Interpersonal Communication


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Interpersonal Communication

  1. 1. Interpersonal Communication <br />Software Requirements – Unit 0<br />
  2. 2. Effective Communication<br />2<br />There is an old story that, in the I World War, the front line sent a message via runners to the general. The message said: <br />“Send reinforcements, we are going to advance!”<br />By the time the message reached the general it said:<br />“Send three and fourpence, we are going to a dance!”<br />“I know that you believe you understand what you think I said, but I am not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant ...”<br />
  3. 3. Brain Friendly Communication<br />3<br />We are different, our brains are different, different modes of thinking, …<br />Let´s see the Dancer Test<br /><ul><li>Hemispheric Dominance - Left vs. Right: Which Side Are You On?
  4. 4. Do you agree with the outcome of the test?
  5. 5. How many ‘leftists’?
  6. 6. How many ‘rightist’?
  7. 7. Good teamwork between left and right sides of the brain is needed for Good Communication</li></li></ul><li>How to Improve our Communication Skills<br />4<br />Unit Outline<br />Lecture<br />Introduction to Interpersonal Communication<br />Effective Listening Skills<br />Assertiveness<br />Asking Questions Effectively<br />Out-of-class activity<br />Reading<br />Communication skills selftest<br />Uploading Activity Per.Exp. 0.1 Outcome<br />
  8. 8. About Interpersonal Communication <br />5<br />Process of sending and receiving information between two or more people<br />Types of Interpersonal Communication<br />Dyadic communication (two people)<br />Public speaking<br />Small-group communication<br />Basic elements<br />Communication channels<br />Direct channels: obvious, under control of sender<br />Verbal (spoken or written) or Non-verbal (colour, sound, controlled body movements)<br />Indirect channels: recognized subliminally, subconsciously, not under direct control of the sender<br />Body Language<br />
  9. 9. Interpersonal Communication: What for?<br />6<br />Gaining Information about other individual<br />For interacting more effectively<br />Better prediction about how they think, feel, and act<br />How? Passively (by observing them), Actively (having others engage them) or Interactively (engaging them ourselves)<br />Better Understanding others<br />Words can mean very different things depending on how they are said or in what context<br />What and how are sent simultaneously, and both affect the meaning<br />Establishing Identity<br />Roles we play and public self-image we present<br />Interpersonal Needs<br />Inclusion, Control and Affection<br />
  10. 10. Types of CommunicationRelational Patterns<br />Rigid Role Relations<br />Dominance and Submissiveness<br />Complementary or Symmetrical<br />Disconfirming Responses<br />Impervious: not acknowledge the other<br />Interrupting: Cutting the other's message<br />Irrelevant: Giving unrelated response<br />Tangential: Briefly responding<br />Impersonal: Responding by using formal language<br />Incoherent: Responding with difficult to understand message<br />Incongruous: Giving contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages<br />Spirals<br />One partner’s communications leads to increasing levels of satisfaction or dissatisfaction<br />Dependencies and counterdependencies<br />Total agreement with whatever the other says or frequent total disagreement<br />7<br />
  11. 11. Interpersonal Conflict<br />8<br />Expressedstruggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals<br />Important concepts in definition:<br />The two sides must communicate about the problem<br />Often involves perceptions<br />Common Problems:<br />Avoiding conflict: damaging, greater problems in the future<br />Individuals blaming other individuals<br />Adopting a win-lose strategy<br />
  12. 12. Interpersonal Conflict Management<br />Avoid Defensive Climate<br />Foster Supportive Climate<br />9<br />Evaluation: judging and criticizing other group members<br />Control: imposing the will of one group member on the others<br />Strategy: using hidden agendas<br />Neutrality: demonstrating indifference and lack of commitment<br />Superiority: expressing dominance<br />Certainty: being rigid in one's willingness to listen to others. <br />Description: presenting ideas or opinions<br />Problem orientation: focusing attention on the task<br />Spontaneity: communicating openly and honestly<br />Empathy: understanding another person's thoughts<br />Equality: asking for opinions<br />Provisionalism: expressing a willingness to listen the ideas of others<br />
  13. 13. Interpersonal Communication<br />10<br />We are going to explicitly work on<br />Effective Listening<br />“You have two ears and one mouth. I suggest that you use them in that proportion”<br />Assertiveness<br />“Too many of us fail to fulfill our needs because we say no rather than yes, or perhaps later in life, yes when we should say no”<br />Effective Questioning<br />“Only the crystal-clear question yields a transparent answer”<br />
  14. 14. Effective Listening: Active Listening<br />Communication = Speaking & Listening = good speaking and effective listening skills<br />Difference between Hearing & Listening?<br />Effective Listening Tips<br />Make an effort to block out outer distractions. <br />Resist the urge to day dream. <br />Try to understand and correctly interprete body language.<br />Pay attention to tone also, as it is vital to the correct interpretation of the message. <br />Have an open mind. Try not to make judgments about the speaker or the message. <br />Don't hesitate to ask and clarify (do not interrupt, jot questions down)<br />Big mistake: being preoccupied on what you want to say.<br />11<br />
  15. 15. Assertive Communication<br />12<br />Appropriately direct communication, open and honest, and clarifies one’s needs to the other person<br />Natural to some, but skill that can be learned<br />Greatly reduces the level of interpersonal conflict, reducing a major source of stress<br />Features of assertive people: <br />assume the best about others and respect themselves, <br />think “win-win” and try to compromise<br />In contrast, individuals behaving aggressively<br />tend to employ disrespectful, manipulative or abusive tactics<br />make negative assumptions about motives of others<br />don’t think of the other person’s point of view at all<br />win at the expense of others, and<br />create unnecessary conflict<br />
  16. 16. Effective Questioning Techniques<br />13<br />Funnel Questions<br />Start with general questions, then focus on a point in each answer, and ask more and more detail at each level<br />Tip: start with closed questions and progress to open ones<br />Good for:<br />Finding out more detail about a specific point<br />Gaining the interest or increasing the confidence of the person you are with <br />Rhetorical Questions<br />An answer is not expected, they are statements phrased in question form<br />For engaging the listener<br />Open Questions (what, why, how): long answers<br />Developing an open conversation<br />Finding our more detail<br />Finding out the other person's opinion or issues<br />Close Questions: short answers, yes or no.<br />For Gathering facts, testing your understanding or the other person's<br />Concluding a discussion or making a decision<br />Frame setting<br />Misplaced closed question: kill the conversation, awkward silences<br />
  17. 17. Effective Questioning Techniques<br />14<br />Probing Questions<br />Strategy for finding out more detail<br />Tip: ask ‘Why?’ And use ‘exactly’.<br />Good for:<br />Gaining clarification to ensure you have the whole story and that you understand it thoroughly<br />Drawing information out of people who are trying to avoid telling you something<br />Leading Questions<br />That will lead the respondent in your way of thinking<br />To be used with care<br />Can be seen as manipulative and dishonest<br />How:<br />Phrasing the question so that the "easiest" response is yes<br />Adding personal appeal to agree<br />Choice between fixed options<br />
  18. 18. Effective Questioning Tips for …<br />15<br />
  19. 19. Questions or Comments?<br />Interpersonal Communication<br />16<br />