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INTRODUCTION
Radiopharmaceuticals
 Atomic  number
 Mass number
 Isotopes
-stable isotopes
-unstable isotopes
 Radio-active halflife
 Units of Radio-activity
-Roentgen
-RAD
-REM
-Becquerel(bq)
METHODS OF PRODUCTION
 PILE PRODUCED ISOTOPES (NUCLERA
  REACTOR)
 CYCLOTRON – PRODUCED ISOTOPES
 RADIO ISOTOPES GENERATOR
 Most   of the R-A materials prepared in nuclear
  pile
 Uranium fission rxn produces large supply of
  neutrons
 Neutrons in rxn are a mixture of fast
  neutrons and thermal
 Thermal neutrons are obtained by fast
  neutrons thru a moderator
 n γ Rxn . Target nuclie captures thz thermal
  neutron to yield a radioactive nucleus in an
  excited state
 Surplus energy emitted as γ-radiation
 Eg. 2311Na +n      23 Na
                       14
                               23 Na +γ
                                 14
 1 neutron for each uranium atom undregoes
  fission and other neutrons are used to produce
  PLUTONIUM by interaction with 238U
 These neutrons are either lost or used to
  interact with specific target which have been
  inserted into “neutron activation”
1. Radio-active material thru Fission process
2. Radio-active material thru Neutron activation


FISSION Reactions :
238
    92 U+ 10n 131
                  50 Sn + 10642 Mo + 10n+     1
                                                  0n


131
      50   Sn and 10642 Mo are radio active nuclides
NEUTRON ACTIVATION
When simple neutron is captured or during
 transmutation process neutron activation occurs
 a radio-activated phosphorus, 32P can be
 prepared from stable phosphorus , 31p by
 neutron capture
 Radio-activewhich are neutron deficient are
  produced by cyclotron
 Obtained by bombarding targer nuclie with
  protons deuterons α particle
 During  investigation , hazards to patients can
  be reduced by using isotopes
 Such isotope can be supplied in form of long
  lived parent that decay to isotope required
 Parent nuclide prepared in form of suitable
  ion – absorbed to the ion exchange column
 The whole assembly is known ass Radio-
  isotope generator
 This long lived parent results in production
  short lived daughter
 Whicj is “eluted” or “milked” from column
 Eg.   Technetium 99m

 99m Tc generator sonsist of column containing
  alumina on which Molybdenum 99 is absorbedin
  form of ammonium molybdate
 Radioactive decay of 99 Mo produces 99mTc
  which is eluted from the column
 This isotope is produced for brain , liver and in
  thyroid scanning and is safer
 It has short life and does not emit beta
  radiations.

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Nuclear pharmacy

  • 2.  Atomic number  Mass number  Isotopes -stable isotopes -unstable isotopes  Radio-active halflife  Units of Radio-activity -Roentgen -RAD -REM -Becquerel(bq)
  • 3. METHODS OF PRODUCTION  PILE PRODUCED ISOTOPES (NUCLERA REACTOR)  CYCLOTRON – PRODUCED ISOTOPES  RADIO ISOTOPES GENERATOR
  • 4.  Most of the R-A materials prepared in nuclear pile  Uranium fission rxn produces large supply of neutrons  Neutrons in rxn are a mixture of fast neutrons and thermal  Thermal neutrons are obtained by fast neutrons thru a moderator  n γ Rxn . Target nuclie captures thz thermal neutron to yield a radioactive nucleus in an excited state  Surplus energy emitted as γ-radiation
  • 5.  Eg. 2311Na +n 23 Na 14 23 Na +γ 14 1 neutron for each uranium atom undregoes fission and other neutrons are used to produce PLUTONIUM by interaction with 238U  These neutrons are either lost or used to interact with specific target which have been inserted into “neutron activation” 1. Radio-active material thru Fission process 2. Radio-active material thru Neutron activation FISSION Reactions : 238 92 U+ 10n 131 50 Sn + 10642 Mo + 10n+ 1 0n 131 50 Sn and 10642 Mo are radio active nuclides
  • 6. NEUTRON ACTIVATION When simple neutron is captured or during transmutation process neutron activation occurs a radio-activated phosphorus, 32P can be prepared from stable phosphorus , 31p by neutron capture
  • 7.  Radio-activewhich are neutron deficient are produced by cyclotron  Obtained by bombarding targer nuclie with protons deuterons α particle
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.  During investigation , hazards to patients can be reduced by using isotopes  Such isotope can be supplied in form of long lived parent that decay to isotope required  Parent nuclide prepared in form of suitable ion – absorbed to the ion exchange column  The whole assembly is known ass Radio- isotope generator  This long lived parent results in production short lived daughter  Whicj is “eluted” or “milked” from column
  • 12.  Eg. Technetium 99m  99m Tc generator sonsist of column containing alumina on which Molybdenum 99 is absorbedin form of ammonium molybdate  Radioactive decay of 99 Mo produces 99mTc which is eluted from the column  This isotope is produced for brain , liver and in thyroid scanning and is safer  It has short life and does not emit beta radiations.