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Measuring the impact and return of social and community programs


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This presentation was given at the Sustainable Brands Africa Conference in May 2016. It provides case studies and lessons learnt of conducting numerous impact assessments. It also provides advice of how to conduct impact assessments, what indicators to consider and how to determine return on investment

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Measuring the impact and return of social and community programs

  1. 1. Evidence of Impact and Return Reana Rossouw Next Generation Consultants
  2. 2. Who we are: • Next Generation Consultants helps organisations across the African continent to become more sustainable and have greater positive impact on the economy, society and the environment. • In the investment and development sectors - we provide consulting and advisory; research and engagement; training and facilitation; impact assessment and due diligence services. • We have developed the Impact Investment Index™ - a methodology that measures the impact and return on investment of social / community and enterprise development investments. 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 2
  3. 3. What we do: • Our Context • We have developed the Impact Investment Index (III)™ in 2009. • Since then we have assessed more than R3 billion worth of social/community and enterprise development investments. This includes more than 600 programs across 15 focus areas/investment portfolio’s. • We have conducted these impact assessments on behalf of Multinational Funders, Corporate Donors and the Development Sector – within the mining, retail, manufacturing, government, media, communications and financial sectors. • Our work resulted in an indicator library with more than 5 000 qualitative and quantitative indicators. We have also identified 21 dimensions of impact and more than 15 dimensions of return. 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 3
  4. 4. What we wanted to achieve: 01/08/2013 Next Generation Consultants 4 • To provide evidence • To demonstrate performance • To prove accountability • To show program/ investment effectiveness • To demonstrate value • To contribute to sustainable development • To empower and capacitate communities and funders • Ultimately - to alleviate, eliminate and eradicate poverty • Develop a solution for the continent – from the continent – reflecting the context, complexity, interconnectedness of systems and ensure capacity building across the industry
  5. 5. Guiding Principles of our work: • Impact means impact • The goal is to understand what changes as a result of investment from donors in communities as beneficiaries and recipients of interventions • The impact is shared • The goal is to understand who is impacted along the value chain – including donors, intermediaries and beneficiaries • Impact includes and involve all stakeholders • Analysis must be comprehensive. Instead of cherry picking something that’s working and leaving out what is not, the analysis should include all aspects of impact and those impacted • Results must be transparent • Companies should report to their investors, and investors should aggregate and report results. What is left out should be stated. Assumptions and sources should be stated. It should be possible for a third party to replicate the analysis based on the documentation of it and get the same result. • Context matters • It is harder to create a stable job in a rural area than in a city. The qualitative and quantitative context should be provided to inform the impact as well as an understanding of how much of the problem may exist or remain. 01/08/2013 Next Generation Consultants 5
  6. 6. How the model works: 01/08/2013 Next Generation Consultants 6 HowWhatWhoImpact Community Impact Teachers Improved capacity Improved morale Short term Learners Improved pass rates Social Schools Improved enrolment Empowered Government Leverage of resources Cost Savings
  7. 7. Aspects of Impact A variation of the standard Impact Value Chain 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 7
  8. 8. Different perspective of the impact value chain: 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 8 ImpactDimension Economic/Social/Socio- Economic/Environmental Direct/Indirect Positive/Negative/ Combined Intended/Unintended Short/Medium/Long Term Perceived/Empowered/ Pre-emptive & post impact Significant/Residual/ Capital impact ImpactPortfolio Education & Bursaries Health and quality of life Environment and climate change Safety & Security Welfare & Community Agriculture and Food Security Economic, Enterprise and Social Development Skills Development and Job Creation Sports Development and Recreation Infrastructure and local economic development ScopeofImpact Project/Program Focus Area and investment portfolio Signature, cause related and Flagship Geographic (region – local/national) Demographic (girls/ boys/ women/disabled) Stakeholder based (value chain – intermediaries, learners, teachers, government departments, other funders, etc.) Company – funder/investor Boundaryofimpact Stakeholders (direct/indirect) Funders (primary/secondary) Partners (intermediaries) Time (1/3/5 year) Depth / weighted (related to strategic objectives/outcomes) Reach (primary/ secondary/ tertiary - value chain)
  9. 9. Determining Impact Impact Value Chain – Categories of Impact
  10. 10. Impact across the triple bottom line: Economic Impact Without economic impact – hardly any social program can be proclaimed sustainable. Example: Job Creation/Income Generation/ savings & leverage of funds/ enterprise development and empowerment Most programs have a ‘job creation’ aspect to it – without measuring the value/income of the jobs created –and the impact thereof most programs will remain unsustainable. Environmental Impact Only specific environmental programs measures environmental impact – which clearly indicates the nature/extend of unsustainable development. Example: Most programs consumes water, energy, emit carbons – therefore not understanding or not measuring environmental impact(soil erosion, water, energy consumption) – renders most programs unsustainable/ unbalanced. Social Impact It is ironic that at its core CSI/SED/ED focuses on social development – therefore not being able to measure social impact indicates a lack of strategy, lack of knowledge/lack of indicators. Example: Most programs must have a direct/intended outcome – to change something – social impact must measure this change i.e. increased knowledge, behaviour changes. 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 10 Please see:
  11. 11. Impact over time: Short Term Short term impacts or “quick wins” are important for projects as they build trust, credibility, and local support. They also maximise the value to the stakeholders very quickly. But when project lag and expectations are not met, then impact is diminished. Example: Food gardens/feeding schemes provide immediate relieve to/for malnutrition, food access, food security – but is not sustainable over the long term. Additionally if resources for water or seeds or access to markets are not factored in – food gardens have a short life span. Medium Term There does not appear to be a longer term approach for business partnerships or opportunities beyond the initial funding phase. Most programs require additional funding specifically for capacity building in order to ensure long term impact as well as sustainability – a clear oversight in current program funding cycles. Example: A science/maths program may yield increased pass rates within 12 months, but may not affect increased university access, or subject/career choices. In particular infrastructure programs require additional resources i.e. operational expenses or capacity building (maintenance) to move along the value chain. Long Term Very few programs have access to long term funding, therefore measuring long term impact becomes impossible. 80% of all programs are only funded between 12 and 24 months, 15% of programs are funded up to 36 months, but less than 5% of all programs are funded for 60 months (5 years) meaning that impact of each and every program is diminished over time. Example: An ECD program may yield results in the form of increased school enrolment but evidence needs to be provided of improved literacy and numeracy skills or school readiness to ensure long term sustainability – if not followed by a program in primary education – as such it will be unsustainable 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 11
  12. 12. Types of impact: Positive Positive impact is seen as additional to direct/intended impact. It is therefore surprising that so few proposals and subsequent programs consider ‘additional’ impact and this indicates the limited focus of particular interventions - i.e. it is only designed to achieve one specific outcome. Example: A food garden may yield additional positive impacts such as improved concentration/ ability, increased school attendance, increased motivation/positive behaviour, decrease in absenteeism, increased subject knowledge – but in general these types of programs only measures the number of people affected by the garden. Negative We present two models to clients – one where negative is measured as part of the total impact scenario – and one where we subtract the negative impact from total impact. We found that negative impact plays out on two levels 1) as a result of actions from the funder i.e. delayed payments and 2) as a direct/ indirect/ unintended consequence of the program – i.e. highlighting oversight within program design aspects. Example: Providing a computer lab/Building a soccer field, but not considering security, where the water will come from or materials for maintenance or increased costs for electricity/software programs generally leads to negative impact. Combined / Cumulative This impact aspect reflects an opportunity to expand impact and in our experience is mostly linked to program implementation and design aspects. Example: A food garden not only increases food security, but improved nutrition which is linked to increased productivity or quality of life or improved school attendance. Aggregation and/or interaction of impacts within a system are defined from the perspective of the stakeholders experiencing them and should therefore be considered and accounted for. 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 12
  13. 13. Types of impact: Direct These are impacts that can be directly attributed to the implementation and therefore outputs and outcomes of a program. Example: The objective was to increase literacy/numeracy/subject knowledge or technical skills. If the strategic objective is met and evidence is provided then there is direct or impact – i.e. stakeholders were tested and based on the results pass rates increased. Indirect Indirect impact is very often linked to unclear focus areas, unclear development outcomes, unclear accountability/ responsibility, lack of research, lack of engagement, lack of impact which renders the programs of little value for any stakeholder groups or that resulted in ‘accidental’ impact. Example: The fact that classes are presented on Saturdays requires additional resources, food, transport, security, staff and other additional costs, for both the funder and intermediary sides – therefore attendance of classes can drop and dropout rates are high – which leads to indirect impact which is negative or unconsidered impact. 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 13
  14. 14. Types of impact: Intended This aspect refers to the intended (direct) (stated/strategic objectives/outcomes) of a specific intervention. The lack of indicators to measure direct and intended impact is a serious issue, which could mean, that there was no shared value distributed. If there is little evidence of impact it is an indication that the programs funded were bad choices, or the objectives and desired/intended outcomes were not clearly defined. Example: To improve the pass rates in maths (intended outcome) but without specifying the minimum pass rate (80% of pupils must achieve a minimum of 70% and 60% must continue with the subject choice for the next grade – or no more than 10% drop out rate during a 3 year cycle) should confirm the intended impact objectives. Unintended No community program is intended or designed/implemented to have unintended impacts as this would mean that not enough planning or research or engagement has been conducted. This implies that there is disconnect between strategy/objectives, project management and execution. Example: Whilst providing a food garden – the garden yielded little or no production because of drought/lack of water/knowledge/skills. This program then requires additional resources as unintended impact diminishes the intended impact. 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 14
  15. 15. Types of impact: Perceived Impact A potential/perceived impact rather than an actual impact. This is about how people (stakeholders) feel about the impact and how they behave generally, thus perception is a reality to them. Example: Specifically used if impact is an anomaly – only mentioned once by a particular stakeholder group, or evidenced by few stakeholders or cannot be confirmed by other stakeholders. Because of increased skills/knowledge, salaries increased which improved the living conditions of a family and increased family sustainability. Empower(ed) Impact Is the enhancement of the assets and capabilities of individuals or groups to engage and influence institutions, and to increase the accountability of institutions. Example: • Capacity building for stakeholder organisations/groups – now access social security services • Strengthening legal status of stakeholder groups/organisations – now increased fundraising/marketing/attracting new donors • Stakeholder authority to manage funds, hire and fire workers, supervise work and procedure materials – increased effectiveness of organisations • Support for new and spontaneous initiatives by stakeholders – now help others to become more empowered Pre/Post Impact Depending on the lifecycle or life stage of a project, pre-emptive assessments can be made that will indicate post impact assessment impact. This focuses on likely impacts of a planned intervention – i.e. has not happened yet. Example: A program can be assessed to determine likely/significant impact and develop indicators to measure such impact in the future. 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 15
  16. 16. Types of impact: Significant Impact Focuses on intended outcomes – i.e. prioritisation of outcomes to be considered. Impacts are assessed for their significance according to predetermined criteria. Example: For instance – if job creation was the intended/direct outcome – the significance of the impact would refer to: Direct/indirect/full-time/part-time or even decent jobs created – not temporary jobs or below living wage categories. Residual Impact Impact that reflects negative impact and will continue to contribute to negative impact without mitigation/correction. Example: The intention was to create jobs, but now there is the realisation that the intervention requires substantial skills development and then certification to ensure a qualification before a job can be secured. Therefore impact envisaged was not achieved, rather residual impact can be achieved through significant changes. Capitals Impact Typically this could include: Financial - (income, security, wealth, credit, investment, savings) Social (leadership, networks, relationships, trust, reciprocity) Environmental/natural capital – (landscape, soil, land ownership, water, energy) Human – (self-esteem, worthiness, social cohesion) Intellectual – (community ownership, community assets, community contribution) Manufactured / production – (products, services, crafts, indigenous products) Also considered are political impact, institutional impact, infrastructure impact, cultural or spiritual impact – (language, traditions, rituals). Example: Social cohesion improved (racial discrimination decreased).2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 16
  17. 17. Return on investment Learning from our experience 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 17
  18. 18. Business value of determining ROI: Knowledge Deep understanding of value and impact as well as risks Comparative data – industry/sector Insights into and across impact dimensions Insights into stakeholder groups affected Action New or enhanced business decisions, practices and behaviours Develop new products/services/markets Changed policies, strategies and practices to increase impact and return Report in a more credible, integrated and useful way Results Improved performance – profitability/competitiveness Reduce potential risks – community activism/licencing Cost Savings – of court cases/mitigation of risks Enhanced stakeholder relationships Improved licence to operate conditions Improved trust and transparency 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 18 Please see:
  19. 19. Return on investment impact: Strategic Aspects Support of corporate values and strategies Support of sustainability strategy/programs Support of future growth, development and market access Operational – improved processes, systems, communication Investor / Shareholder Aspects Share price not affected when industry or sector are targeted by activists Rated as industry leader in Sustainability Indices Increased investment from socially responsible investment funds Inclusion and high ratings in awards programs Reputation Aspects Recognition/awards Media coverage Increased brand awareness 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 19
  20. 20. ROI Impact: Profit Aspects Sales generated from programs/products Value of new products and services generated Increased worker productivity Increased share price (e.g. from attention of socially-screened investment funds) Increased sales/subscriptions/advertising Environmental Aspects Costs mitigated from rehabilitation Costs saved from waste management/recycling Carbon emissions sequestrated Costs of fines Sector Specific Aspects Financial Sector Economic trends and demographics and expanding workforce needs Increasing regulatory activity (e.g. CRA, PRI, CRESA, JSE, investment screening) Increasing equality/disparity between haves/have- nots – financial inclusivity/Gini Co-efficient Globalization strategies Opportunities to brand company through community involvement Mining Intensity of opposition Previous negative incidents Regulators’ sensitivities Compatibility with existing development Reputation of company Level of community involvement Involvement of external advocates/activists 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 20
  21. 21. ROI Impact: Stakeholder Aspects Increased community/government awareness/positive relationships/stakeholder relations Decreased complaints/grievances/ activism/strikes/boycotts/negative press coverage Cost savings/avoidance Prevention of operational stoppages/delays Reducing/decreasing legal costs/law suits Support for market entry/expansion plans Savings Aspects Tax rebates received from philanthropic/ charity/social/community contributions Saved costs of free advertising space/ shelve space received from media coverage of the CI/CSI programs Legal fees averted (includes legal department staff time and projected billable hours from contracted firms) Costs averted through supply chain/ customer contributions Costs saved from overstock Savings Aspects Continue Crisis PR efforts averted (includes PR staff time and projected billable hours from contracted firms) Costs of avoided down-time from failure to receive building approval, work stoppages, etc. Reduced employee recruitment costs, reduced employee turnover costs, and/or reduced absenteeism Reduced employee training costs (e.g., through community service learning initiatives) Reduced customer turnover Other staff management hours saved 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 21
  22. 22. ROI Impact: Customer Aspects Surveys indicating improved customer perceptions and impacts on shopping decisions Sales leads generated in specific geographic or demographic markets or previously closed markets Development/increased sales of specific products/services in targeted geographic or demographic markets Annual brand tracking surveys indicating higher scores/ratings Collaboration/participation/co-design of new product/service development Greater participation/involvement/ contribution in community investment and development programs Increased brand awareness Increased customer acquisition/retention Operational Aspects Mitigation of operational risks (health/environment/safety) Support and enhancement of business operational requirements (integration, skills development, etc.) Enhanced processes and services, communication, information, grievance and complaints Integration and alignment of divisions Product/service testing Research/local content/beneficiation, supplier development Compliance Aspects Broad-based Black Economic Empowerment Licence to operate – support/extension SLP Mandate/Strategy / support/extension DMR/King III/ICMM/IPIECA – Industry requirements Approval rates/new explorations/extensions Rehabilitation/closure enhancement/support Drop in complaints/grievances Global Compliance and enhanced reporting 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 22
  23. 23. ROI Impact: Employee Aspects Positive response to utilizing volunteerism for professional development/skills development and team building Employee surveys demonstrating that volunteer activities contribute to leadership and skills development Voted one of the best companies to work for Surveys showing increased employee morale from participation and increased numbers of employee volunteers, volunteer hours, and the number of company-sponsored volunteer projects Employee training programs Employees learning to use products to that they are more equipped to sell/market them CSI/CI projects used for team building or during orientation/induction or other training Recruitment from communities where CSI/CI projects are run Internal surveys showing an increase in employee pride, morale and commitment as a result of employee involvement in volunteer activities Social Aspects Improvement of quality of life of workers Community job creation / empowerment Improved stakeholder relations within the community Poverty reduction Enhanced recruitment and appointment Enhanced safety and security Increased human rights awareness – mitigation of human rights aspects 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 23
  24. 24. Case Studies Learning from our experience
  25. 25. 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 25 ED Supplier Development Program Supplier capacity building and access to banking services Local Suppliers Improved business skills and profitability Greater output and productivity The economic value of increased revenue and reduced costs. The increase in local economic output Employees of Suppliers Accumulation of human capital, empowerment and self confidence The cost of external skills courses could be used. The increase in wages resulting from greater levels of human capital. Willingness to pay for courses Funder increased customers Increased BEE scorecard Increased value (revenue and profit) and increased value of additional/new tenders awarded Wider Local Community Increased welfare – i.e. lower unemployment, improved health, education The value of reduction in public expenditure on health care services and unemployment benefits Local Government Local Economic Development Increased rates and taxes and income
  26. 26. 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 26 Rural electrification of village Local businesses Greater output and productivity The economic value of increased revenue and reduced costs. The increase in local economic output could be estimated with multiplier analysis Local Students Improved quality of education, better grades Increased wages resulting from improved education levels Local Households Increased safety and security, improved and increased access to information and communication, and improved quality of life Monetary value of savings Investor/Donor Increased publicity Value of increased publicity Increased employee morale, participation, skills development Value (savings) of retained employees
  27. 27. 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 27 Training of local farmers Farmers and their families Greater output and productivity, income and empowerment The economic value of increased revenue and reduced costs The increase of local economic output could be estimated with multiplier analysis – housing, health and education Local Authorities Increased tax revenue The value of increased income tax and export duties Local Consumers and Communities Improved quality and quantity of food The value of increased consumption The value of increased savings The value of Increased quality of life, in particular health which lead to increased productivity Decline in infant mortality and maternal mortality Improved life expectancy Intermediary Increased income, increased employment The value of leveraged resources Attraction of new resources/donors Value of salaries Value of publicity
  28. 28. Reporting Sustainability and Integrated Reporting Lack of Evidence: Impact and return in current reporting practices 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 28
  29. 29. Evidence in reporting: Sustainability Reporting • Companies usually focus on reporting their own performance in relation to community initiatives as opposed to what changes or benefits occur for people and the environment as a result of their activities. • Thus, it is often difficult to paint a picture of community impact based on the information in the reports. Additionally most information in reports are quantitative figures as opposed to qualitative data that reflects actual changes or impact occurred. • The majority of companies emphasize their positive contributions without mentioning any negative impacts. Those who do report their negative impacts mostly focus on environment related problems. • While there are differences between different topics being reporting on, there is limited ability to break down performance and impact in relation to region or operation. • Fifty percent of companies reporting on topics such as Philanthropy and Charitable Giving, Community Services, Employee Volunteering and Cause Related Marketing do not indicate general approaches, policies or goals behind activities. • Sections of the reports with a ‘community focus’ more often focus on topics related to charity and philanthropy than sustainable community development where issues related to the local economy, the local environment and society and the business itself are taken into consideration. • Information related to Community Environmental Impact due to Operations and Community Environmental Campaign/Problem Solving is most frequently located in the Environmental section of the report. • Information related to Direct Economic Impact and Helping Local Business/Producers is often placed in the Economic section of reports. • There are differences in reporting patterns between sectors. For example Community Engagement and Dialogue appears to be an important topic in the mining sector where 90 percent of the sector’s companies report on these issues. For the chemical sector, only 20 percent of the companies report on this. 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 29
  30. 30. Sustainability Reporting: • Top 3 indicators for Education and Training • Number of people benefited/reached by the education initiatives • Amount of money invested/donated in the education initiatives • Number of education-related activities (e.g. seminar, classes, conferences etc.) held • Top 3 indicators for Philanthropy and Charitable Giving • Sum of money donated/raised/contributed to community initiatives • Percentage or number of people (organizations) granted/sponsored/supported/covered by the donated services • Number or quantity of scholarships/material/services donated (no value of money indicated) • Top 3 indicators for Community Services and Employee Volunteering • Number of people/organizations/projects benefited, served or implemented • Number of volunteers • Number of volunteering hours • Top 3 indicators for Total Community Expenditure • Amount of money spent in community investment • Percentage of profit/revenue/income spent in community investment • Percentage increase of money spent on social investment, compared to last year • Number of people benefited in community investment activities • Number of projects developed and completed • Top 3 indicators for Community Engagement and Dialogue • Number of visitors, audience and participants reached • Percentage/number of sites where community engagement activities were performed • Frequency of meetings 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 30
  31. 31. Integrated Reporting: 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 31 Input •How much money + other resources was spend Activities •What happened as a result of invested resources •Seed funding 3 businesses •Build a school Output •Detail of interventions •2 Suppliers business development courses •2 Suppliers seed/grant funding for machines •2000 Senior Secondary School Students Outcome •Improved our supplier network •Achieved our BEE Scorecard Points •Contributed and enhanced our corporate citizenship •Number of entrepreneurs •Number of students •Increased pass rates •Anecdotal evidence – few pictures Impact •Nothing on economic value created apart from cost/input resources •Nothing on social value created – either qualitatively or quantitatively •Nothing on positive or negative impact – improved/enhanc ed impact or diminished value or trade offs Return •Nothing on benefits gained from investments •Contributes to our future sustainability
  32. 32. In Conclusion What we have learnt 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 32
  33. 33. What our clients say: Funders It provides validation of investment decisions Opportunities for increased partnerships and collaboration Contributes to better financial, project and risk management/reporting Contributes to learning, capacity building and better results (impact) The outcome of the process informs sustainability and integrated reports The detailed stakeholder engagement process provide insight never documented or previously considered in evaluations The impact assessment process not only provides guidance for future strategies and programs, but identify areas requiring attention, confirms whether the needs of beneficiaries are met, it monitors relationships, the lessons learnt provide detailed actions of issues that needs to be addressed and improved, and it informs future best practice Intermediaries We feel comfortable with the transparency of the process The process have added value to our own work – especially M&E and reporting practices The processes have increased our effectiveness and own performance; increased our learning and knowledge; built internal capacity; and increased our credibility We believe we were assured independently by someone who can verify our claims – it validated our own beliefs We have learnt the value of qualitative indicators, to consider impact more broadly and we are now more convinced of the actual value of our program It ensured increased funding for both programmes, internal capacity and increased our own sustainability Beneficiaries We had an opportunity to talk without being judged – we could be honest We learnt to document our own work and the contribution we made We feel we are being trusted, being heard and someone asks our opinion We had an opportunity to share and learn 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 33 Competitors Transparent process Credible and verifiable process considering all stakeholders input Contributes to more efficient and integrated strategies, policies, programs Contributes to industry capacity building
  34. 34. The next level of impact assessments: 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 34 Static Impact • No movement – no change Changed Impact • Increased or decreased impact Sustained Impact • Impact validated and confirmed over time
  35. 35. Impact: Thinking beyond evaluations: 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 35 Key Question What do we want to know? Criteria for impact/value of impact What matters? Standards and Definitions What would indicate impact? Can we define the impact and envisaged / required Information How will we know? What evidence do we need/ have? Method How will we determine impact or gather evidence? What level of engagement will be required? Analysis What impact was achieved? What does the evidence show? How can it be confirmed and collaborated? What tools will we use? What skills do we need to draw conclusions? Synthesis and Triangulation So what? Do we share the results/ outcomes What would have happened anyway? Decision Now what? Please see:
  36. 36. Reana Rossouw Next Generation Consultants • Website: • Linkedin: and • Google+: ttps:// rossouw • Pinterest: • Facebook: • Slideshare: 2016/05/17 Next Generation Consultants 36