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Interoperability and the Internet of Things – To standardize or not to standardize?


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Interoperability and the Internet of Things – To standardize or not to standardize?

Originally presented on March 12, 2015.

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Interoperability and the Internet of Things – To standardize or not to standardize?

  1. 1. Your systems. Working as one. Interoperability: A Perspective Stan Schneider Real-Time Innovations, Inc. CEO & IIC Steering Committee
  2. 2. Levels of Interoperability • What level? • Mandate? • Guidelines? • How? • When?
  3. 3. RTI’s Experience • ~800 Designs – Healthcare – Transportation – Communications – Energy – Industrial – Defense • 15+ Standards & Consortia Efforts
  4. 4. Interoperable Navy Open Architecture • Next-generation of – Lockheed Aegis – Raytheon DDG 1000 – Raytheon SSDS – LCS (Lockheed and GDAIS) – Raytheon LPD-17 – Many more, US and allies • Highly distributed systems include radar, weapons, displays, controls • Standards-based, high- performance middleware breaks vendor lock-in, drives interoperability ,and future- proofs the architectural design © 2014 Real-Time Innovations,
  5. 5. Facilitate Plug-n-Play Across Vendors • Audi hardware-in-the-loop simulation feeds realistic data to components for testing • The system offers plug-n-play between simulation vendor solutions • RTI middleware enables a modular test environment that scales to work with hundreds of devices
  6. 6. Integrate New and Old • The VW Driver Assistance and Integrated Safety system combines radars, laser range finders, and video to assist safe operation • The V-Charge program demoed a self-driving vehicle in 2014 • The system integrates with existing CANbus through VW Cargate™ ECU • RTI enables advanced reactive systems in transportation © 2014 Real-Time Innovations,
  7. 7. Provide a Common Platform © 2014 Real-Time Innovations, Revolution® "GE Healthcare chose the DDS standard because it can handle many classes of intelligent machines. RTI Connext DDS satisfies the demanding requirements of our devices and supports standardization on a single communications platform across product lines." -- J Gustavo Perez, General Manager for MI&CT Engineering
  8. 8. Improve Safety by Connecting Devices • Hospital error is the 6th leading cause of preventable death • The Integrated Clinical Environment (ICE) standard specifies interoperability for medical devices • RTI Connext DDS ties together many classes of devices from many vendors “RTI Connext DDS met all our needs – whether we’re handling 12 patients, or 200.” -- DocBox Founder, Tracy Rausch
  9. 9. The Industrial Internet Consortium • Goal: Interoperability for the IIoT • 140+ companies! • RTI role – Steering committee, data management (lead), framework, security, use case (lead), marketing – Lead or co-lead 3 testbed teams
  10. 10. Communications Evolution Point-to-Point TCP Sockets Publish/Subscribe Fieldbus CANbus Queuing AMQP Active MQ Data-Centric DDS Shared Data Model DataBus Client/Server MQTT REST XMPP OPC CORBA Brokered Daemon
  11. 11. It’s All About the Data Data centricity enables interoperation, scale, integration Messaging middleware DataBus Unstructured files Database Data Centricity Data Centricity
  12. 12. Data Centric is the Opposite of OO Object Oriented • Encapsulate data • Export methods Data Centric • Encapsulate methods • Export data Explicit Shared Data Model
  13. 13. The DDS Data-Centric Standard for the IIoT • OMG’s Data Distribution Service is the Proven Data Connectivity Standard for the IoT • OMG: world’s largest systems software standards org – UML, DDS, Industrial Internet Consortium • DDS: open & cross-vendor – Open Standard & Open Source – 12 implementations Interoperability between source written for different vendors Interoperability between applications running on different implementations DDS-RTPS Protocol Real-Time Publish-Subscribe Distribution Fabric DDS API
  14. 14. Interoperability of the Word “Interoperability” “Interoperability” is meaningless without “between”
  15. 15. Interoperability Between Applications • Proximity • Platform • Language • Physical network • Transport protocol • Network topology DDS “DataBus” Seamless data sharing regardless of: Explicit Shared Data Model with Controlled QoS
  16. 16. Interoperability Between Language, OS, CPU C on VxWorks ppc C# on Windows x86 Java on Android C++ on Linux Labview on Windows Excel on Windows Node.js on Cloud JavaScript in Browser DDS Databus Serialize native types to implement data model on standard wire protocol
  17. 17. Interoperability Between Networks Image Store Machine Domain Scanner HMI Machine Net Gantry Servo Machine Control (SRIO) Emitter Control Dosage Monitor ECG Sync Scanner Control Power System Patient Status Image Domain Image Databus Image Generation Scanner Data Acquisition Bridge data model and QoS across network types
  18. 18. Interoperability Between Devices Map unique devices to standard, common data model
  19. 19. Interoperability Between Protocol Vendors OCI ETRI PrismTech IBM RTI TwinOaks
  20. 20. Unit DataBus Unit DataBus Interoperability Between IT & OT • Connect… – Fast – Seamless – QoS controlled – Secure – Data centric • Across 80 Platforms… • Over 12 Transports Intelligent Machines Intelligent Systems Intelligent Industrial Internet Cloud DataBus Site DataBus Intelligent System of Systems Unit DataBus Sens e Act Thin k HMI Machine DataBus Thin k HMI Machine DataBus Sens e Act Thin k HMI Machine DataBus Hide Sensor- Cloud complex topology behind a single logical DataBus
  21. 21. Interoperability Between Subsystems • Bridge – Data models – Protocols – Security domains • Isolate subsystems – Control export – Filter access – Translate modelsOther protocol s Routing Service Pluggable Adapters Transformation Engine System Super System Subsystem Subsystem Subsystem Subsystem
  22. 22. Interoperability Between Security Entities • Per-Topic Security – Control r,w access for each function – Enforce each dataflow • Complete Protection – Discovery authentication – Data-centric access control – Cryptography – Tagging & logging – Non-repudiation – Secure multicast – 100% standards compliant • No code changes! • Plugin architecture for advanced uses • Topic Security model: – PMU: State(w) – CBM: State(r); Alarms(w) – Control: State(r), SetPoint(w) – Operator: *(r), Setpoint(w) CBM AnalysisPMU Control Operator State Alarms SetPoint
  23. 23. Interoperability Between Versions
  24. 24. Interoperability Maturation Path: Reduce Distance to Integrate Party A Party B No standard exists, completely custom integration Interfaces can be transformed/mapped Interfaces use a common model “Plug and Play” standard defined Credit: Scott Neumann, UISol position paper
  25. 25. Bridge transports transparently Physical Standard protocols (DDS) “Typesafe” shared schema (IDL/XML) Industry-specific, standard data models Interoperability Recommendation Interoperability is about sharing Data Model and QoS
  26. 26. For More Information • RTI site: • Examples, forum, papers: • IIC website: • Email: • Connect on LinkedIn • Free RTI Connext DDS Pro: