Cheikh Anta Diop wrote a series of essays as a student from1946 to 1960, charting the development of Africa. Theessays, which are seen as a form of blueprint, are collected inbook form as "Towards the African Renaissance: Essays in Cultureand Development, 1946-1960".
The African Renaissance is a vision and mission fortransformative change and development that ispremised on the understanding that the future ofAfrica and the peoples of Africa and the diaspora liein the fundamental processes of renewal, re-invention and rebirth. The required changes need tooccur in people’s mindset and world outlook, whichin turn require changes in material conditions as wellas in the institutions and processes ofintellectual, political, economical, and culturalgovernance.
“I am born of a people who are heroes and heroines[...] Patient because history is on their side, thesemasses do not despair because today the weather isbad. Nor do they turn triumphalistwhen, tomorrow, the sun shines. [...] Whatever thecircumstances they have lived through and becauseof that experience, they are determined to definefor themselves who they are and who they shouldbe.”
In June 1997, an advisor to Mbeki, VusiMaviembela, wrote that the African Renaissancewas the "third moment" in post-colonialAfrica, following decolonization and the outbreakof democracy across the continent during the early1990s. Deputy President Mbeki himself melded thevarious reforms he had discussed to a tone ofoptimism under the rubric "African Renaissance" ina speech in August 1998
On September 28-29th, 1998, there was a conference on thistheme in Johannesburg. This was attended by some 470participants. A book was published in 1999 with this title.Thabo Mbeki, keynote speaker at the opening plenarysession, wrote the books prologue. The volumes thirty essaysare arranged under general topics largely corresponding tothose of the conferences breakaway sessions: "culture andeducation, economic transformation, science andtechnology, transport and energy, moral renewal and Africanvalues, and media and telecommunications."
On October 11, 1999, the African RenaissanceInstitute (ARI) was founded at an inauguralmeeting in Pretoria. It has its headquarters inGabarone, Botswana. Initial institute focusincludes development of African humanresources, science andtechnology, agriculture, nutrition andhealth, culture, business, peace and goodgovernance. Okumu in his book titled TheAfrican Renaissance writes very keenly on theimportance of developing science and technology:
Among other things the African Renaissance is aphilosophical and political movement to endthe violence, elitism, corruption and poverty thatseem to plague the African continent, and replacethem with a more just and equitable order. Mbekiproposes doing this by, among otherthings, encouraging education and the reversal ofthe "brain drain" of African intellectuals. He alsourges Africans (led by African intellectuals) to takepride in their heritage, and to take charge of theirlives. For Noel Moukala of *RenaissanceAfricaine, no African Renaissance without AfricanUnity.
For Noel Moukala, Congolese scholar, of*Renaissance Africaine, there can be no AfricanRenaissance without African Unity.
Other individuals seen as being the "newgeneration of African leaders" that wouldaccomplish the goals of the African Renaissancewere President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda andPresident Paul Kagame of Rwanda.
Cultural historian Owen Alik Shahadah says thatthe term is an anachronism and articulates theAfrican reality in European historical terms thusposing African history as a cultural orphan ofEurope. However, the term "African Renaissance"remains in frequent use. This is the case especiallyin South Africa, where the African NationalCongress has adopted it as part of its ideology andwhere the phrase is sometimes used in advertising.
One direct response (a mirror response in a sense)to Mbekis call on artists and thinkers to take up hisutopian vision, was offered by Andre Venter whopublished I Ching for the African Renaissance in2006. Before its publication a proof of concept workfor the artists book was exhibited at the Aardklopcultural festival and later at the University ofJohannesburg.
Is the African Renaissance at a threshold?What does the future hold for Africa and ex-President Mbeki’s AR ideal?The Political Science 144 Assignment should beapproached against these questions
State, Business and Civil SocietyAfrican regional and Sub-Regional Institutions –Legalframeworks, Operational Systems, Capacity and ImpactAfrica’s Productive ResourcesAfrica in the Global SystemState Capacity, Legal Systems, Constitutional SovereigntyAfrican Indigenous Knowledge SystemsAfrican Leadership and Intellectual CapitalHuman RightsAfrican Democracy and Sustainable DevelopmentDiplomacy, International Relations and Strategic InterestsEndemic/Pandemic DiseasesPoverty Eradication and Food SecurityWomen, Gender, Power and HealthChildren, Youth and Development
Founders of NEPADObasandjo & Mbeki President Wade
This NEPAD is a pledge by African leadersbased on a common vision and a firm andshared conviction, that they have a pressingduty to eradicate poverty and to place theircountries, both individually andcollectively, on a path of sustainable growthand development, and at the same time toparticipate actively in the world economy andbody politic.
The historical impoverishment of a continent African and the global revolution
• Strengthening mechanism for conflict prevention• Promotion and protection of democracy• Restoration and maintenance of macroeconomic stability• Instituting transparent legal and regulatory frameworks for financial markets and auditing of private companies and the public sector• Revitalising and extent the provision of education, technical training and health services• Promotion of the role of women• Building the capacity of the states in Africa• Promoting the development of infrastructure, agriculture and its diversification
African peoples must take up the challenge of mobilising insupport of the implementation of this initiative by settingup, at all levels, structures for organisation, mobilisation andaction.The leaders of the continent are aware of the fact that the truegenius of a people is measured by its capacity for bold andimaginative thinking, and determination in support of theirdevelopment.Africans must not relent in implementing this ambitiousprogramme of building sound and resilient economies, anddemocratic societies.
o Africa becomes more effective in conflict prevention andthe establishment of enduring peace on the continent;o Africa adopts and implements principles of democracyand good political economic and corporategovernance, and the protection of human rights becomesfurther entrenched in every African country;o Africa develops and implements effective povertyeradication programmes and accelerates the pace ofachieving set African development goals, particularlyhuman development;o Africa achieves increased levels of domestic savings, aswell as investments, both domestic and foreign;
o Increased levels of ODA to the continent are achievedand its effective utilisation maximised;o Africa achieves desired capacity for policydevelopment, coordination and negotiation in theinternational arena, to ensure its beneficial engagement inthe global economy, especially on trade and market accessissueso Regional integration is further accelerated and higherlevels of sustainable economic growth in Africa isachieved;o Genuine partnerships are established between Africaand the developed countries based on mutual respect andaccountability.
When Senegal and The Gambia decided to build a trans-national road to link the two countries, it’s NEPAD. WhenEcowas wants to implement a regional powerplant that willsupply all its member countries, it’s NEPAD, but not acompilation of what each country has done in its internaldevelopment process. NEPAD is to help us achieve what wecannot at a single country level," Wade continued."The redirection of the project has become inevitable, becausenobody has yet understood anything from NEPAD andnobody implemented NEPAD," President Wade told thenews conference.
Only 10 years ago, The Economist news magazinereported that Africa was a hopeless continent. Tenyears later; ten years after NEPAD, the same journal isscreaming “Africa is rising”, Mr. Jannehrecalled, praising NEPAD for having played a keyrole in this reversal.
Political Science 144 aims to make significant contributionto developing and harnessing your understanding ofAfrica’s intellectual capital and heritages globally.Never underestimate the significance of your assignment.After you have made sense of all the information at yourdisposal, know that your assignments represents a smallyet, significant contribution to developing anunderstanding of the challenges and opportunities forNEPAD.
Failure or Success?Record of FailuresRecord of SuccessesWEBSITES TO CONSULTwww.unisa.ac.za/iarswww.dfa.gov.zawww.africanrecovery.org
Thank youDr R.A van Diemel;Chair Interactive Telematic EducationFaculty of Military ScienceEmail: firstname.lastname@example.orgOrvandiemeljohn@hotmail.comTwitter Profile: raymondvndiemel