Nuclear pharmacy

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the presentation with a brief detail of nuclear pharmacy

Nuclear pharmacy

  1. 1. INTRODUCTIONRadiopharmaceuticals
  2. 2.  Atomic number Mass number Isotopes-stable isotopes-unstable isotopes Radio-active halflife Units of Radio-activity-Roentgen-RAD-REM-Becquerel(bq)
  3. 3. METHODS OF PRODUCTION PILE PRODUCED ISOTOPES (NUCLERA REACTOR) CYCLOTRON – PRODUCED ISOTOPES RADIO ISOTOPES GENERATOR
  4. 4.  Most of the R-A materials prepared in nuclear pile Uranium fission rxn produces large supply of neutrons Neutrons in rxn are a mixture of fast neutrons and thermal Thermal neutrons are obtained by fast neutrons thru a moderator n γ Rxn . Target nuclie captures thz thermal neutron to yield a radioactive nucleus in an excited state Surplus energy emitted as γ-radiation
  5. 5.  Eg. 2311Na +n 23 Na 14 23 Na +γ 14 1 neutron for each uranium atom undregoes fission and other neutrons are used to produce PLUTONIUM by interaction with 238U These neutrons are either lost or used to interact with specific target which have been inserted into “neutron activation”1. Radio-active material thru Fission process2. Radio-active material thru Neutron activationFISSION Reactions :238 92 U+ 10n 131 50 Sn + 10642 Mo + 10n+ 1 0n131 50 Sn and 10642 Mo are radio active nuclides
  6. 6. NEUTRON ACTIVATIONWhen simple neutron is captured or during transmutation process neutron activation occurs a radio-activated phosphorus, 32P can be prepared from stable phosphorus , 31p by neutron capture
  7. 7.  Radio-activewhich are neutron deficient are produced by cyclotron Obtained by bombarding targer nuclie with protons deuterons α particle
  8. 8.  During investigation , hazards to patients can be reduced by using isotopes Such isotope can be supplied in form of long lived parent that decay to isotope required Parent nuclide prepared in form of suitable ion – absorbed to the ion exchange column The whole assembly is known ass Radio- isotope generator This long lived parent results in production short lived daughter Whicj is “eluted” or “milked” from column
  9. 9.  Eg. Technetium 99m 99m Tc generator sonsist of column containing alumina on which Molybdenum 99 is absorbedin form of ammonium molybdate Radioactive decay of 99 Mo produces 99mTc which is eluted from the column This isotope is produced for brain , liver and in thyroid scanning and is safer It has short life and does not emit beta radiations.

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