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5. A descoberta da célula

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Aula baseada em "AMABIS, José Mariano; MARTHO, Gilberto Rodrigues. Fundamentos da Biologia Moderna. Volume único, 4 ed. São Paulo: Editora Moderna, 2006."

Published in: Education
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5. A descoberta da célula

  1. 1. A descoberta da célula UNIDADE II – CITOLOGIA E EMBRIOLOGIA CAPÍTULO 5 Aula 1/1  A descoberta da célula  Teoria celular  Microscopia  Microscópio Óptico  Microscópio Eletrônico  Técnicas de microscopia
  2. 2. Capítulo 5 A descoberta da célula 5.1 O MUNDO MICROSCÓPICO A DESCOBERTA DA CÉLULA • Hans e Zacharias Janssen, 1521 • Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) – Pai da Microbiologia – Microscópio simples LeeuwenhoekBiologia – 1º ano Ens. Médio 1º Período Profa. Rebeca Vale
  3. 3. Capítulo 5 A descoberta da célula 5.1 O MUNDO MICROSCÓPICO A DESCOBERTA DA CÉLULA • Robert Hooke (1635-1703) – Microscópio composto – Célula Robert Hooke Cortiça – material observado por HookeBiologia – 1º ano Ens. Médio 1º Período Profa. Rebeca Vale
  4. 4. Capítulo 5 A descoberta da célula 5.1 O MUNDO MICROSCÓPICO A DESCOBERTA DA CÉLULA • Robert Brown, 1833 – Núcleo celular • Século XIX – Membrana plasmática – Citoplasma – Organelas citoplasmáticas Robert Brown (1773-1858) – NucléoloBiologia – 1º ano Ens. Médio 1º Período Profa. Rebeca Vale
  5. 5. Capítulo 5 A descoberta da célula 5.1 O MUNDO MICROSCÓPICO Mathias Schleiden (1804-1881) TEORIA CELULAR • Mathias Schleiden e Theodor Schwann 1. As células são as unidades constituintes de todos os seres vivos. 2. As atividades essenciais da vida ocorrem no interior das células. 3. Novas células formam-se apenas pela reprodução de células preexistentes. Theodor Schwann (1810-1882) “A estranha história da Teoria Celular”Biologia – 1º ano Ens. Médio 1º Período Profa. Rebeca Vale
  6. 6. Capítulo 5 A descoberta da célula 5.1 O MUNDO MICROSCÓPICO OS VÍRUS E A TEORIA CELULAR Os vírus são seres vivos? • São organismos acelulares. • Parasitas intracelulares obrigatórios. – Não invalida a teoria celular!Biologia – 1º ano Ens. Médio 1º Período Profa. Rebeca Vale
  7. 7. Capítulo 5 A descoberta da célula 5.2 A CÉLULA OBSERVADA AO MICROSCÓPIO ÓPTICO COMO FUNCIONA O MICROSCÓPIO ÓPTICO • Aumenta de 100 a 1 500 vezes Lente ocular – Poder de resolução – Limite de resolução Lentes objetivas Diafragma Macrômetro Lâmpada MicrômetroBiologia – 1º ano Ens. Médio 1º Período Profa. Rebeca Vale
  8. 8. Capítulo 5 A descoberta da célula 5.2 A CÉLULA OBSERVADA AO MICROSCÓPIO ÓPTICO TÉCNICAS PARA OBSERVAÇÃO AO MO • Observação a fresco • Fixação e coloração de células – Hematoxilina-eosina Células do epitélio bucal (HE) – Fucsina, prata, toluidina... Epitélio pavimentoso estratificado (HE)Biologia – 1º ano Ens. Médio 1º Período Profa. Rebeca Vale
  9. 9. Capítulo 5 A descoberta da célula 5.2 A CÉLULA OBSERVADA AO MICROSCÓPIO ÓPTICO TÉCNICAS DE PREPARAÇÃO CITOLÓGICA • Esfregaço • Esmagamento Técnica de esfregaço – sangue Técnica de esmagamento – células vegetaisBiologia – 1º ano Ens. Médio 1º Período Profa. Rebeca Vale
  10. 10. Capítulo 5 A descoberta da célula 5.2 A CÉLULA OBSERVADA AO MICROSCÓPIO ÓPTICO TÉCNICAS DE PREPARAÇÃO CITOLÓGICA • Corte manual • Inclusão e micrótomo Corte histológico de caule Corte histológico de tecido cardíaco MicrótomoBiologia – 1º ano Ens. Médio 1º Período Profa. Rebeca Vale
  11. 11. Capítulo 5 A descoberta da célula 5.3 A CÉLULA OBSERVADA AO MICROSCÓPIO ELETRÔNICO COMO FUNCIONAM OS MICROSCÓPIOS ELETRÔNICOS • Aumenta de 5 000 a 300 000 vezes. • ME de Transmissão • ME de Varredura Células sanguíneas (MEV) Bacteriófago (MET)Biologia – 1º ano Ens. Médio 1º Período Profa. Rebeca Vale
  12. 12. Capítulo 5 A descoberta da célula 5.3 A CÉLULA OBSERVADA AO MICROSCÓPIO ELETRÔNICO TÉCNICAS PARA OBSERVAÇÃO AO ME • Não observa material vivo! • Fixação – Glutaraldeído (proteínas) e Tetróxido de ósmio (lipídios) – Desidratação • Inclusão, corte e coloração – Inclusão em araldite – Corte em ultramicrótomo – Corantes eletrônicos (sais de urânio e chumbo)Biologia – 1º ano Ens. Médio 1º Período Profa. Rebeca Vale

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