Group Members: Carmen Liong Chan Xiang Ting Chong Li Ying Kimberly Teo Timothy Chong
Introduction• Confucianism is the complex system of moral, social, political, and so- called religious teaching built up by Confucius and the ancient Chinese traditions.• Confucianism goal is making not only the man virtuous, but also making him the man of learning and of good manners. The perfect man must combine the qualities of a saint, scholar, and gentleman.• Confucianism is a religion whose worship is centered in offerings to the dead. The notion of duty is extended beyond the boundaries of morals and embraces the details of daily life.
The Confucianism SymbolConfucianism symbol means the "code of conduct".It represents the source of life, also called the watersymbol.
Biography of Founder• NAME: Confucius (Confucius, also known as Kong• Qui or K’ung Fu-tzu,)• OCCUPATION: Philosopher• BIRTH DATE: 551 BCE (August 27)• PLACE OF BIRTH: Qufu, Zhou Dynasty, China• DEATH DATE: 479 BCE (November 21)• PLACE OF DEATH: Qufu, Zhou Dynasty, China• Date founded: 6th-5th cent. BC• Place founded: China• Adherents: 5-6 million
Life of ConfuciusConfucius was born with the name Kong Ch’iu in answer to hisparents prayers at a sacred hill called Ni. Confucius surname Kongmeans literally an utterance of thankfulness when prayers havebeen answered. Grown up as an adult, Ch’iu left his homeland and began wandering from state to state in China. His ambition was to share his philosophy with the ruling princes, believing that these powerful leaders had an obligation to lead their people with virtue. Rather than leading for power, control, money, or ego, the princes of China must understand their higher purpose, which was to do “right” and lead by selfless example.
At the age of fifty, when Duke Ding of Lu was on the throne of Lu,Confucius talents were recognized and he was appointed Minister ofPublic Works and then Minister of Crime. It seemed that Confucius’dream of a position of influence in government had come true. But Confucius apparently offended members of the Lu nobility and he was forced to leave office and go into exile. He returned to Lu in 484 BCE and spent the remainder of his life teaching, putting in order the Book of Songs, the Book of Documents, and other ancient classics. Confucius (Kong Fu Zi), a humble man from poor beginnings, became so influential that his teachings inspired a philosophy, a religion, and a way of life that has lasted until today.
Major Works Confucius is credited with writing and editing some of the most influential traditional Chinese classics. These include a rearrangement of the Book of Odes as well as a revision of the historical Book of Documents.He also compiled a historical account of the 12 dukes of Lu, called theSpring and Autumn Annals. Lunyu, which sets forth Confucius’philosophical and political beliefs, is thought to be compiled by hisdisciples. It is one of the "Four Books" of Confucianism that Chinesephilosopher Zhu Xi, a self-proclaimed Neo-Confucian, published asSishu in 1190. Far-reaching in its influence, Lunyu was later translatedinto English under the title The Analects of Confucius.
Texts• The Lun-yü (Analects) are the most revered sacred scripture in the Confucian tradition. It was probably compiled by the second generation of Confucius disciples. Based primarily on the Masters sayings, preserved in both oral and written transmissions, it captures the Confucian spirit in the same way that the Platonic dialogues embody Socratic teachings. The Confucian Canon achieved its present form in the Sung dynasty under the direction of Chu Hsi (1130-1200). It consists of the Five Classics and the Four Books.
Philosophy Confucius Social Philosophy Confucius Political PhilosophyConfucius believes that people Confucius political philosophy islive their lives within parameters also rooted in his belief that afirmly established by Heaven— ruler should learn self-discipline,which, often, for him means both govern his subjects by his owna purposeful Supreme Being as example and treat them with lovewell as „nature‟ and its fixed and concern. “If the people be ledcycles and patterns—he argues by laws, and uniformity amongthat men are responsible for them be sought by punishments,their actions and especially for they will try to escapetheir treatment of others. We can punishment and have no sensedo little or nothing to alter our of shame. If they are led byfated span of existence but we virtue, and uniformity soughtdetermine what we accomplish among them through the practiceand what we are remembered of ritual propriety, they willfor. possess a sense of shame and come to you of their own accord.” (Lunyu 2.3)
Teaching• Confucius is the first Chinese thinker to introduce concepts that became fundamental not only to Confucian philosophy but to Chinese philosophy in general. The most important of these are jen (benevolence), yi (propriety, or being proper), and li (ritual, or ceremony). Confucius believed that the chün-tzu, or "gentleman," must set the moral example for others in society to follow. In the Lun yü jen, what has been translated as humaneness or benevolence (being kind) is a quality a chün-tzu should develop and attempt to encourage in others. Li is considered the rules and ritual that are observed in religious and nonreligious ceremonies and, as applied to the chün-tzu, composed rules of behavior. Yi represents what is right and proper in a given situation. The chün- tzu, by observing the ritual and because of his good nature, always knows what is right.
Confuciuss Educational Theory• Theory of Value• Theory of Knowledge• Theory of Human Nature• Theory of Learning• Theory of Transmission• Theory of Society• Theory of Opportunity• Theory of Consensus
• His philosophy of education focused on the "Six Arts": archery, calligraphy, computation, music, chariot-driving and ritual.• To Confucius, the main objective of being an educator was to teach people to live with integrity.• Through his teachings, he strove to resurrect the traditional values of benevolence, propriety and ritual in Chinese society.
ConclusionConfucianism is a treasure house of profound wisdom.Chinese consider it to be a religion on the pattern of otherDivinely revealed religions of the world, there are othersamong them who view it as a mere philosophy. In fact, theteachings of Confucius are not really a religious theory.They are more like an educational philosophy of theChinese people that were promulgated 2500 years ago.However, philosophy came to be ‘worshipped’ by theChinese people and passed down from generation togeneration and regarded by some as some kind of uniquereligion of the Chinese.