The Causes of Schizophrenia and it’s treatment by


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The Causes of Schizophrenia and it’s treatment by

  1. 1. The Causes of Schizophrenia and it’s treatment By:
  2. 2. Causes contributed by genes and environment
  3. 3. One cause of schizophrenia is genes • Increase rate of genetic mutation that involve hundreds of different genes. • Content of gene that makes the brain chemicals malfunction. • To affect the part of the brain that develops higher functioning skill.
  4. 4. Other cause of schizophrenia is environment • Increase of the chance of the mental problem in stressful life event. (Sue David , et al. ,1997) • The symptom develop by family influence.(Sue David, 1997) • To overprotect, restrict, and dominate all activities by the mother • To inability to communicate effectively with other sibling.
  5. 5. Paragraph 2 The main cause that contributed to the schizophrenia is genes and environment. In genes, we are focusing that our genes are inherited from our parent clearly (“What causes schizophrenia?”). In fact, recent research has found that the people of schizophrenia have increased their rate of genetic mutation. This genetic are involved to hundreds of different genes and it maybe will disturb our brain development (“What causes schizophrenia?”). In addition, it also caused by containing of genes that makes the brain chemicals malfunction (“What causes schizophrenia?”). This problem may to affect to the port of the brain that’s involved in developing higher functioning skill.
  6. 6. An environment factor also is a cause of schizophrenia that can be contributed it (“What causes schizophrenia?”). According to David Sue in ‘Understanding abnormal behavior’ at 1997, the reason that caused this disease is higher in chance of the mental problem in stressful life condition. The activity in daily life can caused the patient’s feel pressure and ease to bored. Therefore, the result is they will easily to feel stress and the effect is usually they will isolate themselves with other people. In addition, the family influence is symptom that is developing in schizophrenics. The family are overprotect their child’s activities in daily life, restrict, and dominating all the activities especially by the mother. The patient usually is not to be able to communicate with other siblings effectively. Consequently, inheriting in genes will cause a damaging in brain development to the new generation. In other case, the family is pushing to their child to control the child’s movement and it will cause stressing in the children.
  7. 7. Causes contributed by different brain chemistry and structure
  8. 8. Another cause of schizophrenia is different brain chemistry • Disturbance of neurohumoral function.(Crow, T.J ,1980) 1. To increase badly symptom by the drug to provoke on specific transmitter. 2. To blockade the dopamine receptor by increase the dopamine. • Disturbance in decrease of serotonergic transmission (Crow, T. J ,1980)
  9. 9. Final cause of schizophrenia is brain structure • Content less gray matter that affects less or more activity in brain. 1. To increase the change of the characteristics of brain cell that occurred before birth.
  10. 10. Paragraph 3 Different brain chemistry and structure is another main caused that contributed to the schizophrenia. In brain chemistry, the disturbance of neurohumoral function is important that is increasing the badly symptom by using the drug to provoke on specific transmitter in the brain. According to Crow T.J., (1980), the dopamine receptor will be blockade by increasing the dopamine so that the dopamine receptor cannot get the information from the brain. Besides that, the disturbance in decreasing of serotonergic transmission is influencing to schizophrenia development.
  11. 11. In other hand, brain structure is common factor that changing the formation of structure in the brain that caused the mental disease (“what causes schizophrenia?’). In the brain, schizophrenia is caused by containing less a grey matter that can affect less or more activity in brain development. When it is happen, the characteristics of brain cell will be changing and it is occurred before birth period. Therefore, the child that will be birth is suffering this cause and he or she will be getting a disease automatically. In short conclusion, all the people have different brain chemistry and structure that can contribute to the disease or not. If the parent’s brain has same characteristic like above, the probability of getting the disease to their children is higher.
  12. 12. Treatments contributed by antipsychotics medication
  13. 13. One treatment of schizophrenia is antipsychotic medication • Able to treat the schizophrenia perfectly. (Sue, D. , 1997) 1. To reduce the positive symptom like hallucination. (“How is schizophrenia treated?) 2. To relief from the negative symptoms such as social withdrawal. (Jorm, A. F ,et al. , 1996) •
  14. 14. Another treatment is use a new drug, clozapine • Affect to individuals who have not responded to medication. 1. To cause fatal in brain system if didn’t use carefully. (“How is schizophrenia treated?”) 2. To exist the fewer side effect when use it.
  15. 15. Paragraph 4 People said that all the disease have their treatments. It’s also happen to schizophrenia that the patient do not worry because there are two ways of treatment can be practice to treat this disease that is antipsychotic medication and psychosocial therapy. According to David Sue, antipsychotic medication is able to treat the disease perfectly. Through the medication, it can reduce the positive symptom like hallucination, and breaks with reality (“How is schizophrenia treated?”). The positive symptom is probably not serious symptom than negative symptom that can treat by usually medicine such as, chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and prolixin.
  16. 16. However, Clozapine is more effective medicine that can treat both symptoms clearly. In addition, clozapine sometimes can cause a serious problem called agranulocytosis. It can cause error in brain system if this medicine did not use carefully. Besides that, it can cause a side effect when the patient used with frequently such as rapid heartbeat, blurred vision, and menstrual problems for women especially. Consequently, clozapine is most medicine that able to treat the disease. Unfortunately, it has a side effect when the patient used it carelessly.
  17. 17. Treatments contributed by psychosocial therapy.
  18. 18. One treatment by a psychosocial therapy is institutional approaches. • Milieu therapy to substitute the medicine. ( Sue, D., 1997) 1. To involve in decision make and in manage the ward. • Social learning programs. (“How schizophrenia is treated?”) 1. To upgrade the patient’s conversational skill 2. To focus on increase appropriate self-care behaviors.
  19. 19. Another treatment is cognitive-behavioral therapy • Therapy emphasizes communication skill 1. To form the patient good in communicate with other people • Decrease the impact of delusions and hallucinations by the program. 1. To learn to accurately recognize and respond to social cues. 2. To discriminate stimulus categories by participate in perceptual task.
  20. 20. Paragraph 5 Besides that, in psychosocial therapy, an institutional approach used to treat the patient without using a medicine. A. F. Jorm (1996) said, “Traditional institutional treatments providing custodial care and medication for schizophrenic have yielded poor results, although milieu therapy and behavioral therapy were found to be more effective”. In addition, according David Sue (1997), they are involving in make decision and managing the wards. Besides that, a social learning program focus on increasing appropriate self-care behaviors and upgrading the patient’s conversational skill.
  21. 21. By according T.J. Crow (1980), another ways of the treatments is by cognitive-behavioral therapy. The therapy is focusing by the student in communication skill. The patient are taught how to be perform in communicate with other people. The communication skill is important to the patient how they want to start to make a friend with other people. This therapy also decreasing the impact of delusions and hallucinations through the program. The patient will be learning how to recognize a thing with accurately and respond to social clues. By participate in this program, the patient also can discriminate the stimulus categories in perceptual task. In summary, psychosocial therapy is best choice ways to treat the disease. It contain how to upgrading conversational skill, communication skill, and learn to recognize a thing with accurately and give a feed back.
  22. 22. REFERENCES • Sue, D. (1997). Understanding the abnormal behavior (4th ed). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, pp. 435-436; 460-461. • “What causes schizophrenia?” (Medicinenet Corp., 2001 January). Schizophrenia symptoms, Causes, diagnosis, treatment and research. Retrieved January 26, 2010,from • Jorm, A.F, et al. (1996). Public beliefs about causes and risks factors for depression and Schizophrenia. Soc psychiatry psychiatric epidermal (1997) 32:143-148, from Springer- Verlag. • Crow T.J., (1980). Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: more than one disease. British Medical journal, pp. 66-68.