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Pūrākau – Theories, Narratives, Models & Application

Dr Rawiri Waretini-Karena
Dr Rawiri Waretini-Karena
Dr Rawiri Waretini-KarenaResearcher at Dr Rawiri Waretini-Karena

This presentation delivers an integrated approach to Pūrākau theories, models, and practices. It also introduces Pūtakatanga Theory along with the Pūtakatanga Maaori counselling model and its application.

Pūrākau – Theories, Narratives, Models & Application

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Dr Rawiri Waretini-Karena
Karakia Timatanga 
He hōnore he korōria ki te Atua 
He maungārongo ki te whenua 
He whakaaro pai ki nga tāngata katoa. 
Hangā e te Atua he ngākau hou 
Ki roto ki tēnā ki tēnā o mātou 
Whakatōngia tōu Wairua Tapu 
Hei āwhina hei tohutohu i a mātou 
Ake ake ake 
Amine
Learning Outcomes 
• To identify Pūrākau theory, narratives and 
application 
• To examine how these theories are applied 
• To evaluate the learnings
1. Pūrākau Theory – by Dr Jenny Bol Jun Lee 
2. Brainstorm Māori deficit statistics 
3. Colonising Tree Model – by Dr Rawiri Waretini- 
Karena 
4. Pūrākau Model – by Dr Jacquelyn Elkington 
5. Pūtaketanga theory – Dr Rawiri Waretini- Karena 
6. Intergenerational Pūrākau -Genogram
Pūrākau Theory 
Definition: 
Pū= Origin + Rakau = Tree 
• Lee (2005) States; It is not coincidental that the word 
Pūrākau literally refers to the roots or base (Pū) of the 
tree (rākau), rather it is significant that 'story telling' 
derives its meaning in Māori language from words that 
relate to the tree and bush, since the imagery of tree 
often reflect our cultural understandings of social 
relationships, our interconnectedness with each other 
and the natural environment (p.7).
Methodology 
Pūrākau theory,’ as a methodology is employed in 
Kaupapa Māori research because of its ability to layer 
stories one upon the other. Pūrākau is used in a 
variety of ways, and is a fundamental methodology for 
distributing knowledge, values, protocols and 
worldviews.
Ad

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Pūrākau – Theories, Narratives, Models & Application

  • 2. Karakia Timatanga He hōnore he korōria ki te Atua He maungārongo ki te whenua He whakaaro pai ki nga tāngata katoa. Hangā e te Atua he ngākau hou Ki roto ki tēnā ki tēnā o mātou Whakatōngia tōu Wairua Tapu Hei āwhina hei tohutohu i a mātou Ake ake ake Amine
  • 3. Learning Outcomes • To identify Pūrākau theory, narratives and application • To examine how these theories are applied • To evaluate the learnings
  • 4. 1. Pūrākau Theory – by Dr Jenny Bol Jun Lee 2. Brainstorm Māori deficit statistics 3. Colonising Tree Model – by Dr Rawiri Waretini- Karena 4. Pūrākau Model – by Dr Jacquelyn Elkington 5. Pūtaketanga theory – Dr Rawiri Waretini- Karena 6. Intergenerational Pūrākau -Genogram
  • 5. Pūrākau Theory Definition: Pū= Origin + Rakau = Tree • Lee (2005) States; It is not coincidental that the word Pūrākau literally refers to the roots or base (Pū) of the tree (rākau), rather it is significant that 'story telling' derives its meaning in Māori language from words that relate to the tree and bush, since the imagery of tree often reflect our cultural understandings of social relationships, our interconnectedness with each other and the natural environment (p.7).
  • 6. Methodology Pūrākau theory,’ as a methodology is employed in Kaupapa Māori research because of its ability to layer stories one upon the other. Pūrākau is used in a variety of ways, and is a fundamental methodology for distributing knowledge, values, protocols and worldviews.
  • 7. Whaikoorero Pūrākau Taaniko Haka Ta Moko Whakairo Waiata Examples of Pūrākau
  • 8. Quote: • Lee (2005) states; Pūrākau theory is one form of Māori narratives that originates from oral literature traditions. • Other narrative forms include moteatea (traditional song), whakapapa (genealogy) whaikōrero (speech making) and whakatauki (proverbs) each with their own categories, style, complex patterns and characteristics" (p.7).
  • 9. Pūrākau Theory Academic Rationale • Lee (2005) suggests that; "a Pūrākau approach can challenge dominant discourses that continue to de-center Māori experiences, cultural notions and aspirations in ways that resonate and connect to our people"(p.13).
  • 10. Pūrākau & Narratives • Narrative focuses on issues that arise using externalising language • Pūrākau focuses on the issue that arise from a whakapapa perspective that includes contributing factors thus contextualising the issue
  • 11. • How does Pūrākau theory inform your understanding of the philosophy behind Māori narratives?
  • 12. Pū= Origin + Take= Issue +tanga = action As opposed to Pūrakau theory which unpacks layers of stories, Pūtaketanga theory focuses on specific issues and layers of contributing factors leading back to root causes While Pūrākau theory examines macro perspectives, Pūtaketanga theory examines micro perspectives. Dr Rawiri Waretini-Karena 2014
  • 13. Pūrākau Theory Macro Pūtaketanga Theory Micro
  • 14. Underlying theorists • These are theorists who have contributed to my thinking and development of Pūtaketanga theory. • Mātauranga Māori theories – Dr Rapata Wiri • Pūrākau theories – Dr Jacquelyn Elkington & Dr Jenny Bol Jun Lee • Decolonising methodologies & Māori knowledge– Professor Linda Tuhiwai Smith
  • 15. Underlying perspectives • Dr Rapata Wiri advocates that mātauranga Māori perspectives should have a whakapapa, and be based on tikanga Māori principles and values. • Dr Jacquelyn Elkington & Dr Jenny Bol Jun Lee advocate that Pūrākau from a counselling & educational perspective peels back layers of stories • Professor Linda Tuhiwai Smith Advocates a decolonising methodology that proclaims “only Māori” are the validators and legitimisers of Māori knowledge.
  • 16. Māori Worldviews Identity Contextual Pūtaketanga Theory Mātauranga Māori Hononga to make links Whakapapa Māori Epistemologies Tikanga & kawa Whakawhānaungatanga Mana Mauri Manaakitanga
  • 17. • Pūtaketanga theory advocates that everything has a genealogy or a whakapapa • It therefore surmises that nothing manifests from out of thin air. Dr Rawiri Waretini-Karena 2014
  • 18. Pūtaketanga Model Main Issue Contributing Factor 2 Contributing Factor 1 (Dr. Rawiri Waretini-Karena 2014)
  • 19. • What are examples & underlying themes behind Māori deficit statistics? • (Whiteboard exercise)
  • 20. • Poverty – sometimes intergenerational • Lack of knowledge regarding the speaking of native language • Loss of cultural identity, heritage, cultural principles, protocols & practices
  • 23. • What are your thoughts on the colonising tree and how it informs your understanding of Pūrākau concepts?
  • 24. Pūrākau Model by Dr Jacquelyn Elkington Age range Stage Perspective 0-15 Tiaki To be cared for Development begins with the story of others 15-25 Taraia Experiential To experiment with other plots, depend less on others 25-50 Tino Rangatiratanga Self- Determining Development takes on own life. Choices are made about with whom one co-authors 50-65 Arotakinga Evaluation & Reflection Story writes into history new editions & reflections 65+ Whānau Whanui Moments highlighted in biography. Dependence on family becomes significant
  • 25. Exercise • Break into five groups • Each group will take up one of the stages • The groups are to break their stage into sections and brainstorm attributes of each stage • Each group is to share attributes they have identified back to the class
  • 26. Discussion What are underlying themes behind this exercise?
  • 27. Intergenerational Analysis model • The model on the next slide tracks ancestors and their stories across each generation • It also superimposes legislative policies over the top of each generation to determine the legislative environment • The rationale behind this model is to determine what influence legislative policies played on Māori deficit statistics, and thus make a connection between legislative policies, Māori experiences of historical intergenerational trauma, and colonisation.
  • 28. Intergenerational Analysis Model Time Ancestors Intergenerational stories Legislative Policies 1840s NZ Constitution Act 1852 Native Lands Act 1862 Waikato Invasion 1864 Native Courts Act 1865 Native Schools Act 1867 1920s Native Health Act 1909 Tohunga Suppression Act 1907 1940s WW 2 Rural to Urban migration Pepperpotting system 1960s Māori Affairs Act 1953 Town & Country planning Act 1953 The Hunn Report 1960 Rating Act 1967 1980s NZ Constitution Act 1986 2014 Foreshore & seabed Act 2004 Search & surveillance Bill The Food Bill Asset Sales Inequality policies Dr Rawiri Waretini Karena 2010
  • 29. Generation 4 1840 - 1940 Relationship with the Colonials Great Grandfather: Te Nahu Te Kuri Waretini- Weteni. Fought in the Waikato invasion against the British empire1863 Exiled with King Tawhiao into the King country. Fought along side Rewi Maniapoto and Tuhoe at Orakau Pa Legislative Violations: Native Lands Act Suppression of Rebellion Act 1863 Waikato Invasion Native Schools act 1863 Tohunga suppression Act Generation 3 1920’s-1989 Aftermath of colonial assimilation Grand Father: Kapa (Tom) Te Wharua Waretini Weteni Brought up by Princess Te Puea Helped build Turangawaewae Marae Spoke Maori but was caned and punished in school. Fought in World War Two Moved away from Māori culture for western religion Legislative violations: Native Schools Act 1867 Tohunga Suppression Act 1908 Native Health Act 1909 WW2 Hunn Report 1961 Generation 2 1946 – 1996 Once were Warriors generation Father: Raymond Bartholomew Waretini Karena Welder- Boilermaker New Urban Māori Under valued anything Maori Didn’t learn tikanga-cultural heritage Put his friends before his family Abused his wife and children Legislative Violations: Hunn Report 1961 Pepper potting system Rural to Urban migration Generation 1 Rediscovering cultural heritage Mokopuna: Rawiri-David- Waretini-Junior :Karena Musician - Lecturer: Grew up with no identity Did not know my native language or culture. Wasn’t taught tikanga, kawa principles or values Suffered years of child abuse Went on to change the cycle and get an education Legislative Violations: Pu Ao Te Atatu NZ Constitution Act 1986 Fore shore & Seabed 2004 Takutai Moana Bill 2010 Oil drilling Asset sales Fracking TPPA Intergenerational Analysis Model
  • 30. Genogram • The genogram identifies consequences of intergenerational policies across generations • The genogram also examines how detrimental consequences trickle from one generation to the next. • The key identifies certain consequences as well as highlighting which member is effected
  • 32. Discussion • How has this presentation informed your understanding of Pūrākau & Pūtaketanga theories, narratives, models & application?
  • 33. Intergenerational Exercise Get into five groups: Group 1 60’s Group 2 70’s Group 3 80’s Group 4 90’s Group 5 2000’s You are to listen to the song of your era Discuss what you remember in your era
  • 34. Exercise Group Focus • What was society like in this era? • What were the clothes like? • What was the food like? • Favourite Television shows • What memories does this bring up for you? After completion of exercise students are to brainstorm what they noticed? Present learning's back to the class: Discuss how each era has influenced the other!! • Debrief
  • 35. Debrief • What learnings that have come form this exercise?
  • 37. Discussion What are underlying themes behind this video?
  • 38. Karakia Whakamutunga Kia tau ki a tatou katoa, te atawhai o to tatou Ariki, o Ihu Karaiti, me te Aroha o te Atua, me te whiwhinga tahitanga ki te wairua tapu, ake ake ake Amine.
  • 39. Reference • Lee, J.(2005). Māori cultural regeneration: Pūrākau as pedagogy. Paper presented as part of a symposium Indigenous (Māori) pedagogies: Towards community and cultural regeneration with Te Kawehau Hoskins and Wiremu Doherty. Centre for Research in lifelong learning International Conference, Stirling: Scotland. • Wiri, R. (2013). Mātauranga Māori: The Traditional Origins of Māori Knowledge Puirtia te aka I pikihia ai e Tāwhaki. Puirtia te aka i pikihia ai e Tāwhaki. Grasp hold of the vine which was climbed by Tāwhaki. Whakatāne: New Zealand. Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi • Wiri, R. (2001). The Prophecies of the Great Canyon of Toi: A History of Te Whāiti-nui-a-Toi in the Western Urewera Mountains of New Zealand, Ph.D thesis, Auckland University. • Smith, L, T.(1999). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and Indigenous peoples. Dunedin: New Zealand. University of Otago Press