Chapters 1 3 pp


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Chapters 1 3 pp

  1. 1. Argument Based Research Eng 112<br />May 24, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Chapter 1<br />
  3. 3. 1. “Argument requires writers or speakers to justify their claims”.<br />2. “It is both a product and a process”.<br />3. “It combines elements of truth seeking and persuasion” (Ramage 2).<br />Three Defining Features of Argument<br />
  4. 4. Not:<br />A fight or a quarrel (2)<br />Is<br />Often pleasurable (2)<br />Entails a desire for truth (3)<br />Aims to find the best solutions to complex problems (3)<br />Argument <br />
  5. 5. Explicit<br />Directly states its controversial claim and supports it with reasons and evidence (3)<br />Implicit<br />May not look like an argument at all (3)<br />Explicit vs. Implicit<br />
  6. 6. Class Discussion Exercisespp.7-9<br />
  7. 7. 1. “A set of two or more conflicting assertions” (11) <br />2. “The attempt to resolve the conflict through an appeal to reason” (11)<br />Argument Requires:<br />
  8. 8. Justification of its claims<br />“The arguer is obligated to clarify and support the reasons presented” (11). (Logically)<br />** Argue- “to clarify” (11)<br />Three Defining Features:<br />
  9. 9. Process<br />“Two or more parties seek the best solution to a question or problem” (12).<br />Product <br />“Each product [(argument) can be] any person’s contribution to the conversation at a given moment (12).<br />Three Defining Features:<br />
  10. 10. Truth Seeking<br />Exploratory— “lays out several alternative approaches to a problem and weighs the strengths and the weaknesses of each with no concern for persuasion” (13)<br />According to the text “Truth seeking means taking responsibility for determining the ‘best answer’ or ‘best solution’ to the question for the good of the whole community when taking into consideration the interests of all stakeholders” (16).<br />Tentative definition of truth seeking— “…you can not use argument to ‘prove’ your claim, but only to make a reasonable case for your claim” (16).<br />Therefore “to seek truth…means to seek the best or most just solution to a problem while observing all available evidence, listening with an open mind to the views of all stakeholders, clarifying and attempting to justify your own values and assumptions, and taking responsibility for your argument” (16).<br />Three Defining Features (Truth Seeking):<br />
  11. 11. Persuasion Can be:<br />Propaganda (could use)<br />Knowing use of bogus evidence<br />Distorted assertions<br />Lies<br />Three Defining Features (Persuasion):<br />
  12. 12. Chapter 3<br />
  13. 13. Introduction<br />Presentation of Writer’s Position<br />Summary of Opposing Views<br />Response to Opposing Views (Rebuttal)<br />Conclusion<br />Classical Structure of Argument<br />
  14. 14. Logos— (focus on) “the message”<br />Ethos— (focus on) “writer’s or speaker’s character”<br />Pathos— (focus on) “values and beliefs of the intended audience”<br />*Kairos— “right time,” “season,” or “opportunity”<br />Rhetorical Triangle—an effective argument pays close attention to all three appeals<br />(62-63)<br />Classical Appeals and the Rhetorical Triangle<br />
  15. 15. Information vs. Issue<br />(Ramage 64)<br />Information<br />Relationship with audience is that of “teacher to learner”<br />Audience “hopes to gain new information, knowledge, or understanding [the speaker/writer] possesses”<br />Generally informs or explains<br />Issue<br />Relationship to audience is that of “advocate to decision maker”<br />“Audience needs to make up its mind [about the issue/topic]”<br />Is true argumentation—purpose is to change the audience’s mind<br />
  16. 16. Class Discussion Exercise p.65<br />
  17. 17. Genuine vs. Pseudo-Argument<br />Assumes the possibility of growth and/or change<br />Unmoving<br />Genuine<br /> “Reasonable participants who operate within the conventions of reasonable behavior” (65)<br />“Potentially sharable assumptions tat can serve as a starting place or foundation for the argument” (65)<br />Pseudo<br />Fanatic Believers<br />“Believe their claims are true because they say so” (66)<br />Fanatic Skeptic<br />“Dismisses the possibility of proving anything” (66)<br />
  18. 18. Class Discussion Exercise p. 67<br />
  19. 19. Claim- “the position you want your audience to accept” (67)<br />Reason—a claim used to support or provide evidence for another claim <br />Usually stated as because clauses (67)<br />Frame of an Argument<br />
  20. 20. Complete Journal Entry 1<br />Finalize and turn in C.D. Exercises for chapters 1&3<br />Graded Essay 1<br />Develop an Issue Question<br />Develop a claim <br />Develop 3-4 reasons (because clauses)<br />(due 11:55 p.m. Saturday, May 29, 2011)<br />Develop an Introduction paragraph for Graded Essay 1 <br />(due by 11:55 p.m. Saturday, May 29, 2011)<br />Assignments for next Week<br />