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Connected and Self-Driving Vehicles Spark Industry Convergence

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We live in a connected world where industries and organizations are partnering to serve the consumer. Organizations are responding to major trends including the Internet of Things, urban mobility and the automotive revolution that will lead to:
• More than 190 million connected vehicles by 2021.
• Massive growth in big data.
• Ready or not, self-driving vehicles are coming.
As part of a J.D. Power and Acxiom research study, consumers were asked to share their opinions about self-driving and connected vehicles.

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Connected and Self-Driving Vehicles Spark Industry Convergence

  1. 1. © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. All rights reserved. Acxiom is a registered trademark of Acxiom Corporation. A CONSUMER RESEARCH STUDY FOR IN-VEHICLE SERVICES Connected and Self-Driving Vehicles Spark Industry Convergence
  2. 2. 2 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY »» We live in a connected world where industries and organizations are partnering to serve the consumer. »» Organizations are responding to major trends including the Internet of Things, urban mobility and the automotive revolution that will lead to: • More than 190 million connected vehicles by 2021.1 Connected vehicles keep consumers safe, share insights to make us better drivers, provide passenger entertainment options, and connect with other smart systems. • Massive growth in big data. Auto manufacturers (OEMs) should prepare to deal with massive amounts of data generated by connected vehicles. From 2013 to 2018, annual mobile data usage generated by connected vehicles was forecast to grow 188%.2 To thrive, OEMs must manage and treat data as an asset for business innovation. • Ready or not, self-driving vehicles are coming. Widespread connectivity is a prerequisite for the development of self-driving vehicles. The automotive and technology industries are gradually moving forward with the development of self-driving vehicles by 2020 or sooner. »» As part of a J.D. Power and Acxiom research study, consumers shared the following opinions about self-driving and connected cars: • In-vehicle services. More than one-third indicated they would probably pay for connected, in-vehicle services, while nearly 50% thought the services should be included in the price of the vehicle. • Ridesharing. 58% of respondents said ridesharing/car sharing services will have no effect on future vehicle purchases. However, these services will lead to additional volume not present today with fleet and commercial vehicles. • Data sharing. More than half of consumers are willing to share information about their driving habits in exchange for services. Specifically, consumers are willing to share data in exchange for insurance and vehicle subscription discounts. • Self-driving vehicles. More than two-thirds of respondents indicated they don’t yet trust a self-driving vehicle. • Service bundling. Nearly 60% of consumers are interested in leases where the price includes the vehicle, insurance, connectivity services, and fuel. »» It is important for industries — automotive, insurance, and financial services — and the dealers or agents for these industries to understand the smart services for loyal and engaged drivers. But the real key to success will be building consumer trust, repositioning the consumer at the center, and preparing for data harvesting from consumers and vehicles. 2 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation.
  3. 3. 3 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. KEY TRENDS The Internet of Things (IoT) What’s the smartest piece of technology you own? Your watch? Your laptop? No, it’s your vehicle.3 “Today’s vehicle has the computing power of 20 personal computers, features about 100 million lines of programming code, and processes up to 25 gigabytes of data an hour.” 4 In addition, we live in a connected world — the Internet of Things (IoT) — in which automotive and adjacent industries such as insurance and financial along with dealers and agents are partnering to serve the consumer more than ever before. The Evolution of Urban Mobility We cannot underestimate the impact of global urbanization on the automotive industry. According to the United Nations, “By 2030, urban areas are projected to house 60 percent of people globally, and one in every three people will live in cities with at least half a million inhabitants.” 5 How will this impact traditional auto manufacturers and their partners? McKinsey Global Institute predicts: “The traditional business model of car sales will be complemented by a range of diverse, on-demand mobility solutions, especially in dense urban environments that proactively discourage private-car use.” 6 The 2030 Automotive Revolution is Fast Approaching This technology and services revolution includes: connected vehicles, self-driving vehicles, ridesharing (car sharing), e-hailing, subscription services (instead of buying/ owning), all-in-one leases and more.7 Furthermore, self-driving and connected vehicles are disrupting traditional industry models, creating new and innovative partnership opportunities between automotive manufacturers (OEMs), auto insurance providers, and financial institutions. © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. - McKinsey Global Institute 8 This is the connected car — a vehicle able to optimize its own operation and maintenance as well as the convenience and comfort of passengers using onboard sensors and Internet connectivity. “ “ A TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION FROM VEHICLE-CENTRIC TO CONSUMER-CENTRIC:
  4. 4. 4 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. KEY TRENDS (continued) Auto Insurance Will Look Very Different by 2025 Self-driving vehicle technology could shrink the auto insurance sector by 71 percent — or $137 billion — by 2050.9 As such, the core business model for traditional auto insurance carriers may be under threat of obsolescence, and manufacturers have the potential to become a viable alternative to cover driving risk; or, insurance providers may partner with OEMs. For example, we may see policies/packages in which the OEM covers the technology when the consumer allows the vehicle to self-drive; and a different package (provided by the insurance carrier) when the human driver takes over. If this situation occurs, it will have a significant impact on insurance carrier revenue. It may also become a claims nightmare, as insurance carriers sort through who would cover the claim depending on the driver’s exact situation. Auto Shopping and Servicing Are Changing New companies such as Carvana have emerged to offer consumers a shopping experience where they buy a vehicle completely online (avoiding trips to dealerships) or have it delivered to their homes. In addition, companies are offering monthly ownership plans or subscription opportunities that include “all-in-one” services such as a limited warranty, routine maintenance, and roadside assistance. These innovations will continue movement of business and purchase models and shift the processes for how dealers, OEMs, and fleet management companies will work and partner with automotive, insurance, and financial services providers. IS YOUR ORGANIZATION READY? Given these industry predictions and trends, how should your organization respond? What are consumers’ perspectives on connected and self-driving vehicles? Is your organization prepared for “the vehicle of the future”? Remember: understanding customers is key because when you understand your customers, you can earn their trust, their loyalty, and their purchasing power. © 2018 Acxiom Corporation.4 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence
  5. 5. 5 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. CONSUMER RESEARCH STUDY In partnership with J.D. Power, Acxiom surveyed 2,582 consumers across all generations to understand what they want from connected vehicles and in-vehicle services. This large-scale, online quantitative study included respondents ages 16 and older residing in the U.S. Sixty-four percent were female, with an average age of 48. Consumers evaluated four key topics: connected vehicle services, data sharing, self-driving vehicles and ridesharing/car sharing. Here are some of the key consumer insights the survey uncovered. More than 1/3 of respondents indicate that they would pay for in-vehicle services. There is more interest in the younger generations to pay for services than there is in the older generations. More than 50% of Boomers and Pre- Boomers indicate they would not pay for services, while less than 1/3of those in the younger generations say the same. However, with younger generations purchasing fewer, if any, vehicles, it becomes a challenge to recoup initial or ongoing costs. of consumers want the services included in the price of their vehicle Nearly Approx. A little less than 1/2 1/4 1/3 of consumers want to pay for services via a subscription method of consumers would prefer a pay-per-use method to in-vehicle services CONNECTED VEHICLES Q: How likely would you be to pay for in-vehicle services? (diagnostic checks, vehicle de-activation, recommendations for dining and entertainment) Insight: More than one-third indicated they would probably pay for in-vehicle services. Although expressing more interest, the younger generation is buying fewer vehicles. Conclusion: Opportunity exists to monetize in-vehicle services. Q: How would you prefer to pay for the in- vehicle services, and how much they would you be willing to pay? Insight: Nearly 50% thought the services should be included in the price of the vehicle. Approximately one-third preferred a pay-per-use model and were willing to pay $49 per use. Conclusion: In the “Age of Choice,” consumers prefer access to multiple payment models.
  6. 6. 6 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. CONNECTED VEHICLES Q: Would you prefer to access these services via the vehicle’s infotainment system or your cell phone? Insight: 20% want services locked in their vehicle under one account. More than 30% would rather access services on their cell phones — the center of their lives. Nearly 50% want flexibility such as one account that they can access via different methods. Conclusion: Consumers expect seamless integration and access to services across all connected devices. Both the vehicle's infotainment system and my cell phone My cell phone The vehicle's infotainment system 20% 47% 32% Preference for Accessing Services © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. - McKinsey Global Institute 11 The automotive revenue pool will significantly increase and diversify toward on-demand mobility services and data-driven services. This could create up to $1.5 trillion — or 30 percent more — in additional revenue potential in 2030, compared with about $5.2 trillion from traditional car sales and aftermarket products/services, up by 50 percent from about $3.5 trillion in 2015. “ “
  7. 7. 7 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. CONSUMERS’ FIRST VEHICLE EXPERIENCE IS CHANGING Q: Describe your usage of ridesharing and car sharing services Insight: Younger generations are more likely to use services, especially in urban environments, and are also putting off car purchases, licenses, etc. Conclusion: Ridesharing and car sharing are easy for people to adopt. 10% 14% 23% 41% 38% 1% 3% 8% 17% 13% 13% 25% 39% 5% 7% 16% USE RIDESHARING USE CAR SHARING Gen Z (1995- 2004) Gen Y (1977- 1994) Gen X (1965- 1976) Baby Boomer (1946- 1964) Pre- Boomer (1945 and earlier) UrbanSuburbanRural Ridesharing and car sharing usage Younger generations, and individuals in urban environments are more likely to participate in ridesharing and car sharing services Especially in urban and suburban environments, using these services is much more economical and commonplace due to the density of the areas and hassles of car ownership. Younger generations are eschewing purchasing a car, or even getting a license, for longer and longer periods Q: Will the impact of ridesharing/car sharing affect your vehicle purchases in the future? Insight: 58% of all respondents say that there is no effect. However, 43% of GenZ may not need to own a car. Conclusion: Younger consumers are willing to forgo owning a vehicle which may decrease revenues for automotive and insurance companies. PROBABLY WOULD NOT DEFINITELY WOULD NOT DEFINITELY WOULD PROBABLY WOULD 4% 8% 33% 54% 3% 12% 29% 56% 7% 18% 28% 47% 9% 27% 28% 35% 7% 42% 30% 21% Gen Z (1995- 2004) Gen Y (1977- 1994) Gen X (1965- 1976) Baby Boomer (1946- 1964) Pre- Boomer (1945 and earlier) Ridsharing/Car Sharing Affect Future Vehicle Purchases
  8. 8. 8 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. Q: Would you be willing to give up ownership and switch to ride/car sharing if it reduced your monthly costs? Insight: Due to high costs, younger generations are more willing to give up owning a vehicle, using ridesharing and/or car sharing instead. Conclusion: Understanding the consumer’s life stage is key to offering the right services. For a specific life stage, the consumer may seek to continue using ride/car sharing services or decide to purchase a vehicle (e.g., family formation requires SUV or minivan purchased with subscription service). NO EFFECT DON’T KNOW MY HOUSEHOLD MAY NOT NEED AS MANY VEHICLES I MAY STOP OWNING MY OWN VEHICLE 7% 6% 56% 31% 4% 8% 67% 21% 8% 13% 59% 20% 10% 20% 50% 20% 14% 29% 32% 25% Gen Z (1995- 2004) Gen Y (1977- 1994) Gen X (1965- 1976) Baby Boomer (1946- 1964) Pre- Boomer (1945 and earlier) Willingness to Give Up Owning a Vehicle to Reduce Costs
  9. 9. 9 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. CONSUMERS WILL SHARE INFORMATION IN EXCHANGE FOR BENEFITS Q: How willing are you to share information about your driving habits with others in order to receive services? (Diagnostic checks, dining recommendations, etc.) Insight: More than half of consumers are willing to share information about their driving habits in exchange for services. Younger generations are even more willing to share. Across all generations, security concerns must be overcome in order to increase penetration. Conclusion: Opportunity exists for new services to be offered in exchange for information. Consequently, we may start to see more partnerships between OEM’s and insurers. PROBABLY WOULD NOT DEFINITELY WOULD NOT DEFINITELY WOULD PROBABLY WOULD 8% 33% 29% 30% 11% 33% 28% 28% 20% 43% 21% 17% 25% 44% 21% 10% 26% 57% 11% 5% Gen Z (1995- 2004) Gen Y (1977- 1994) Gen X (1965- 1976) Baby Boomer (1946- 1964) Pre- Boomer (1945 and earlier) Willingness to Share Driving Information Desired Benefits in Exchange for Sharing Information
  10. 10. 10 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. CONSUMERS WILL SHARE INFORMATION IN EXCHANGE FOR BENEFITS Q: How concerned are you with security issues posed by the increasing integration of technology into vehicles? Insight: Concern spans all generations with more than one-third saying they are “very concerned.” Reinforcement of data and security practices is critical. Conclusion: Data security will be more important than ever. Systems used by dealers, agents and OEMs will store more information and require security at the business level. Not at all concerned Somewhat concerned Very concerned 36% 14% 51% Data Security Concerns
  11. 11. 11 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. CONSUMERS OPEN TO NEW OWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Q: What If you were to lease your next vehicle, how interested would you be in an “all-in-one” lease? Insight: All-in-one lease includes vehicle, insurance, connectivity services and fuel. Nearly 60% of consumers are interested in an all-in-one lease. Conclusion: Opportunity exists for leases that package multiple services, including insurance. Definitely would not Probably would not Probably would Definitely would 20% 21% 20% 39% 28% 45% 65% 74% 78% Gen Z (1995- 2004) Gen Y (1977- 1994) Gen X (1965- 1976) Baby Boomer (1946- 1964) Pre- Boomer (1945 and earlier) Would be Interested in an All-In-One Lease Q: How much of a discount on your “all-in-one” lease would be acceptable for you to share information with the vehicle manufacturer and insurance company? Insight: More than 50% of consumers are willing to share their data for a 6% to 20% discount on their lease. Conclusion: Consumers are willing to share relevant data in exchange for a discount. Nearly two-thirds (63%) of consumers would be willing to share data for a discount of 20% or less on their lease. For the 9% of consumers stating "don't know", demonstrating value in the data could help determine what discount they are willing to accept 22% of consumers would be willing to accept a discount of 10% or less Expected discount on an All-In-One Lease for Data Sharing
  12. 12. 12 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. SELF-DRIVING VEHICLES An autonomous vehicle (also known as a driverless, self-driving or robotic vehicle) can sense its environment and navigate without human input.12 For example, Ford and Domino’s have recently teamed up to test a self-driving pizza delivery service;13 and Audi announced it would have an autonomous vehicle on the road by 2020.14 In our survey, we asked consumers about their understanding of self-driving vehicles in their current state, since these technologies are still in development. © 2018 Acxiom Corporation.12 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence Q: How much would you trust the ability of an autonomous (self-driving) vehicle to operate without a human driver’s input? Insight: More than two-thirds of respondents indicated they probably or definitely would not trust a self-driving vehicle. Conclusion: The technology is not proven in the mind of consumers. 8% 23% 36% 32% Definitely would Probably would Probably would not Definitely would not 68% Trust of Autonomous Vehicle Q: For those who trust, please explain why you say you would trust a vehicle to operate without a human driver’s input. Insight: Responses include: • “Safer than human drivers on the road” • “They have matured to point of assured safety” • “Fewer fatalities and lower insurance rates” Conclusion: Early adopters see the opportunity for technology to improve safety. Q: How would you spend the majority of your time riding in an autonomous (self-driving) vehicle? Insight: Half of respondents said they would spend their time watching the road. This is a big trust issue that must be overcome. Conclusion: Consumers don’t see what is possible yet with self-driving cars. 50%Watching the road Reading, watching videos, surfing the internet, playing games Talking or text messaging with family and friends Sleeping Working Managing home life (e.g., paying bills, scheduling appointments, ordering Other 16% 12% 7% 7% 6% 3% How Would You Spend Your Time
  13. 13. 13 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. RECOMMENDATIONS Given the previous insights from consumers, we recommend the following: DEVELOP FLEXIBLE SERVICE OFFERINGS ALIGNED TO THE CONSUMER’S LIFE STAGE Each generation we surveyed provided different responses about their requirements for in-vehicle services. Your service offerings need to be flexible in terms of packaging and payment options. OFFER AND COMMUNICATE THE BENEFITS OF DATA SHARING Because data is a key driver for innovation, you need to establish methods for collecting consumer data. In addition, to ensure consumers will opt in, you need to communicate the benefits of data sharing in simple terms. DEVELOP PARTNERSHIPS TO OFFER BUNDLED VEHICLE SERVICES Some consumers prefer an “all-in-one” lease that bundles services including insurance, connectivity and fuel. As a result, OEMs, insurance companies, and related service providers should establish partnerships that deliver the consumer value and savings. PROTECT CONSUMER DATA WITH ROBUST DATA SECURITY Consumers expect their data to be protected and secure. Consequently, you need to provide robust data security processes and technology to ensure that PII (personally identifiable information) is only available to trusted parties. Choose partners that have an impeccable track record of securing their clients’ data. PLAN AND IMPLEMENT PROCESSES FOR ETHICAL DATA USE Your organization must establish and maintain trust with consumers. As you collect data, you must also implement processes for data governance to ensure information is used ethically. SEEK HELP FROM TRUSTED PARTNERS WITH EXPERIENCE IN DATA-DRIVEN MARKETING Choose partners with experience in designing complex, data-driven marketing solutions across top OEMs and related industries. © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. - McKinsey Global Institute 15 Data is the fundamental enabler of a multitude of use cases that generate significant economic value for their holders. It also requires a significant set of back-end processes and costly infrastructures to be captured, secured, analyzed, and leveraged. As such, data is an asset, an intangible, measurable asset that is still partly overlooked by large automotive players, both in terms of mapping available assets and valuing them. “ “
  14. 14. 14 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. HOW ACXIOM CAN HELP As you embrace the automotive revolution, Acxiom can help your organization: • Better Understand Ethical Data Use. Consumers do business with brands they trust. Our data stewardship capabilities help you put the right protections in place, so you can use data with confidence to deliver exceptional customer experiences. • Implement Data Monetization Best Practices. Many organizations are discovering they have people-based data assets, but just because you have them doesn’t mean you’ll be able to effectively leverage them. Data must be curated and easily connected so it can be activated. And you must comply with global security and privacy regulations. • Navigate the New Data Economy. Rapid innovation is producing an explosion of new data sources. As the market for data expands, how do you find the best data to fuel your marketing strategies? What are the smartest ways to monetize your valuable data assets? Whether you’re buying, selling, or sharing data, Acxiom can help you navigate. Acxiom solutions can help you better connect with the automotive consumer by helping your organization: • Assert Your Automotive Leadership. We help eight of the top 10 automotive OEMs drive strategic growth by maximizing returns from shifts in consumer data, changing product usage, and innovation in adtech and martech. • Become More Industry Forward. Acxiom solutions target where the industry is going, from mobility and autonomous vehicles to redefining the matching process for sales leads and the use of data to improve the customer journey. • Establish Global Reach. Acxiom solutions deliver the highest quality data on more than 2 billion consumers in 62 countries – approximately two-thirds of the world’s digital population. • Activate Your Data. Acxiom activates data for automotive and services clients across our network of more than 500 partners, including the largest marketing technology platforms, social networks, premium publishers, and advanced TV providers. • Enhance Your Consumer Insights. With our analytics expertise, we can find and predict future purchases that drive incremental value for your business. We utilize omnichannel insights and techniques specific to OEMs and their services. © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. All rights reserved. Acxiom is a registered trademark of Acxiom Corporation. 1st Matching accuracy across all customer touchpoints 95% US household Coverage 500+ Contracted & Pre-integrated with digital and analytics marketing platforms 95% Accuracy matching Offline to Online 5/5The Only Perfect Score Forrester Customer WAVETM Privacy & Security Score DATA SERVICES CONNECTIVITY PRIVACY & SECURITY SPEED, POWER, AND PRECISION
  15. 15. 15 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation.15 | The Age of the Omnichannel Integrator © 2017 Acxiom Corporation. ACXIOM: THE DATA FOUNDATION FOR THE WORLD’S BEST MARKETERS Acxiom enables people-based marketing everywhere through a simple, open approach to connecting systems and data that drives seamless customer experiences and higher ROI. We believe data is the key to creating meaningful interactions at scale between consumers and the brands they love. © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. All rights reserved. Acxiom is a registered trademark of Acxiom Corporation. VISIT: https://www.acxiom.com EMAIL: info@acxiom.com
  16. 16. 16 | Connected and Self-Driving Cars Spark Industry Convergence © 2018 Acxiom Corporation.16 | The Age of the Omnichannel Integrator © 2017 Acxiom Corporation. © 2018 Acxiom Corporation. All rights reserved. Acxiom is a registered trademark of Acxiom Corporation. References 1 “Statista Digital Market Outlook,” Statista, 2017 https://www.statista.com/outlook/digital-markets 2 “U.S. Connected Car Strategies, Trends and Forecasts, 2013-2018,” iGR, May 2014 https://igr-inc.com/Downloads/?ID=1093 3 “How the auto industry is preparing for the car of the future,” McKinsey Global Institute podcast, Dec 2017 https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/automotive-and-assembly/our-insights/how-the-auto-industry-is-preparing-for-the-car-of-the-future 4 “What’s driving the connected car,” McKinsey Global Institute, Sept 2014 https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/automotive-and-assembly/our-insights/whats-driving-the-connected-car 5 “The World’s Cities in 2016: Data booklet,” United Nations, 2016 http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/urbanization/the_worlds_cities_in_2016_data_booklet.pdf 6 “Disruptive trends that will transform the auto industry,” McKinsey Global Institute, Jan 2016 https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/automotive-and-assembly/our-insights/disruptive-trends-that-will-transform-the-auto-industry 7 “Disruptive trends that will transform the auto industry,” McKinsey Global Institute, Jan 2016 https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/automotive-and-assembly/our-insights/disruptive-trends-that-will-transform-the-auto-industry 8 “What’s driving the connected car,” McKinsey Global Institute, Sept 2014 https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/automotive-and-assembly/our-insights/whats-driving-the-connected-car 9 “The chaotic middle: The autonomous vehicle and disruption in automobile insurance,” KPMG, June 2017 https://home.kpmg.com/us/en/home/insights/2017/05/the-chaotic-middle-autonomous-vehicle-disruption-automobile-insurance.html 10 “Consumer Desire and Willingness for Automotive Connected Services: A Joint Research Project from Acxiom and J.D. Power,” Acxiom, Sept 2017 https://marketing.acxiom.com/US-AutoConnectedServices-RP-Oct2017-Main.html 11 “Disruptive trends that will transform the auto industry,” McKinsey Global Institute, Jan 2016 https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/automotive-and-assembly/our-insights/disruptive-trends-that-will-transform-the-auto-industry 12 “Autonomous car,” Wikipedia, Jan 2017 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_car 13 “Domino’s and Ford team up to offer self-driving pizza delivery,” The Next Web, Oct 2017 https://thenextweb.com/artificial-intelligence/2017/08/30/dominos-and-ford-team-up-to-offer-self-driving-pizza-delivery/ 14 “CES 2017: Nvidia and Audi Say They’ll Field a Level 4 Autonomous Car in Three Years,” IEEE Spectrum, Jan 2017 https://spectrum.ieee.org/cars-that-think/transportation/self-driving/nvidia-ceo-announces 15 “Monetizing car data: New service business opportunities to create new customer benefits,” McKinsey Global Institute, Sept 2016 https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/automotive-and-assembly/our-insights/monetizing-car-data

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