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Business Models for Interoperability


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Business Models for Interoperability

  1. 1. Your  systems.  Working  as  one.  Business  Models  for  Interoperability  Practical  efficiency  for  large  system  software  development  
  2. 2. Who  Cares  About  OA?   Everyone   here!   ©  2012  RTI   2  
  3. 3. ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     3  
  4. 4. Why  Interoperable  Open  Architecture?     ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     4  
  5. 5. RTI  Experience:  Real-­‐Time  Infrastructure   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     5  
  6. 6. RTI  Background   Market  Leader   Over  70%  DDS  mw  market  share1   Largest  embedded  middleware  vendor2   Standards  Leader   Active  in  15  standards  efforts   OMG  Board  of  Directors   DDS  authors   Real-­‐Time  Pedigree   Founded  by  Stanford  researchers   High-­‐performance  control,  tools  history   Maturity  Leader   500+  designs   350,000+  licensed  copies   TRL  9   1Embedded  Market  Forecasters   2VDC  Analyst  Report   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     6  
  7. 7. Global  Support  and  Distribution  2008   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     7  
  8. 8. RTI  Connext   Diverse   Small  Device   General-­‐Purpose   Apps/Systems   DDS  Apps   Apps   Real-­‐Time  Apps   Pub/Sub  API   Pub/Sub  API   Messaging  API   Adapters   (DDS  subset)   (Full  DDS)   (DDS++  &  JMS)   Connext Connext Connext Connext Micro DDS Messaging Integrator RTI DataBus Administration Recording Persistence Monitoring Replay Logging Visualization Common  Tools  and  Infrastructure  Services   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     8  
  9. 9. Interoperability  Challenge   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     GVA  DEF  STAN  23-­‐09   9   9
  10. 10.  ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     10  
  11. 11. Interoperability   Interoperability   Business  Models   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     11  
  12. 12. Interoperability   Interoperability   Business  Models   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     12  
  13. 13. Data  Centric  Approach   Data-­‐centric  middleware  maintains  state   Infrastructure  manages  the  content   Developers  write  applications  that  read  and  update  a   virtual  global  data  space     Source Power Phase (Key) WPT1 37.4 122.0 -12.20 WPT2 10.7 74.0 -12.23 WPTN 50.2 150.07 -11.98 Persistence   Recording   Service   Service   Popular  standards:  DDS  API,  wire  spec   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     13  
  14. 14. Controlled  State   Data  centric   Single  source  of  truth   Known  structure   Clear  rules  for  access,  changes,  updates   Technologies   Database   Data-­‐centric  middleware    11/8/2012     14  
  15. 15. DDS:  the  Data  Bus  Standard   Data  Distribution  Service  from  OMG   Cross-­‐vendor  source  portability standards  org   470+  members   UML,  DDS,  SysML,  MoDAF,  DoDAF,   more   DDS  API   DDS:  open  &  cross-­‐vendor   Standard  API  enables  choice  of   middleware   Distribution  Fabric   Standard  wire  spec  enables  subsystem   physical  interoperability   ~10  competitive  implementations  (!)   DDS-­‐RTPS  Protocol   Real-­‐Time  Publish-­‐Subscribe     Cross-­‐vendor  interoperability ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     15  
  16. 16. Government  Adopts  DDS   Dominant  in  military   DISA:  DISR  mandated   Navy:  Open  Architecture,   FORCEnet   Air  Force,  Navy  and  DISA:  NESI   Army,  OSD:  UCS   NATO,  UK  MOD,  South  Korea,     many  more   Many  other  applications   Air  traffic  control,  industrial   automation,  transportation,   medical   Hundreds  of  active  programs   Multiple  interoperable   implementations   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     16  
  17. 17. Interoperability  between  the  applications  demonstrated  by  six  different  vendors  in  2012     OCI   ETRI   PrismTech   IBM   RTI   TwinOaks   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     17  
  18. 18. Is  This  Interoperability?   Semantic   Technical  Communications   Syntactic   (how  to  share  data)   Syntactic  Interfaces  (what   data  to  share)     Semantic  data  dictionary   Technical   (what  data  means)   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     18  
  19. 19. What  are  we  Trying  to  Achieve?  Interchangeability   Integrateability   Extensibility   Interoperability:  all  of  the  above   without  rewriting  everything   Open  Architecture  Requires  Interoperability  at  a  Higher  Level   Than  Key  Interfaces.   ©  2012  RTI   19  
  20. 20. Interoperability   Interoperability   Business  Models   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     20  
  21. 21. Architecture  Efforts   Navy  CCRL   AF  Avionics   OSD  UCS   GVA  DEF  STAN  23-­‐09   Army  COE   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     21  
  22. 22. Interoperability   Interoperability   Business  Models   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     23  
  23. 23. Open  Business  Models  for  Infrastructure  Vendors  Enabling  the  basis  for  interoperability   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     24  
  24. 24. The  Great  OSS  Biz  Model  Quest     Pay  only  for  support  &  services   A  poor  biz  model     Worked  for  Linux   Community  development  challenge     Hidden  adoption  expense   Freemium  (Dual  licensing)     ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     25  
  25. 25. What  Do  Users  W   No  license  cost   Can  modify  and  distribute  modifications   Community  development   Community  forum   Use  for  any  application   Access  (right)  to  source  code   Freely  downloadable       ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     26  
  26. 26. Highly  Distributed  Real-­‐Time  Systems   Many  applications,  processors   100+  processors  in  a  car   1,000+  processors  on  a  ship   100k+  processors  in  an  industrial  system   40M+  lines  of  code   Many  people  &  teams   Crosses  divisions,  companies,  orgs   Includes  end  users,  suppliers,  subs   50+  s/w  suppliers  for  a  modern  naval   ship   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     27  
  27. 27. What  Is  an  Infrastructure  Community?   Any  community  sharing  software   Seeking  a  common  or  interoperable   software  infrastructure   Across  projects,  divisions,  companies,   programs   Examples   Software  supply  chains   Enterprises  or  corporate  divisions   Government  or  industry  standards   communities  (FACE,  UCS,  COE,  ICE)   Large  projects     ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     28  
  28. 28. Infrastructure  Communities   Free  Project   IC:  JHU  APL   Free  Project   Paid  commercial   license   Paid  commercial   IC:  Audi   Scope:  Project   Free  Project   license   Scope:  Project   Paid  commercial   license   Scope:  Project   Paid  commercial   Free  Project   Paid  commercial   license   Free  Project   license   Scope:  Project   Scope:  Project   Free  Project   Paid  commercial   license   Scope:  Project   Free  Project   IC:  UCS   Paid  commercial   license   Scope:  Project   Paid  commercial   license   Free  Project   Scope:  Project   Free  Project   Paid  commercial   license   Scope:  Project   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     29  
  29. 29. OCS  Model  Summary   Free,  full  source  &  binary  DDS  for  IC   No  cost,  no  hassle,  no  strings   Latest  version   Share  source  &  binaries   Professional  T&M  support   Low-­‐cost  commercial  product  for  projects   Tools,  advanced  functionality,  warranty,  platforms   Simple,  open,  per-­‐developer  pricing   Starts  at  £800/developer   No  royalties  or  deployment  fees   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     30  
  30. 30. I  Open  Source!   restricted  to  an  IC         Within  your  IC:  very  open   Outside  your  IC:  why  do  you  care?     It  maps  well  to  the  enduring  infrastructure   problem       ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     31  
  31. 31. Many  Biz  Model  Needs   Professional  resources   Ensure  vendor  partnership   Support  all  versions  (free,   Proactively  develop  to  match   paid)   needs   Offer  professional  guidance,   Encourage  latest  technology,   services   no  branches     No  legal  strings     Motivate  features,  usability,   Offer  warranty  and   quality,  accessibility   indemnification   Ensure  vendor  profitability   Control  provenance   Open,  fair  pricing   No  copyleft;  keep  your  IP   Offer  usable  free  product   Drive  quality  &  usability     Predictably  &  reasonably   Enforce  quality  control   price  advanced  product   Push  usability,  docs,  examples   Bound  support  costs     Eliminate  runtimes       ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     32  
  32. 32.  Let  you  adopt  without  friction  Support  healthy  vendor  with  known  cost  Encourage  speculative  vendor  investment  Retain  your  IP  control  Drive  efficiency  and  low  cost   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     33  
  33. 33. Open  Community  Source  Balance   Open  Community  Source   Low  friction  upgrade   Free,  viral  adoption   Advanced   functionality,  tools,     platforms,  warranty   Support  available   Clear,  reasonable  fees   without  surprise     IC  model  benefits   Provides  you  freedom   Encourages  vendor   investment   Lowers  overall  cost     ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     34  
  34. 34. Open  Community  Source  Model   Addresses  real  needs  of  customers   Free,  current,  supported  base  product   Powerful,  low-­‐friction  upgrade   Clean,  open  licensing   Clean,  open  pricing   Addresses  real  needs  of  vendor   Encourages  investment  in  product   Supports  strong  relationship     ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     35  
  35. 35. Business  Models  for  Government  Acquisition  Achieving  the  promise  of  interoperability   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     36  
  36. 36.        The  sole  imperative  to  control  software  cost  is  to  establish  a  stable  team  working  on  a  single  code  base   -­‐-­‐  Stan  Schneider     ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     37  
  37. 37. Implications  (!)     Stable  teams  imply  continuous  investment   Code  repositories  are  expensive  branches   Even  more  expensive  to  revive     The  IP  without  the  team  is  inefficient     At  least  for  emerging  products,  there  is  no  stable  external   team   The  best  structure  for  large  projects  is  team/code  pairs   Modularize  by  reducing  team/code  size  =>  define   interfaces  and  architecture       ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     38  
  38. 38. Repository  Competition  Process   Team   Team   Team   Team   Team   Code   Base   Code   Base   Code   Creation   Base     Competition   Competition  divorces  team  from  code   -­‐learn,  re-­‐design,  re-­‐ -­‐code   Result  is  very  expensive!     ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     39  
  39. 39. Code-­‐Team  Competition  Process   Team   Code   Team   Base   Code   Base   Team   Team   Team   Code   Base   Code   Code   Base   Base   Team   Team   Compete  these  Pairs  for     Code  Base   Each  Module  of  Each  Project   Code   Base   Create  and  Maintain   Build  Project  from  Modules  Multiple  Code-­‐Team  Pairs     for  Each  Module   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     40  
  40. 40. How?    Interoperability.   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     41  
  41. 41. How  Does  Interoperability  Cut  Cost?   Interoperability  changes  the  nature  of   competition   Modules  are  less  expensive  than  code   repositories   rewards  excellence       ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     42  
  42. 42. Achieving  Cost  Control   Address  interoperability  levels  with  architecture   Communications  (how  to  share  data)   Interfaces  (what  data  to  share)     Semantic  data  dictionary  (what  data  means)   Reward  module  competition  with  acquisition   policy   Look  for  opportunities  to  compete  modules   Encourage  buy  v  build   Reduce  module  granularity  over  time     ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     43  
  43. 43. The  Required  Technology  is  Maturing   RTI  Databus   Peer-­‐to-­‐peer  for  performance   R   R  System-­‐of-­‐systems   RTI  Databus   RTI  Databus  routing   R   R   Hierarchical  topology:   Peer-­‐to-­‐peer  within  a  system   R   R   R   R   Automatically  route  data   up/down  the  hierarchy   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     44  
  44. 44.   st     Enduring  organizations  to  evolve  it   Structures  across  programs    to  leverage  it     Open  acquisition  model  to  encourage  it  Specify  or  own  the  right  things   Open  semantic  data  model   Open  standard  interfaces   Code  repositories  only  when  forced     ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     45  
  45. 45. Why  Invest  in  Interoperability?   ©  2012  Real-­‐Time  Innovations,  Inc.     46  
  46. 46. Your  systems.  Working  as  one.