Inhibition ratio (%) = [(A - B) /A] X 100
A = avg tumor weight of the control group
B = avg tumor weight of the treated group. 
The Effects of Anti-lymphocyte serum on
the anti-tumor activity of lentinan
Lymphoid cells playing
important role in lentinan’s
tumor reducing activity.
Anti-tumor activity of
lentinan was markedly
reduced in experimental
series 1 and 2. In series 3,
the effect of lentinan was
The effects of neonatal thymectomy on
the antitumor activity of Lentinan
Conclusion: lentinan (and other
polysaccharide) have no direct
cytotoxicity against the tumor
So, lentinan is HOST MEDIATED – doesn’t work
when thymus is removed.
Antitumor Mechanisms of orally
administered shiitake fruit bodies
NK cytotoxicity decreased in
mice w/ tumors, but ~d7
rose in mice fed lentinan.
@21 days, tumor + lentinan
mice had 71% NK activity
when compared to normal
mice. Only 21% in tumor –
Effects on Quality of Life
A – generally no sig
difference – good bc no
B – in patients with
QOL below median,
Binding ability of an
monocytes to lentinan
can help predict
improved v not
improved quality of life –
not everyone’s cells react
to lentinan in the same
way – genetics.
Lentinan in combination
with S-1 chemotherapy 
A: Before therapy
B: At 3 mo after initiation of the S-1-
C: At either 1 year after initiation of
the S-1-based chemotherapy or 1
mo prior to death (cases in which
the survival time was < 1 year after
Different findings in Lentinan
“Conclusion: Lentinan inclusion in therapy did
not seem to prolong survival. Nevertheless, the
duration of therapy tended to be longer for
patients taking lentinan”
(graph from previous study)
Effects of Lentinan alone and in combination with
fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent on growth of human oral
squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo
Lentinan + gemcitabine chemotherapy in
urothelial bladder cancer
Bcl-2 = antiapoptotic factor in many
normal and cancerous cell types.
Survivin = inhibits apoptosis by
blocking the activation of effector
Lentinan + gemcitabine decrease rate
of expression of both proteins
In vitro inhibitory effects of lentinan
on rat glioma cells
control Low dose
1. Chihara, G., J. Hamuro, Y. Maeda, et al. "Fractionation and Purification of the Polysaccharides
with Marked Antitumor Activity, Especially Lentinan, from Lentinus Edodes (Berk.) Sing. (an
Edible Mushroom)." Cancer Research 30 (1970): 2776.
2. Shoichi Hazama, Seiji Watanabe, Manabu Ohashi, et al. 2009, “Efficacy of Orally Administered
Superfine Dispersed Lentinan (β-1,3-Glucan) for the Treatment of Advanced Colorectal
Cancer.” Anticancer Research 29(7): 2611-2617.
3. Kenji Ina, Ryuichi Furuta, Takae Kataoka, et al. 2011, “Lentinan prolonged survival in patients
with gastric cancer receiving S-1-based chemotherapy” World Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2(10):
4. Daijiro Higashi, Katsunori Seki, Yukiko Ishibashi et al. 2012, “The Effect of Lentinan
Combination Therapy for Unresectable Advanced Gastric Cancer.” Anticancer Research, 32(6):
5. Parris M. Kidd, 2000 “The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment”
Alternative Medicine Review 5(1): 4-27 (http://ondax-
6. Koji Harada, Yasutaka Itashiki, Takanori Takenawa, et al. 2010. “Effects of Lentinan alone and in combination with
fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent on growth of human oral squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo” International
Journal of Oncology 37: 623-631 (http://www.spandidos-publications.com/ijo/37/3/623)
7. Ming Sun, Wenyan Zhao, Qingpeng Xie et al, 2014. “Lentinan reduces tumor progression by enhancing gemcitabine
chemotherapy in urothelial bladder cancer” Surgical Oncology p. 1-7
8. Xiao Li and Maonian Zhang, 2014. “In vitro inhibitory effects of lentinan on rat glioma cells.” Biomedical Research (25)1:
9. Yukiko Maeda and Goro Chihara, 1973. “The effects of neonatal thymectomy on the antitumour activity of Lentinan,
Carboxymethylpachymaran and xymosan, and their effects on various immune responses.” International Journal of Cancer
vol. 11, p. 153-161. (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.2910110118/epdf)
10. Yukiko Maeda, Junji Hamuro, and Goro Chihara, 1971. “The mechanisms of action of anti-tumour Polysaccharides. I.
The Effects of Antilymphocyte serum on the anti-tumour activity of lentinan.” international journal of cancer, vol 8 p. 41-46.
11. Hiroaki Nanba and Hisatora Kurado, 1987. “Antitumor Mechanisms of orally administered shiitake fruit bodies”
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 35(6): 2459-2464
W1. "Shiitake Mushroom." Shiitake Mushroom. American Cancer Society, 01 Nov.
W2. “Medicinal Mushrooms Research – History, Principles and Results" Myko San.
N.p., n.d. Web.
W3. (Far East Map)
W4. Sullivan, Richard, John E. Smith, and Neil J. Rowan. "Medicinal Mushrooms:
Their Therapeutic Properties and Current Medical Usage with Special Emphasis on
Cancer Treatments." Academia.edu. Cancer Research UK, May 2002. Web.