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Lentinus edodes

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Plant Biology project on the anti-cancer potential of extracts from the Shiitake mushroom. Involved research from sources including peer reviewed journals and the web.

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Lentinus edodes

  1. 1. “Shiitake mushroom,” “golden oak mushroom,” “black forest mushroom” [W1] Family: Marasmiaceae (Basidiomycota)
  2. 2. Indigenous to Japan, China, temperate Asian countries Preferred habitat: fallen logs Temperate forest Release spores spring/autumn [W3] [W4]
  3. 3. [W4] Can be grown indoors on sawdust (global distribution – anywhere you want, but still highest in Asia) Outdoor cultivation – Mushrooms primarily grow in cooler autumn and spring months
  4. 4. [W5]
  5. 5.  The Why and How – Meet Lentinan [W4]
  6. 6.  [5]
  7. 7. Inhibition ratio (%) = [(A - B) /A] X 100 A = avg tumor weight of the control group B = avg tumor weight of the treated group. [1]
  8. 8.  The Effects of Anti-lymphocyte serum on the anti-tumor activity of lentinan Lymphoid cells playing important role in lentinan’s tumor reducing activity. Anti-tumor activity of lentinan was markedly reduced in experimental series 1 and 2. In series 3, the effect of lentinan was not affected [10]
  9. 9.  The effects of neonatal thymectomy on the antitumor activity of Lentinan Conclusion: lentinan (and other polysaccharide) have no direct cytotoxicity against the tumor cells [9]
  10. 10. [9] So, lentinan is HOST MEDIATED – doesn’t work when thymus is removed.
  11. 11.  Antitumor Mechanisms of orally administered shiitake fruit bodies NK cytotoxicity decreased in mice w/ tumors, but ~d7 rose in mice fed lentinan. @21 days, tumor + lentinan mice had 71% NK activity when compared to normal mice. Only 21% in tumor – lentinan mice.
  12. 12.  Effects on Quality of Life A – generally no sig difference – good bc no decrease B – in patients with QOL below median, increased significantly [2]
  13. 13. Binding ability of an individal’s CD14+ monocytes to lentinan can help predict improved v not improved quality of life – not everyone’s cells react to lentinan in the same way – genetics. [2]
  14. 14.  Lentinan in combination with S-1 chemotherapy [3]
  15. 15. A: Before therapy B: At 3 mo after initiation of the S-1- based chemotherapy C: At either 1 year after initiation of the S-1-based chemotherapy or 1 mo prior to death (cases in which the survival time was < 1 year after chemotherapy).
  16. 16.  Different findings in Lentinan combination therapy “Conclusion: Lentinan inclusion in therapy did not seem to prolong survival. Nevertheless, the duration of therapy tended to be longer for patients taking lentinan” [4] (graph from previous study)
  17. 17.  Effects of Lentinan alone and in combination with fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent on growth of human oral squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo [6]
  18. 18. [6]
  19. 19.  Lentinan + gemcitabine chemotherapy in urothelial bladder cancer Bcl-2 = antiapoptotic factor in many normal and cancerous cell types. Survivin = inhibits apoptosis by blocking the activation of effector caspases Lentinan + gemcitabine decrease rate of expression of both proteins [7]
  20. 20.  In vitro inhibitory effects of lentinan on rat glioma cells control Low dose (20 mg/L) Medium dose (40 mg/L) High dose (80 mg/L) [8]
  21. 21. [8]
  22. 22.  Sources 1. Chihara, G., J. Hamuro, Y. Maeda, et al. "Fractionation and Purification of the Polysaccharides with Marked Antitumor Activity, Especially Lentinan, from Lentinus Edodes (Berk.) Sing. (an Edible Mushroom)." Cancer Research 30 (1970): 2776. 2. Shoichi Hazama, Seiji Watanabe, Manabu Ohashi, et al. 2009, “Efficacy of Orally Administered Superfine Dispersed Lentinan (β-1,3-Glucan) for the Treatment of Advanced Colorectal Cancer.” Anticancer Research 29(7): 2611-2617. 3. Kenji Ina, Ryuichi Furuta, Takae Kataoka, et al. 2011, “Lentinan prolonged survival in patients with gastric cancer receiving S-1-based chemotherapy” World Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2(10): 339-343. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3191325/) 4. Daijiro Higashi, Katsunori Seki, Yukiko Ishibashi et al. 2012, “The Effect of Lentinan Combination Therapy for Unresectable Advanced Gastric Cancer.” Anticancer Research, 32(6): 2365-2368. (http://ar.iiarjournals.org/content/32/6/2365.long) 5. Parris M. Kidd, 2000 “The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment” Alternative Medicine Review 5(1): 4-27 (http://ondax- scientific.com/pdf2/PMKMushroomRev5_1_61406.pdf)
  23. 23.  Sources, continued 6. Koji Harada, Yasutaka Itashiki, Takanori Takenawa, et al. 2010. “Effects of Lentinan alone and in combination with fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent on growth of human oral squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo” International Journal of Oncology 37: 623-631 (http://www.spandidos-publications.com/ijo/37/3/623) 7. Ming Sun, Wenyan Zhao, Qingpeng Xie et al, 2014. “Lentinan reduces tumor progression by enhancing gemcitabine chemotherapy in urothelial bladder cancer” Surgical Oncology p. 1-7 (http://illiad.trinity.edu/illiad/illiad.dll?Action%3D10&Form%3D75&Value%3D186101) 8. Xiao Li and Maonian Zhang, 2014. “In vitro inhibitory effects of lentinan on rat glioma cells.” Biomedical Research (25)1: 39-44. (http://biomedres.info/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/39-44-Xiaohang.326120909.pdf) 9. Yukiko Maeda and Goro Chihara, 1973. “The effects of neonatal thymectomy on the antitumour activity of Lentinan, Carboxymethylpachymaran and xymosan, and their effects on various immune responses.” International Journal of Cancer vol. 11, p. 153-161. (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.2910110118/epdf) 10. Yukiko Maeda, Junji Hamuro, and Goro Chihara, 1971. “The mechanisms of action of anti-tumour Polysaccharides. I. The Effects of Antilymphocyte serum on the anti-tumour activity of lentinan.” international journal of cancer, vol 8 p. 41-46. (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.2910080106/pdf) 11. Hiroaki Nanba and Hisatora Kurado, 1987. “Antitumor Mechanisms of orally administered shiitake fruit bodies” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 35(6): 2459-2464
  24. 24.  Web Sources W1. "Shiitake Mushroom." Shiitake Mushroom. American Cancer Society, 01 Nov. 2008. Web W2. “Medicinal Mushrooms Research – History, Principles and Results" Myko San. N.p., n.d. Web. W3. (Far East Map) http://alabamamaps.ua.edu/contemporarymaps/world/asia/SE%20Asia%20Polit ical.jpg W4. Sullivan, Richard, John E. Smith, and Neil J. Rowan. "Medicinal Mushrooms: Their Therapeutic Properties and Current Medical Usage with Special Emphasis on Cancer Treatments." Academia.edu. Cancer Research UK, May 2002. Web.

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