of determining the economic benefits of a program using accounting methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Determining cost (Direct and Indirect) </li></ul><ul><li>Resource requirements model – a model that compares equipment, facilitates, personnel, materials cost across different stages of the training progress. Can also help compare overall costs between training programs. </li></ul><ul><li>*Stages of training program – training design, implementation, needs assessment, development, and evaluation. </li></ul>
  82. 82. LO8 <ul><li>Determining Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Methods to identify benefits of training: </li></ul><ul><li>Technical, academic, and practitioner literature summarizes benefits that have been shown to relate specific training program. </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot training programs assess the benefits for a small group of trainees before a company commits more resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Observing successful job performers can help a company determine what they do differently than unsuccessful job performers. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainees and their managers can provide estimates of training benefits. </li></ul>
  83. 83. LO8 <ul><li>Making the Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>To calculate ROI, follow these steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Place value on the outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Determine change in performance after eliminating other influences on training results. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain annual amount of benefits (operational results) from training by comparing results before and after training (in dollars) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the training costs (direct + indirect + development + overhead + compensation for trainees). </li></ul><ul><li>ROI = Benefits divided by Costs. This gives an estimate of dollar return expected from each dollar invested in training. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Cross-Cultural Preparation
  85. 85. <ul><li>Companies today are challenged to expand globally. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees now work in other countries or we hire specialists form other countries </li></ul><ul><li>The most selected countries to be assigned are the US, China, UK, Singapore, Germany, and Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Relocation of management or technical positions to other countries </li></ul><ul><li>25% of companies make cultural training mandatorily </li></ul>
  86. 86. <ul><li>Host Country Nationals are employees with citizenship in the country where the company is located </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural preparation basically educates employees and their families who are to be sent to a foreign country </li></ul>
  87. 87. <ul><li>Steps in Cross-Cultural Preparation: </li></ul><ul><li>Competent in their areas of expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Able to communicate verbally and non-verbally </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible, tolerant of ambiguity, and sensitive to cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated to succeed, able to enjoy the challenge of working in other countries, and willing to learn about that country </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by their families </li></ul>
  88. 88. <ul><li>Predeparture Phase: </li></ul><ul><li>Before going out to their assigned countries, employees need to receive language training and an orientation to the new countries' customs and culture </li></ul><ul><li>They need info about housing, schools, recreation, shopping and health care facilities </li></ul><ul><li>The way to live and the food to eat </li></ul><ul><li>Potential security issues and the government </li></ul>
  89. 89. <ul><li>On-site Phase: </li></ul><ul><li>Involves continued orientation to the host country and it’s customs through formal programs </li></ul><ul><li>Using websites to gain more knowledge and to answer their questions about the country </li></ul>
  90. 90. <ul><li>Repatriation Phase: </li></ul><ul><li>Prepares employees for return to the parent company and country from the foreign assignment </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of changes </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent shock they must be updated with the parent country </li></ul><ul><li>Many expatriates decide to leave the company because the assignment they are given upon return has less responsibility, challenges, and status than the foreign assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Because of family issues, poor economic times, and security issues many companies are using virtual expatriates, relying on short time assignments, frequent business travels and international commutes which one employee lives in one country and works in another </li></ul>
  91. 91. Managing Workforce Diversity
  92. 92. Diversity can be considered any dimension that differentiates a person from another
  93. 93. <ul><li>Goals of Diversity Training </li></ul><ul><li>To eliminate values, stereotype, and managerial practices that inhibit employees’ personal development </li></ul><ul><li>To allow employees to contribute to organizational goals </li></ul><ul><li>Equal opportunities for women and minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate the fear of cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>To understand other countries’ culture, ideas and attitudes </li></ul>
  94. 94. <ul><li>Managing Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>The process of creating an environment that allows all employees to contribute to organizational goals and experience personal growth </li></ul><ul><li>This includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair and positive treatment of all employees </li></ul></ul>
  95. 95. <ul><li>Diversity Training – refers to training designed to change employee attitudes about diversity or develop skills needed to work with a diverse work force </li></ul><ul><li>To successfully manage a diverse workforce, companies need to ensure that: </li></ul><ul><li>Employees understand how their values and stereotypes influence their behavior towards the others </li></ul><ul><li>Employees gain an appreciation of cultural differences among themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors that isolate or intimidate minority group members improve </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity training programs differ according to whether attitude or behavior changes is emphasized. </li></ul>
  96. 96. Minorities and Women Leave the Organization Organizational Status Quo Problem Identification Action Relaxation Frustration Disillusionment Cycle of disillusionment resulting from managing diversity through adherence to legislation:
  97. 97. Diversity training - training designed to change employee attitudes about diversity and/or developing skills needed to work with a diverse work force Diversity training programs differ according to whether attitude change or behavior change is emphasized
  98. 98. <ul><li>Attitude Awareness and Change Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on increasing employees’ awareness of differences in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, physical characteristics, and personal characteristics that influence behavior toward others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The assumption is that by increasing their awareness of stereotypes and beliefs, employees will be able to avoid negative stereotypes </li></ul></ul>
  99. 99. <ul><li>Behavior-Based Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on changing the organizational policies and individual behaviors that inhibit employees’ personal growth and productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One approach is to identify incidents that discourage employees from working up to their potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another approach is to teach managers and employees basic rules of behavior in the workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural immersion is also used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- A behavior based diversity program that sends employees into communities where they interact with persons from different cultures, races and nationalities </li></ul></ul>
  100. 100. Characteristics of Successful Diversity Efforts: <ul><li>Top management provides resources, personally intervenes, and publicly advocates diversity </li></ul><ul><li>The program is structured </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalizing on a diverse work force is defined as a business objective </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalizing on a diverse work force is seen necessary to generate revenue and profits </li></ul><ul><li>The program is evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Manager involvement is mandatory </li></ul>
  101. 101. <ul><li>The program is seen as a culture change, not a one-shot program </li></ul><ul><li>Managers and demographic groups are not blamed for problems </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors and skills needed to successfully interact with others are taught </li></ul><ul><li>Managers are rewarded on progress toward meeting diversity goals </li></ul>
  102. 102. <ul><li>Key components of effective managing diversity programs: </li></ul><ul><li>Top Management Support </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment and Hiring </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying and Developing Talent </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Support </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring Fair Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Holding Managers Accountable </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Relationships with External Stakeholders </li></ul>
  103. 103. <ul><li>Organizational Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which new employees are transformed into effective members of the company </li></ul>A. Through anticipatory socialization, expectations about the company, job, working conditions, and interpersonal relationships are developed. B. The encounter phase occurs when the employee begins a new job. Now matter how realistic the information they were provided during interviews and site visits, individuals beginning new jobs will experience shock and surprise. C. In the settling-in phase , employees begin to feel comfortable with their job demands and social relationships. D. Orientation programs play an important role in socializing employees. Orientation involves familiarizing new employees with company rules, policies, and procedures