One cause of schizophrenia is genes
• Increase rate of genetic mutation that involve hundreds of
• Content of gene that makes the brain chemicals malfunction.
• To affect the part of the brain that develops higher
Other cause of schizophrenia is environment
• Increase of the chance of the mental problem in stressful life
event. (Sue David , et al. ,1997)
• The symptom develop by family influence.(Sue David, 1997)
• To overprotect, restrict, and dominate all activities by the
• To inability to communicate effectively with other sibling.
The main cause that contributed to the schizophrenia is
genes and environment. In genes, we are focusing that our
genes are inherited from our parent clearly (“What causes
schizophrenia?”). In fact, recent research has found that the
people of schizophrenia have increased their rate of genetic
mutation. This genetic are involved to hundreds of different
genes and it maybe will disturb our brain development
(“What causes schizophrenia?”). In addition, it also caused by
containing of genes that makes the brain chemicals
malfunction (“What causes schizophrenia?”). This problem
may to affect to the port of the brain that’s involved in
developing higher functioning skill.
An environment factor also is a cause of schizophrenia that can be
contributed it (“What causes schizophrenia?”). According to David
Sue in ‘Understanding abnormal behavior’ at 1997, the reason that
caused this disease is higher in chance of the mental problem in
stressful life condition. The activity in daily life can caused the
patient’s feel pressure and ease to bored. Therefore, the result is
they will easily to feel stress and the effect is usually they will
isolate themselves with other people. In addition, the family
influence is symptom that is developing in schizophrenics. The
family are overprotect their child’s activities in daily life, restrict,
and dominating all the activities especially by the mother. The
patient usually is not to be able to communicate with other siblings
effectively. Consequently, inheriting in genes will cause a damaging
in brain development to the new generation. In other case, the
family is pushing to their child to control the child’s movement and
it will cause stressing in the children.
Causes contributed by different
brain chemistry and structure
Another cause of schizophrenia is different brain
• Disturbance of neurohumoral function.(Crow, T.J ,1980)
1. To increase badly symptom by the drug to provoke on
2. To blockade the dopamine receptor by increase the
• Disturbance in decrease of serotonergic transmission (Crow,
T. J ,1980)
Final cause of schizophrenia is brain structure
• Content less gray matter that affects less or more activity in
1. To increase the change of the characteristics of brain cell
that occurred before birth.
Different brain chemistry and structure is another main
caused that contributed to the schizophrenia. In brain
chemistry, the disturbance of neurohumoral function is
important that is increasing the badly symptom by using the
drug to provoke on specific transmitter in the brain.
According to Crow T.J., (1980), the dopamine receptor will be
blockade by increasing the dopamine so that the dopamine
receptor cannot get the information from the brain. Besides
that, the disturbance in decreasing of serotonergic
transmission is influencing to schizophrenia development.
In other hand, brain structure is common factor that
changing the formation of structure in the brain that
caused the mental disease (“what causes
schizophrenia?’). In the brain, schizophrenia is caused
by containing less a grey matter that can affect less or
more activity in brain development. When it is happen,
the characteristics of brain cell will be changing and it
is occurred before birth period. Therefore, the child
that will be birth is suffering this cause and he or she
will be getting a disease automatically. In short
conclusion, all the people have different brain
chemistry and structure that can contribute to the
disease or not. If the parent’s brain has same
characteristic like above, the probability of getting the
disease to their children is higher.
Treatments contributed by
One treatment of schizophrenia is antipsychotic
• Able to treat the schizophrenia perfectly. (Sue, D. , 1997)
1. To reduce the positive symptom like hallucination. (“How is
2. To relief from the negative symptoms such as social
withdrawal. (Jorm, A. F ,et al. , 1996)
Another treatment is use a new drug,
• Affect to individuals who have not responded to medication.
1. To cause fatal in brain system if didn’t use carefully. (“How
is schizophrenia treated?”)
2. To exist the fewer side effect when use it.
People said that all the disease have their treatments. It’s
also happen to schizophrenia that the patient do not worry
because there are two ways of treatment can be practice to
treat this disease that is antipsychotic medication and
psychosocial therapy. According to David Sue, antipsychotic
medication is able to treat the disease perfectly. Through the
medication, it can reduce the positive symptom like
hallucination, and breaks with reality (“How is schizophrenia
treated?”). The positive symptom is probably not serious
symptom than negative symptom that can treat by usually
medicine such as, chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and prolixin.
However, Clozapine is more effective medicine that can treat
both symptoms clearly. In addition, clozapine sometimes can
cause a serious problem called agranulocytosis. It can cause
error in brain system if this medicine did not use carefully.
Besides that, it can cause a side effect when the patient used
with frequently such as rapid heartbeat, blurred vision, and
menstrual problems for women especially. Consequently,
clozapine is most medicine that able to treat the disease.
Unfortunately, it has a side effect when the patient used it
Treatments contributed by
One treatment by a psychosocial therapy is
• Milieu therapy to substitute the medicine. ( Sue, D.,
1. To involve in decision make and in manage the
• Social learning programs. (“How schizophrenia is
1. To upgrade the patient’s conversational skill
2. To focus on increase appropriate self-care
Another treatment is cognitive-behavioral therapy
• Therapy emphasizes communication skill
1. To form the patient good in communicate with other
• Decrease the impact of delusions and hallucinations by the
1. To learn to accurately recognize and respond to social cues.
2. To discriminate stimulus categories by participate in
Besides that, in psychosocial therapy, an institutional
approach used to treat the patient without using a medicine.
A. F. Jorm (1996) said, “Traditional institutional treatments
providing custodial care and medication for schizophrenic
have yielded poor results, although milieu therapy and
behavioral therapy were found to be more effective”. In
addition, according David Sue (1997), they are involving in
make decision and managing the wards. Besides that, a social
learning program focus on increasing appropriate self-care
behaviors and upgrading the patient’s conversational skill.
By according T.J. Crow (1980), another ways of the
treatments is by cognitive-behavioral therapy. The therapy is
focusing by the student in communication skill. The patient
are taught how to be perform in communicate with other
people. The communication skill is important to the patient
how they want to start to make a friend with other people.
This therapy also decreasing the impact of delusions and
hallucinations through the program. The patient will be
learning how to recognize a thing with accurately and
respond to social clues. By participate in this program, the
patient also can discriminate the stimulus categories in
perceptual task. In summary, psychosocial therapy is best
choice ways to treat the disease. It contain how to upgrading
conversational skill, communication skill, and learn to
recognize a thing with accurately and give a feed back.
• Sue, D. (1997). Understanding the abnormal behavior (4th
Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, pp. 435-436; 460-461.
• “What causes schizophrenia?” (Medicinenet Corp., 2001
January). Schizophrenia symptoms, Causes, diagnosis,
treatment and research. Retrieved January 26, 2010,from
• Jorm, A.F, et al. (1996). Public beliefs about causes and risks
factors for depression and Schizophrenia. Soc psychiatry
psychiatric epidermal (1997) 32:143-148, from Springer-
• Crow T.J., (1980). Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: more
than one disease. British Medical journal, pp. 66-68.