Presentation on ….
• scaling is the branch of measurement that involves
the construction of an instrument that associates
qualitative constructs with quantitative metric
• Scaling describes the procedures of assigning no. to
various degrees of opinion, attitude & other
• scaling is the extension of measurement.
• It is the process of placing the respondents on
Types of measurement scales
• Nominal scale
• Ordinal scale
• Interval scale
• Ratio scale
• Scale assigns number symbols to events in order to label them.
• Order is of no consequence.
• Describes differences between the things by assigning them to
• Used for keeping track of people, objects, events, no statistical
• Measure of central tendency- Mode
• Test of statistical significance- Chi square
• Least powerful measurement – no arithmetic origin, order or
Examples of nominal scale
1. Code no. Assigned to male – 1
code no. assigned to female – 2
2. Code no. assigned to different subjects:
science – 1
commerce – 2
Arts – 3
3. Code no. assigned for america- 1
for dubai – 2
for canada - 3
• Places events in order.
• Ranking of items from highest to lowest.
• Categories have logical or ordered relationship.
• More precise comparisons are not possible.
• No absolute values.
• Measure of central tendency – Median
• Measure of statistical significance – non-
• Used in qualitative research.
Examples of ordinal scale
Ex.1. Rank the following soft drinks acc. To
how much u like it.
Soft drink brands Respondents
Mountain dew 7
Ex.2. Rank the following T.V. serials
according to your preference.
Name of T.V. Serial Respondents
Balika vadhu 1
Sach ka saamna 3
Rakhi ka swayamvar 4
Is jungle se mujhe bachao 5
Ex. 3.Rank the following brands of
toothpaste acc. To your preference.
Name of toothpaste Respondents
Dabur red 6
Ex. 4. Rank the following brands of
cosmetics acc. To your preference.
Name of brands Respondents
• Scale that adjusts intervals in such a way that
a rule can be established as a basis for making
the units equal.
• Numbers are used to rank attributes
• It can have an arbitrary zero, but not absolute
zero (unique origin)
• Measure of central tendency – Mean
• Measure of statistical significance – standard
• ‘ t ‘ and ‘ f ‘ test for significance.
Examples of Interval Scales
Ex.1.Indicate your score on concerned
blank& circle the appropriate number
on each line.
Pizza of pizza-hut is :
Tastes good 1 2 3 4 5
Prompt time delivery 1 2 3 4 5
Value for money 1 2 3 4 5
Fresh 1 2 3 4 5
Large variety 1 2 3 4 5
Ex.2. Indicate your score on concerned blank
& circle the appropriate number on each
Features of Hero Honda
Looks 1 2 3 4 5
Good average 1 2 3 4 5
Comfortable 1 2 3 4 5
Good pick-up 1 2 3 4 5
Reliable 1 2 3 4 5
After sales service 1 2 3 4 5
Example in semantic format
Ex.3. Please indicate your views on the
features of toothpaste by scoring them
on a five points scale from 1 to 5
Your toothpaste excellent Very good good poor worst
Prevents germs 24 hrs
• Ratio scale have an absolute or true
zero of measurement & represents the
actual amount of variables.
• Highest level of measurement scale.
• Most precise scale.
• Measures of central tendency –
Geometric & Harmonic Mean.
• Coefficient of variation may also
Examples of ratio scale
Ex.1. If you would have given Rs. 10000
then how would you like to spend your
money on following retail formats.
Name of retail format Amount to be spent
2. If you would have given Rs. 500 then
how would you like to spend your
money on purchasing following
Name of soap Amount to be spent (in Rs.)
Fiama de’ wills
Relevant information is obtained
increasingly from nominal to ratio
scale. If the nature of the variables
permits, the researcher should use the
scale that provides the most precise