5 r sociological perspective theories

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5 r sociological perspective theories

  1. 1. Mass Communication Theories An understanding of Sociological Perspective Theories
  2. 2. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. </li></ul><ul><li>The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Catharsis <ul><li>By definition a catharsis is an emotional release. </li></ul><ul><li>The word catharsis comes from the Greek word katharsis , which literally translated means “a cleansing or purging.” </li></ul><ul><li>Many directors and producers of violent media claim that their products are cathartic –Films, video games etc. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Agenda Setting Theory <ul><li>The idea that media don’t tell people what to think, but what to think about. </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions – </li></ul><ul><li>the press and the media do not reflect reality; they filter and shape it </li></ul><ul><li>Media concentration on a few issues and subjects leads the public to perceive those issues as more important than other issues </li></ul>
  5. 5. Uses and Gratification Theory <ul><li>Originated in the 1970s as a reaction to traditional mass communication research emphasizing the sender and the message. </li></ul><ul><li>Stressing the active audience and user instead. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological orientation taking needs, motives and gratifications of media users as the main point of departure. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Assumptions <ul><li>1) to explain how individuals use mass communication to gratify their needs. “What do people do with the media”. </li></ul><ul><li>2) to discover underlying motives for individuals’ media use. </li></ul><ul><li>3) to identify the positive and the negative consequences of individual media use. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cultivation Theory – Assumptions <ul><li>Suggests that television is responsible for shaping, or ‘cultivating’ viewers’ conceptions of social reality. </li></ul><ul><li>The combined effect of massive television exposure by viewers over time subtly shapes the perception of social reality for individuals and, ultimately, for our culture as a whole. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass media cultivate attitudes and values which are already present in a culture: the media maintain and propagate these values amongst members of a culture, thus binding it together. </li></ul><ul><li>Television tends to cultivate middle-of-the- road political perspectives - ‘mainstreaming’. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Spiral of Silence <ul><li>Neumann (1974) introduced the “spiral of silence” as an attempt to explain in part how public opinion is formed. </li></ul><ul><li>The closer a person believes the opinion held is similar to the prevailing public opinion, the more they are willing to openly disclose that opinion in public. </li></ul><ul><li>If public sentiment changes, the person will recognize that the opinion is less in favor and will be less willing to express that opinion publicly. </li></ul><ul><li>As the perceived distance between public opinion and a person's personal opinion grows, the more unlikely the person is to express their opinion. </li></ul>
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