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How to Build the Connectivity Architecture for the Industrial Internet of Things (IoT)

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Originally presented on February 25, 2015.

Watch on-demand here: http://ecast.opensystemsmedia.com/528

Published in: Software
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How to Build the Connectivity Architecture for the Industrial Internet of Things (IoT)

  1. 1. How to Build the Connectivity Architecture for the Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) Rajive Joshi, Ph. D. Principal Solution Architect Real-Time Innovations Inc. February 25, 2015
  2. 2. Outline • Industrial IoT is different! – Why? How? What? • Open Interoperable Connectivity Architecture – Role, Model, Rules, Patterns, Realization • Building the Connected Architecture – Generic Use Case – Architecture Mapping – Implementation
  3. 3. Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) is different! Why? How? What?
  4. 4. 4 Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) Quiz! What’s common?
  5. 5. Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) Why are they different? • Operate in the real-world – Non-stop • Failure has severe consequences – Loss of life or property, often both • Data timeliness is critical – Right answer delivered too late becomes the wrong answer!
  6. 6. Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) How are they different? Technical Factors • Scalability – Volume, Variety • Performance – Velocity, Timeliness • Resilience – Availability, Recovery, Durability • Security – Authentication, Authorization, Integrity, Confidentiality, Non- Repudiation Business Factors • Reliability – Chance of failure during anticipated lifetime • Safety – No unintended consequences • Longevity – Incremental upgrades on an ongoing basis • Diversity – Independent developers – Multiple technologies
  7. 7. There are many vectors along which we can measure end-point “robustness.” Table 1  summarizes these vectors: Table 1: Near-term end-point differences between IIoT and HIoT Attribute Industrial IoT (IIoT) Human IoT (HIoT) Market Opportunity Brownfield Greenfield Product Lifecycle Until dead or obsolete Whims of style and/or budget Solution Integration Heterogeneous APIs Vertically integrated Security Access Identity & privacy Human Interaction Autonomous Reactive Availability 0.9999 to 0.99999 (4–5 ‘9 ’s) 0.99 to 0.999 (2–3 ‘9’s) Access to Internet Intermittent to independent Persistent to interrupted Response to Failure Resilient, fail-in-place Retry, replace Network Topology Federations of peer-to-peer Constellations of peripherals Physical Connectivity Legacy & purpose-built Evolving broadband & wireless Example Gateways Commercial monitoring Echelon SmartServer Consumer home automation Revolv Hub Market Opportunity: “Brownfield” is a term borrowed from commercial real estate; it is used to denote a potential site for building development that had been previously developed for industrial or commercial use. IIoT uses brownfield to describe the Collectively referred to as a Gateway Source: http://www.moorinsightsstrategy.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Connecting-with-the-Industrial-Internet-of-Things-IIoT-by-Moor-Insights-Strategy.pdf Architecture Style Data Driven, Publish-Subscribe Human Driven, Request-Response Moore Insights report 2014 Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) What’s different?
  8. 8. Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) Common Pitfalls Applying connectivity technologies meant for human users to non-humans users* *Time and again, people re-discover this!
  9. 9. Key Takeaways • Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) is different! – Why? • Requirements – How? • Qualities: Technical and Business – What ? • Architecture and Techniques  Connectivity architecture must address the unique requirements of Industrial Internet Systems
  10. 10. Open Interoperable Connectivity Architecture Role, Model, Rules, Patterns, Realization
  11. 11. Connectivity Architecture Role Interoperability: Reduce Time to Integrate Party A Party B No standard exists, completely custom integration Interfaces can be transformed/mapped Interfaces use a common model “Plug and Play” standard defined Credit: Scott Neumann, UISol position paper
  12. 12. Data Centric Connectivity Architecture Rule: Decouple apps from the Data Data centricity enables interoperation, scale, integration Messaging middleware Databus Unstructured files Database Data Centricity Data Centricity
  13. 13. Connectivity Data Flow Patterns Fundamental Building Blocks Industrial IoT • Stream • Command • Status • Configuration Conventional Enterprise IT • Event • Query • Transaction • Job Architecture Style Publish-Subscribe Request-Response Activity Trigger Data (State Change) Human (Decision)
  14. 14. DDS: The Connectivity Foundation for IIoT Data-Centric Messaging Bus • Data Distribution Service (DDS) is an open industry standard for data- centric connectivity • From OMG, the world’s largest systems software standards organization – UML, DDS – Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) • DDS is Open & Multi-Vendor – Open Standard & Open Source – 12 implementations Interoperability between source written for different vendors Interoperability between applications running on different implementations DDS-RTPS Protocol Real-Time Publish-Subscribe Distribution Fabric DDS API
  15. 15. • ~800 Designs – Healthcare – Transportation – Communications – Energy – Industrial – Defense • 15+ Standards & Consortia Efforts DDS Industrial Internet Applications Current Users
  16. 16. Connectivity Architecture using DDS Connect Everything, Everywhere • Proximity • Platform • Language • Physical network • Transport protocol • Network topology DDS “DataBus” Seamless data sharing regardless of: Explicit Shared Data Model with Controlled QoS
  17. 17. Connectivity Architecture using DDS Interoperability Between Subsystems DDS Routing Service • Organize – Hierarchy • Bridge – Data models – Protocols – Security domains • Isolate – Control export – Filter access – Translate models Other protocols Routing Service Pluggable Adapters Transformation Engine System Super System Subsystem Subsystem Subsystem Subsystem
  18. 18. Key Takeaways • Connectivity Architecture Role – Interoperability to reduce integration time & effort • Connectivity Architecture Model, Rules, Patterns – Decouple apps from data – Pick a core open connectivity standard – Use gateways to organize and bridge • Connectivity Architecture Realization – Leverage the DDS open standard, popular in Industrial Internet Systems, for integration of disparate connectivity protocols – Leading DDS implementations provide all the connectivity fundamental building blocks – Seamless data sharing from sensor to cloud
  19. 19. Building the Connected Architecture Generic Use Case Architecture Mapping Implementation
  20. 20. Connected Home Gadgets  Service Provider  Occupants Cloud Intelligent Device Intelligent Device Intelligent Device WAN WAN Many Devices Internal LAN Many Users LAN At Home • Fixed Network • Stable Addressing (relatively) • Ad-hoc components • Gateway
  21. 21. Cloud Intelligent Device Intelligent Device Intelligent Device WAN WAN Many Devices Internal LAN Many Users LAN Field technician on-site • Fixed Network • Stable Addressing (relatively) • Managed Components • Gateway Connected Energy Turbines  Operations  Operators
  22. 22. Connected Healthcare Patient Monitors  Hospital  Doctors Cloud Intelligent Device Intelligent Device Intelligent Device WAN WAN Many Devices Internal LAN Many Users LAN Doctor at the Hospital • Mobile Network • Dynamic Addressing • Certified Components • Gateway
  23. 23. Connected Cars Car  Service Provider  Drivers Cloud Intelligent Device Intelligent Device Intelligent Device WAN WAN Many Devices Internal LAN Many Users LAN In the Vehicle • Mobile Network • Dynamic Addressing • Qualified Components • Gateway
  24. 24. Generic Connectivity Use Case Devices  Cloud  Users Cloud Intelligent Device Intelligent Device Intelligent Device WAN WAN Many Devices Internal LAN Many Users LAN Occasionally • Mobile Network • Dynamic Addressing • Ad-hoc Components • Gateway
  25. 25. Connectivity Architecture Mapping Choosing the right technology Cloud Intelligent Device Intelligent Device Intelligent Device WAN WAN Many Devices Internal LAN Many Users LAN Occasionally ? ? ? ?
  26. 26. Connectivity Architecture Mapping Choosing the right technology Cloud Intelligent Device Intelligent Device Intelligent Device WAN WAN Many Devices Internal LAN Many Users LAN Occasionally DDS - Stateful interactions and many data flow patterns (now, future) - Publish-Subscribe architecture style, data driven - Scalability, Performance, Resilience, Security Requirements - Disconnected & Intermittent Links - Mobile Networks (Cellular and WiFi)
  27. 27. Connectivity Architecture Mapping Choosing the right technology Cloud Intelligent Device Intelligent Device Intelligent Device WAN WAN Many Devices Internal LAN Many Users LAN Occasionally Web (Web-Sockets, HTTP) - Stateless interactions, single data flow pattern (query) - Request-Response architecture style, human driven - Established Scalability, Security infrastructure - Forgiving Performance, Resilience requirements - Ubiquitous access from any (mobile) device or thin client
  28. 28. Connectivity Architecture Mapping Choosing the right technology Cloud Intelligent Device Intelligent Device Intelligent Device WAN WAN Many Devices Internal LAN Many Users LAN Occasionally DDS - Stateful interactions and many data flow patterns (now, future) - Publish-Subscribe architecture style, data driven - Scalability, Performance, Resilience, Security Requirements - Reliability, Safety, Longevity requirements - Diversity of transports and platforms
  29. 29. Connectivity Architecture Mapping Choosing the right technology Cloud Intelligent Device Intelligent Device Intelligent Device WAN WAN Many Devices Internal LAN Many Users LAN Occasionally DDS - Stateful interactions and many data flow patterns (now, future) - Publish-Subscribe architecture style, data driven - Request-Reponse architecture style, human driven - Scalability, Performance, Resilience, Security - Longevity of Services - Diversity of connectivity solutions
  30. 30. Connectivity Architecture Mapping Choosing the right technology Cloud Intelligent Device Intelligent Device Intelligent Device WAN Many Devices Internal LAN Many Users LAN Occasionally • Mobile Network • Dynamic Addressing • Ad-hoc Components • Gateway DDS Databus WAN DDS Databus
  31. 31. Connectivity Architecture Deployment View Cloud Intelligent Device Intelligent Device Intelligent Device WAN Many Devices Internal LAN Many Users LAN Occasionally • Mobile Network • Dynamic Addressing • Ad-hoc Components • Gateway DDS Databus, Domain 1 WAN DDS Databus, Domain 1 Domain 0
  32. 32. Connectivity Architecture Deployment View Cloud Intelligent Device Intelligent Device Intelligent Device WAN Many Devices Internal LAN Many Users LAN Occasionally • Mobile Network • Dynamic Addressing • Ad-hoc Components • Gateway DDS Databus, Domain 1 WAN DDS Databus, Domain 1 UDP, Shmem Domain 0 TCP UDP, Shmem
  33. 33. Connectivity Implementation Example Deployment View: Nodes demo.rti.com osx (Mac OS Laptop) WAN Many Users LAN Occasionally DDS Databus, Domain 1 WAN DDS Databus, Domain 1 UDP, Shmem Domain 0 TCP UDP, Shmem vm1 (Linux Virtual Machine) android (Nexus 7 Tablet with LTE) WAN Domain 0 TCP iPhone (iOS)
  34. 34. Connectivity Implementation Example Deployment View: Components demo.rti.com osx (Mac OS Laptop) WAN Many Users LAN Occasionally DDS Databus, Domain 1 WAN DDS Databus, Domain 1 UDP, Shmem Domain 0 TCP UDP, Shmem vm1 (Linux Virtual Machine) android (Nexus 7 Tablet with LTE) WAN Domain 0 TCP iPhone (iOS) rtiddsprototyper rtiddsprototyper rtiddsprototyper Shapes Demo nodejs DDS Connector
  35. 35. Articulate Concept 1. Draw a diagram of the components and the interconnecting data-flows Define Structure 2. Define the data types for the interconnecting data flows (in IDL or XML) 3. Define the system structure as a collection of data-oriented interfaces (in XML) Configure Behavior 4. Select from built-in Quality of Service (QoS) profiles to match the data flow pattern; extend to match special cases. 5. Code component behaviors 35 Connectivity Implementation Example Component Development Webinar Build it Fast: 5 Steps from Concept to Working Distributed System
  36. 36. Human Access Cloud  Users DDS Databus, Domain 1 iOS Safari http://demo.rti.com:7401/simple
  37. 37. Network Mobility Devices  Cloud • Switching between Cellular and Wi-Fi – Seamless data sharing – State managed by DDS iOS Safari Wi-Fi http://demo.rti.com:7401/simple
  38. 38. Network Mobility Devices  Cloud • Switching between Cellular and Wi-Fi – Seamless data sharing – State managed by DDS iOS Safari Cellular (LTE) – Different IP Address Seamless Data Sharing http://demo.rti.com:7401/simple
  39. 39. Elastic Cloud Applications Cloud Apps  Cloud Apps • Adding/removing/upgrading components – Data is decoupled from components DDS Databus, Domain 1 nodejs DDS Connector
  40. 40. Elastic Cloud Applications Cloud Apps  Cloud Apps • Adding/removing/upgrading components – New components independently created to work on the data nodejs DDS Connector DDS Databus, Domain 1
  41. 41. Connectivity Technology Triage When to use what technology? • Is there a human at one end? – No!  Use DDS • Device  Device • Device  Cloud – Yes!  Use DDS or Web-Sockets • User Device  Cloud – Web-browser  Use HTML5+Web-sockets – App  Use DDS or HTML5+Web-sockets • Ok to use DDS between – Humans – Non-humans – Non-humans and Humans
  42. 42. • Is it over a WAN? – Yes!  Use TCP (with TLS) • Device  Cloud – No! (LAN)  Use UDP (with multicast, if available) • Cloud App  Cloud App (within the Cloud LAN) • Switching between Cellular and WiFi networks – Use DDS to manage state, independently of the network mobility and switching – Use DDS Quality of Service (QoS) to control the how the state is distributed and managed Connectivity Technology Triage With DDS, which transport to use?
  43. 43. Key Takeways • Generic Connectivity Use Case – Devices  Cloud  Users • Devices  Cloud (over WAN) – Use DDS over TCP • Devices  Devices – Use DDS over UDP (LAN) or TCP (WAN) • Cloud Apps  Cloud Apps (within LAN) – Use DDS over UDP • Cloud  Users (WAN) – Use DDS over TCP, or – Use Web-Sockets + HTML (over TCP)
  44. 44. Parting Thoughts
  45. 45. Review • Industrial IoT is different! – Why? How? What? • Open Interoperable Connectivity Architecture – Role, Model, Rules, Patterns, Realization • Building the Connected Architecture – Generic Use Case – Architecture Mapping – Implementation
  46. 46. Connectivity Architecture Edge to Cloud: Databus Hierarchy Unit DataBus Unit DataBus Intelligent Machines Intelligent Systems Intelligent Industrial Internet Cloud Enterprise LAN Intelligent System of Systems Unit LAN Segment Sense Act Think HMI Intra-machine Think HMI Intra-machine Sense Act Think HMI Intra-machine 46
  47. 47. 47 Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) Quiz! Answer: They all use RTI’s Connext DDS
  48. 48. Thank You Rajive Joshi, Ph. D Principal Solution Architect Real-time Innovations Inc. rajive@rti.com
  49. 49. Start using DDS Today! Download the FREE complete RTI Connext DDS Pro package for Windows and Linux: • Leading implementation of DDS • C, C++, C#/.NET and Java APIs • Tools to monitor, debug, test, visualize and prototype distributed applications and systems • Adapters to integrate with existing applications and IT systems

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