Why call them Speech Sound Pics ? The SSP Approach


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Why are phonemes called Speech Sound Pics within the SSP Approach?
The Reading Whisperer explains.

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Why call them Speech Sound Pics ? The SSP Approach

  1. 1. Say the word (grass) Listen for the speech sounds ____ _____ _____ _____ 1 2 3 4 Imagine you are taking a picture of each of the 4 speech sounds with your speech sound camera – what might each one look like? Which sound pic shall we choose?The children imagine they are taking pictures of the 4 speech sounds, and choosesound pics (representations) When you talk about letters these are simply lettersof the alphabet – and also have their own name. So, yes, this is an ‘es’ but what speechsound is it a picture of? It’s one (there are 8 or 9) of the pictures for the speech sound ‘ssss’
  2. 2. Neuroscientist perspective
  3. 3. Key Research Findings About Phonemic Awareness:Research has identified phonemic awareness as the most potent predictor of success in learning to read. It is more highly related to reading than tests of general intelligence, reading readiness, and listening comprehension (Stanovich, 1986,1994). The lack of phonemic awareness is the most powerful determinant of thelikelihood of failure to learn to read because of its importance in learning the English alphabetic system or how print represents spoken words. If children cannot hear and manipulate the sounds in spoken words, they have an extremely difficult time learning how to map those sounds to letters and letter patterns - the essence of decoding. (Adams, 1990). It is the most important core and causal factor separating normal and disabled readers (Adams, 1990). It is central in learning to read and spell (Ehri, 1984).
  4. 4. Phonemic awareness can be developed in children by providing them with rich language experiences that encourage active exploration and manipulation of sounds. These activities lead to significant gains in subsequent reading and spellingperformance. Most children will learn basic phonemic awareness from these activities. Some children need more extensive assistance. Children should be diagnosed mid- kindergarten to see if they are adequately progressing, and if not, given more intensive phonemic awareness experiences. For all children, the more complex phonemic awareness abilities are learned in the context of learning letter/sound correspondences. A close relationship exists between a childs control over sounds and his reading ability. Some quick test instruments that reliably assess development of phonemic awareness in about five minutes include the Rosner, the Yopp-Singer tests, and the Roswell-Chall.In numerous studies, correlations between a kindergarten test of phonemic awarenessand performance in reading years later are extremely high. Thus, phonemic awareness has been identified by researchers in replicated studies in many countries as a very potent predictor of success in reading and spelling achievement. In fact, Professor Yopp indicates that such high correlations remain even after controlling for intelligence and socio-economic status.
  5. 5. Incase you were wondering why SSP assessments, and monitoring tasks have been created in this way (see slideshare.net/readingwhisperer to download) Hallie Kay Yopp, Ph.D, Professor, Dept. of Elementary and Bilingual Education,CSU FullertonProfessor Yopp addresses the critical role of phonemic awareness in the early stages of reading acquisition. She defines phonemic awareness as "the awareness that phonemes exist as abstractable and manipulable components ofspoken language. It is the ability to reflect on speech and experiment (play) with its smallest components (phonemes). Phonemic awareness is not phonics and not auditory discrimination.“ The research outlines a progression of phonemic awareness development in pre- school, kindergarten, and early first grade that includes the ability: to hear rhymes or alliteration to blend sounds to make a word (e.g., /a/-/t/ = at) to count phonemes in words ( how many sounds do you hear in "is"?) to identify the beginning, middle, and final sounds in words to substitute one phoneme for another (e.g., change the /h/ in "hot" to /p/) to delete phonemes from words (e.g., omit the /c/ from "cat")
  6. 6. http://www.csus.edu/ier/reading.htmlExcellent paper that shows why SSP is developing in this way
  7. 7. SSP breaks it down into specific skillsChildren won’tunderstand skillsif they can’t hearthe speech sounds
  8. 8. * Children won’t understand skills if they can’t hear the speech sounds Marilyn Adams, Ph.d., Senior Scientist, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc.• Dr. Adams focuses on the need for children to develop automatic word recognition and the system to achieve this. Dr. Adams supports Dr. Yopps conclusion that training in phonemic awareness is the foundation for learning to recognize words. Such training is necessary because most children enter kindergarten without the conscious awareness that words are made up of distinct sounds; rather they hear words as complete units. Dr. Adams discusses the value of whole language in encouraging flexible class organization, the use of quality literature, and the emphasis on early writing. However, she faults the methodology of whole language for operating under the mistaken assumption that skillful readers "skip, skim, and guess" instead of reading whats on the page.
  9. 9. The whole ofthe code can be taught (Phonics) within Prep and Year 1if every child has good PA
  10. 10. Teaching order and resources are adaptable, based on education and neuroscience research, are child centred and FUN. They have been developed by Emma Hartnell-Baker BEd Hons (Early Years Specialism) MA Special Educational Needs (inc Dyslexia), a former Early Years Education Inspectorfor UK Education Dept (OFSTED) and are offered forfree, so there is no driving motivation other than to help ALL schools and families. This can be acommunity effort, based on collaboration, and withone goal. That EVERY child is able to read and spell.
  11. 11. SSP goes far deeper than ‘teaching reading and spelling’ as children are taught (and guided to discover) the alphabetic code. It is deeply layered, including all necessary elements, andalso allows for children to work at their own pace. Watch Prep aged children reach the Blue Level in less than two terms, and see how effectively they tackleunfamiliar words within reading and spelling activities. www.youtube.com/soundpics
  12. 12. Alongside this explicit teachingchildren also investigate the code, and use the Speech Sound Clouds
  13. 13. To develop exceptional spelling (encoding) skills we need to start from SPEECH. If children cannot hear the smaller parts in words (phonemic awareness) they will not be able to develop these skills. They need to SEE words as made up ofspeech sound pics (pictures of the speech sounds, not letters)At all times, from term 1 of Prep, those using SSP try to see sound pics in words, and encourage children to do the same. This really helps toshape their reading AND spelling brains and prevent difficulties. It alsoallows teachers to see where there are gaps in PA and code knowledge. Use every opportunity to do this ! Questions? Emma@ReadAustralia.com
  14. 14. Practice this yourself!
  15. 15. Everything is chosen to shape reading and spelling brains- including letter formation in PrepPlease download the letter formation or home folderpowerpoint www.slideshare.net/readingwhispererChildren need to practice all letters of the alphabet as soon aspossible, regardless of the phonics teaching. However using thephrase will actually also help with the phonics!All letters and phrases are shown, and can be used onwhiteboards.
  16. 16. New resources for each level are on slideshare.net/readingwhispererSimply save to your laptop, and the power point presentation (includinganimations) will work in your classroom. Ideal for the whiteboard. For example* Decoding – specific practice using only their sound pics and helpful words* Encoding – specific practice using only their sound pics and helpful wordsIf children are ready for more than the level the class is working on, they canprogress. Children who need additional work to keep up, can also use these withTAs. (Covered in another twilight PD)*Home Folders (again, TAs’ can make good use of these to help monitorindividuals)* Assessments (screening Preps, monitoring progress of each individual,assessing new older students) Emma will offer some free training to TAs so thatthey can undertaken these assessments.* All Speech sound clouds (recently updated)
  17. 17. Including fun resources to help children with common issuesShhhhhh ! Don’t tell anyone our tricks! Don’t be a cheeky monkey !!
  18. 18. debbed ed No room to sleep ! I need the bed posts the other way around to make a bed __ ____ 1 2
  19. 19. When they see this sound pic they say Cuckoo! Cuckoo !! Is it oo as in look or oo as in moon? Put eyes on them when it’s an ‘oo’ as in look ! cook
  20. 20. SSP scaffold learning, with skills andconcepts clearly set out within each level.These will link with the assessment and monitoring tools (green level currently shown, all other levels uploaded shortly)
  21. 21. eg – a few blue level sound picse aw wh ph ew oe ure are claw whip dolphin few toe pure are dare I love the cute dolphin, who kisses my nose She splashes my fingers, and blows on my toes I ask ‘are you sure?’ I ask, ‘do you dare?’ To whip up the water, and make the crab stare! He’ll peep out from under the stone, it’s his door, and wave a few times with his big orange claw !
  22. 22. blue level ‘sound pic sandwiches’ Say the word and listen to the last speech sound. The Speech Sound Pic Sandwich Maker jumps the last sound from the end, into the sandwich! a-e e-e i-e cake athlete bike o-e u-e coke flute which of these sound pic sandwiches can you see?
  23. 23. Additional info – how are the speech sounds represented within the SSP Approach? Please see all Speech Sound Pics as follows.Children use these to learn all of the spelling variations.This investigative work helps the brain understand the code, for reading and spelling, for more efficiently
  24. 24. Use the clouds to investigate the way in which we represent every speech sound
  25. 25. Use the clouds for yourdetective work now,and to work out ALL of thesound pics for all of thespeech sounds you haven’texplored in the levels.
  26. 26. Use the clouds to help with spelling. This is a blue level sound pic sandwich
  27. 27. Oh my word- have you heard? Miss Emma hurt her nose poor girlChoose a cloud and see if you can create a song, poem, art work or something else to creativelyshow ALL of the sound pics for that speech sound.
  28. 28. i
  29. 29. Give children access to allspeech soundclouds in their own folders