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Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	
Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.	
GfK	Custom	Research
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Overview	of	Grid	Format	
•  A	grid	(also	known	as	a	matrix	format)	is	one	of	the	most	commonly	
used	formats	in	online	survey	instruments.	
•  Used	to	measure	mul/ple	elements,	like	brands,	statements,	
behaviors.	
•  A	grid	uses	the	same	graded	response	format,	with	responses	
typically	in	columns	and	elements	in	rows.	
•  Generally,	grids	are	more	efficient	in	surveys	compared	to	presen/ng	
each	element	and	ra/ng	task	on	separate	screens	because	
ü  Manual	responding	is	standardized	
ü  Response	meanings	are	standardized
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Example	Grid	Ques/on
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Grids	on	Smartphones	
•  Grids	oRen	don’t	fit	on	a	
smartphone	screen,	even	with	a	
responsive	template.	
•  Both	ver/cal	and	horizontal	scrolling	
are	required.	
•  Only	2.5	response	op/ons	are	
visible.
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Grids	on	Smartphones	
•  You	have	to	scroll	right	to	see	the	
addi/onal	response	op/ons.	
•  When	you	scroll,	you	lose	sight	of	
the	item	text,	so	it	becomes	difficult	
to	know	which	item	you	are	
answering.
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Grids	on	Smartphones	
•  The	problem	is	even	worse	if	you	
scroll	down	and	to	the	right.	
•  You	get	lost	in	a	sea	of	radio	
bu[ons!
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Smartphone	Orienta/on	
•  Most	of	us	interact	with	our	smartphones	in	
portrait	mode.	Few	people	take	the	/me	to	
rotate	to	landscape	–	even	if	it	will	make	the	
survey	experience	be[er.		
•  At	the	beginning	of	a	survey,	we	find	that	
90%	of	respondents	are	in	portrait	mode.		
Even	aRer	repeated	prompts	to	change	to	
landscape,	less	than	half	rotate	their	screen	
(Barlas	&	Thomas,	2017).		
•  We	need	to	meet	respondents	where	they	
are	rather	than	ask	them	to	change	their	
behavior.
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Response	Scale	
•  As	we	saw	in	the	example	grid,	even	5	categories	can	be	difficult	to	
display	on	a	smartphone	without	significant	leR-right	scrolling.	
•  We	designed	a	study	to	explore	the	impact	of	using	fewer	response	
categories	on	survey	es/mates	and	validity	to	facilitate	comple/on	
on	smartphones.	
•  We	set	up	3	independent	experiments,	in	each	randomly	assigning	
either:	
–  3,	4,	or	5	response	categories	
–  Unipolar	or	bipolar	fully-labeled	scale
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Study	1	
•  We	used	GfK’s	KnowledgePanel®,	the	largest	online	probability-
based	panel	in	the	US,	with	panelists	recruited	through	ABS.	Those	
without	internet	are	provided	an	ISP	and	internet-enabled	device.		
•  Dates	of	Fielding:	6	May	to	6	June,	2015	
•  Survey:	8	minute,	online	study	
•  Par/cipants:			
–  5,019	panel	members	were	selected	to	par/cipate	
–  3,245	completed	the	survey
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Experiment	1	–	Poli/cal	Issues	
Next	we	would	like	to	find	out	what	you	think	about	a	number	of	issues.		How	much	do	
you	agree	with	the	following?	
A. 	The	na/onal	government	should	spend	more	to	take	care	of	its	poorest	ci/zens.	
B. 	It	is	important	to	reduce	the	gap	in	wealth	between	the	rich	and	poor	in	this	country.	
C. 	The	na/onal	government	should	be	allowed	to	borrow	as	much	money	as	it	thinks	is	
necessary.	
D. 	The	na/onal	government	should	have	strict	limits	placed	on	its	spending.	
E. 	Our	leaders	should	expand	the	power	of	the	United	States.	
F. 	Most	na/onal	taxes	should	be	greatly	reduced.	
G. 	Free	trade	among	na/ons	is	good	for	this	country.	
H. 	A	person	who	plans	a	murder	and	carries	it	out	should	be	put	to	death.	
I. 	Illegal	immigrants	represent	a	major	threat	to	this	country.	
J. 	Religious	faith	can	provide	useful	solu/ons	for	the	problems	that	our	country	will	face.	
K. 	This	na/on	would	improve	if	the	people	were	to	become	more	religious.	
L. 	Global	warming	is	occurring	because	of	human	ac/vity.
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Experiment	1	–	Response	Sets	
	3 Category Unipolar Do not agree Agree
Very strongly
agree
4 Category Unipolar Do not agree Agree
Strongly
agree
Very strongly
agree
5 Category Unipolar Do not agree
Somewhat
agree
Agree
Strongly
agree
Very strongly
agree
3 Category Bipolar Disagree Neutral Agree
4 Category Bipolar
Strongly
disagree
Somewhat
disagree
Somewhat
agree
Strongly
agree
5 Category Bipolar
Strongly
disagree
Somewhat
disagree
Neutral
Somewhat
agree
Strongly
agree
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Experiment	1	–	Means	
	
As we found in other studies, means were higher with bipolar scales. No
real difference in means and relative ordering of items with increasing
scale length.
0	
0.1	
0.2	
0.3	
0.4	
0.5	
0.6	
0.7	
0.8	
0.9	
3	CATEGORIES	-	
UNIPOLAR	
4	CATEGORIES	-	
UNIPOLAR	
5	CATEGORIES	-	
UNIPOLAR	
3	CATEGORIES	-	
BIPOLAR	
4	CATEGORIES	-	
BIPOLAR	
5	CATEGORIES	-	
BIPOLAR	
Means	 Item	A	
Item	B	
Item	C	
Item	D	
Item	E	
Item	F	
Item	G	
Item	H	
Item	I	
Item	J	
Item	K
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Experiment	1	–	Standard	Devia/ons	
	
No increase in variance with longer scales, contrary to popular belief.
0.15	
0.2	
0.25	
0.3	
0.35	
0.4	
0.45	
3	CATEGORIES	-	
UNIPOLAR	
4	CATEGORIES	-	
UNIPOLAR	
5	CATEGORIES	-	
UNIPOLAR	
3	CATEGORIES	-	
BIPOLAR	
4	CATEGORIES	-	
BIPOLAR	
5	CATEGORIES	-	
BIPOLAR	
Standard	Devia/ons	
Item	A	
Item	B	
Item	C	
Item	D	
Item	E	
Item	F	
Item	G	
Item	H	
Item	I	
Item	J
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Experiment	1	–	Validity	
	
To assess criterion-related validity, we looked at the prediction of party ID
using the individual political issues. No significant differences in validity
for labelling or number of response categories.
0.00	
0.10	
0.20	
0.30	
0.40	
0.50	
3	CATEGORIES	
-	UNIPOLAR	
4	CATEGORIES	
-	UNIPOLAR	
5	CATEGORIES	
-	UNIPOLAR	
3	CATEGORIES	
-	BIPOLAR	
4	CATEGORIES	
-	BIPOLAR	
5	CATEGORIES	
-	BIPOLAR	
Average	Validity	-	r2
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Study	1	
•  Results	from	the	other	2	experiments	were	similar.	
•  Fewer	response	categories	show	similar	means	and	variance	as	
longer	scales.	
•  Validity	is	not	significantly	enhanced	with	more	scale	points.	
•  3	or	4	responses	in	a	unipolar	format	may	yield	op/mum	levels	of	
validity	and	s/ll	work	well	with	the	‘thumbs’	environment	and	screen	
constraints	of	the	smartphone.
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Grids	on	Smartphones	
•  Even	with	a	short	scale,	in	this	case	
only	3	categories,	we	see	that	the	
grid	is	unwieldy	on	a	smartphone	
due	to	the	length	of	the	items	
themselves.	
•  We	need	to	think	about	alterna/ve	
designs	to	the	tradi/onal	grid	that	
will	work	well	on	all	devices.
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Tradi/onal	Grid	Ques/on
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Accordion	Grid	Ques/on
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Study	2	–	Accordion	Grid	Test	
•  Conducted	a	study	using	GfK’s	KnowledgePanel®.		
•  Dates	of	Fielding:	8	April	–	6	May,	2016	
•  Survey:	5	minute,	online	study	
•  Par/cipants:			
–  2,177	panel	members	completed	the	survey	
–  16%	completed	on	a	smartphone	
–  12%	completed	on	a	tablet	
•  Par/cipants	randomly	assigned	to	one	of	the	two	response	formats	–	
tradi/onal	grid	or	accordion
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Study	2	–	Means	
•  How	would	you	rate	each	of	the	following	in	your	local	community?		
	
1	
2	
3	
Job	opportuni/es	 Traffic	 Cost	of	living	 Cultural	ac/vi/es	 Opportuni/es	to	
meet	people	
Shopping	 A	place	to	raise	
children	
Tradi/onal	 Accordion	
*	
*	 *
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Study	2	–	Accuracy	and	Visibility	
1	
2	
3	
Tradi/onal	 Accordion	
Accuracy	–	All	Respondents	
No	difference	in	self-rated	accuracy	
either	overall	or	among	smartphone	
respondents.	
1	
2	
3	
Tradi/onal	 Accordion	
Ease	of	Seeing	Responses	–		
All	Respondents	
No	difference	in	reported	ease	of	seeing	
responses	either	overall	or	among	
smartphone	respondents.
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Study	2	–	Validity	
•  To	assess	criterion-related	validity,	we	looked	at	the	predic/on	of	
overall	community	sa/sfac/on	with	the	individual	community	features.		
22.1%	
29.8%	
0	
0.1	
0.2	
0.3	
0.4	
0.5	
Tradi/onal	 Accordion	
R-squared	
•  Individual community satisfaction items were a little bit better
predictors of overall satisfaction in the accordion format
compared to traditional.
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Study	2	
•  Results	from	other	experiments	(different	items	and	scale	lengths)	
were	similar.	
•  Overall,	the	accordion	grid	format	appears	to	be	a	viable	alterna/ve	
that	is	more	smartphone-friendly	than	the	tradi/onal	grid.		
•  Results	were	similar	in	means	and	rela/ve	order	of	items	was	
comparable.	
•  Respondents	found	accordion	grids	easy	to	use	and	felt	their	
responses	were	as	accurate	as	with	a	tradi/onal	grid.	
•  Accordion	format	showed	comparable	criterion-related	validity	to	
tradi/onal	grids.
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Overall	Conclusions	
•  To	facilitate	survey	comple/on	on	smartphones,	we	need	to	reduce	
survey	content.			
•  We	can	shorten	scales	without	sacrificing	precision	and	validity.		
•  Furthermore,	we	should	consider	alterna/ves	to	the	tradi/onal	grid	
design.		
•  The	accordion	format	is	a	viable	alterna/ve	that	works	well	on	all	
devices.
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Thank	You!	
	
	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.	
frances.barlas@gt.com
Making	Grid	Ques/ons	Mobile	Friendly	–	An	Impossible	Dream?	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.,	GfK	Custom	Research	
	
	
Maximizing
Mobile
Q	&	A	
Frances	M.	Barlas,	Ph.D.	
GfK	Custom	Research	
Ray	Poynter	
The	Future	Place

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