2 animal nutrition -_lesson2_ppt_final (2)

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2 animal nutrition -_lesson2_ppt_final (2)

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  • Prescence of food in the stomach, will stimulate the gastric gland to secrete gastric juice into the stomach
  • Hcl will change the inactive form of the enzyme pepsinogen to the active form pepsin
  • Pepsin work best in strongly acidic environment
  • When prorennin and pepsinogen is converted to the active form, the proteases digest the proteins present in the food that we consumeRennin clots the milk protein present in the milk that you drink. This is necessary because soluble milk proteins would pass through the stomach to the duodenum very easily, coagulation allows the milk protein to remain in the stomach for a longer time so that it can be digested by pepsin and you are able to obtain the benefits from the milk protein.
  • Pepsin work best in strongly acidic environment
  • Chyme then enters the small intestine. The small intestine consists on the u shaped duodenum, jejunum and ileum
  • Specifically, when chyme from stomach, first enters the duodenum. At duodenum the chyme from the stomach with digestive juices from the intestinal glands produced from the intestinal wall, pancreas, liver and gall bladder
  • Specifically, when chyme from stomach, first enters the duodenum. At duodenum the chyme from the stomach with digestive juices from the intestinal glands produced from the intestinal wall, pancreas, liver and gall bladder
  • Specifically the intestinal gland secrete intestinal juice that contains various digestive enzymes. These digestive enzymes are responsible for digesting the carbohydrate, proteins and fats. The specific end product of digestion will be discussed in the following lesson.Why type/class of enzymes are maltase , erepsin
  • What is the purpose for emulsification of fatsIs this physical or chemical digestion?
  • 2 animal nutrition -_lesson2_ppt_final (2)

    1. 1. 1. Describe the functions of the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, gall bladder, liver, ileum, jejunum in relation to physical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption of nutrients and water. 2. State the function of proteases pepsin and rennin on proteins and list the end products of protein digestion in the stomach. 3. List the digestive enzymes produced by the intestinal glands and pancreas. 4. Describe the function of bile in the emulsification of fats. Objectives
    2. 2. Stomach Peristalsis in the stomach wall churns and break up the food Peristalsis also mix food with the gastric juice
    3. 3. Gastric gland secrete gastric juices into the stomach Hydrochloric acid Proteases •Pepsin •Rennin
    4. 4. Hydrochloric acid •Kills most bacteria taken in with food •Provides an acidic medium suitable for the action of gastric enzymes.
    5. 5. Stomach Hydrochloric acid Pepsinogen Pepsin (active enzyme) Prorennin Rennin (active enzyme)
    6. 6. Why is pepsinogen produced instead of pepsin? To prevent pepsin from digesting the stomach walls
    7. 7. Protein Digestion Proteins Polypeptides Pepsin Soluble Insoluble milk proteins milk proteins Rennin Insoluble Polypeptides milk proteins Pepsin
    8. 8. Why is there no digestion of starch in the stomach? The acidic environment in the stomach due to the presence of hydrochloric acid. Salivary amylase works best in alkaline pH. Thus no starch is digested in the stomach. Question Time!
    9. 9. Stomach After mixing and enzyme digestion, food becomes a nutrient-rich broth : Chyme
    10. 10. Liver Pancreas Gall bladder Duodenum of Small intestine
    11. 11. Liver Pancreas Gall bladder Duodenum of Small intestine
    12. 12. Secrete Intestinal juice Maltase Sucrase Lactase Erepsin Intestinal lipase Intestinal Gland
    13. 13. Secrete Pancreatic Juice: • Pancreatic amylase, • Pancreatic lipase • Trypsinogen trypsin (active enzyme) Pancreas enterokinase
    14. 14. Region of Digestion Source Enzyme Action MOUTH Salivary glands Salivary amylase Starch Maltose STOMACH Gastric glands Pepsin Rennin Protein Polypeptide Soluble Insoluble milk proteins milk proteins SMALL INTESTINE Pancreas Intestinal glands Pancreatic Amylase Trypsinogen trypsin Pancreatic Lipase Maltase Erepsin Lipase Starch Maltose Protein Polypeptides Fats Fatty acids+ glycerol Maltose Glucose Polypeptides Amino acids Fats Fatty acids+ glycerol
    15. 15. Liver produces bile which is an enzyme that breaks down fats The bile salts which emulsify fats into tiny fat droplets is stored in the liver Four friends were discussing about the role of the gall bladder, liver and the function of bile. Who do you agree with the most? Explain why others are not correct. Bile which emulsify fats is produced from the liver and stored in the gall bladder Gall bladder produces bile which breaks down fats John Daniel Mary Bella
    16. 16. Liver cells secrete bile containing bile salts and bile pigment Bile = bile salts + bile pigment Bile is temporarily stored in the gall bladder Bile flows into the duodenum via the bile duct
    17. 17. Bile salts emulsify the fats by reducing the attractive forces between the fat molecules Physically breaks-up the fat molecules Bile Salts Tiny fat droplets Increase surface area to volume ratio – speed up digestion by lipase. Bile salts
    18. 18. 1. Describe the functions of the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, gall bladder, liver, ileum, jejunum in relation to physical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption of nutrients and water. 2. State the function of proteases pepsin and rennin on proteins and list the end products of protein digestion in the stomach. 3. List the digestive enzymes produced by the intestinal glands and pancreas. 4. Describe the function of bile in the emulsification of fats. Let’s Review
    19. 19. Due to cancer of the stomach, the entire stomach of Patient A have being surgically removed. As the doctor of Patient A, you are to provide information on the effect on the lifestyle and digestive function upon removing the stomach.
    20. 20. • Stomach is the site of initial protein digestion. Removal of stomach will cause protein digestion to be greatly affected; • Patient A can rely only on the small intestine for protein digestion, rate of protein digestion will be lowered. • No HCl, prone to food infection by bacteria. • Need to reduce protein intake to avoid congesting the small intestine.

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