Introductory concepts in health sector planning


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Introductory concepts in health sector planning

  1. 1. Introductory Concepts in Health Sector Planning Nayyar Raza Kazmi
  2. 2. Different Perspectives on Health and Health Care <ul><li>Health as a Right </li></ul><ul><li>Health Care as a Right </li></ul><ul><li>Health as a Consumption Good </li></ul><ul><li>Health as an Investment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Market as Means of Determining Allocations <ul><li>Supply and Demand Notions of Market Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Market Failure in Health Sector </li></ul>
  4. 4. State’s Responsibilities in Health Sector <ul><li>Policy Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Financing </li></ul><ul><li>Service Provision </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Collective Individual Private State State contracts with private or voluntary organizations e.g government contracts with NGO’s for district designated hospitals State finances and provides health care directly e.g British NHS Private organizations or individuals charging users for health care e.g traditional practitioners or private doctors State provision with full cost charged to patient e.g private wards in state facilities Financing Provision
  6. 6. Different Models of Planning <ul><li>Comprehensive Rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Incrementalism </li></ul>
  7. 8. Situational Analysis <ul><li>Situational Analysis refers to the systemic collection, analysis and interpretation of data related to health events in a given geographical area or locality. This data can be gathered by a variety of methods like Surveys, HMIS records, Hospital registers, national registries and databases etc. The collected data is analysed and interpreted for Problem Identification . </li></ul>
  8. 9. Problem <ul><li>A discrepancy between and ideal state and the current state of affairs, </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Once you have described the problem, move on to “analyze” it. </li></ul><ul><li>analyse its causes and prioritize the most important factors. Acting on those critical causal factors will solve most of the problem. It is suggested that you use the brainstorming technique </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Example: Health Centre Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>A health centre receives complaints from users regarding the quality of the services. A discrepancy exists between the numbers of complaints currently being received in comparison to the previous year. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of complaints is now reaching a volume that is unacceptable </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>How frequently does the problem occur? </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal and written complaints are being received on a daily basis. </li></ul><ul><li>When does it generally occur? </li></ul><ul><li>It appears to have started following a reduction in staffing levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Where does it generally occur? </li></ul><ul><li>The location is not relevant to this situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Who is most affected? </li></ul><ul><li>Obviously the users are, but so are the staff as they are becoming quite agitated by the complaints and the workload they are experiencing. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem can therefore be summarized as: </li></ul><ul><li>Patient dissatisfaction, affecting both patients and staff, which appears to have started following a reduction in staff . </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Why is Multi Drug Resistant TB on the rise? Critically think and make a list of important reasons.(Problem Tree) </li></ul>