NEW PRODUCTS IN THE MARKET Every year around 5000 new products appear in the market. However, most fail and only a few remain ( around 20%). Products which are innovative.
Why does this happen?Marketing issues Valuable resources are wasted which might have been deployed towards more productive uses Products that might have helped people do things more productively or attain higher levels in their quality of life, fail to be used.
Marketing issues Successful new product development is an important element in achieving long term competitive superiority and profitability, especially in low growth markets A successful new product can be the beginning of a whole new company
THE VALUE CHAINContemporary firms are being attacked bycompetitively on every dimension and from everydirection. The only way to survive this onslaught is tocreate a ‘value chain’ to serve the customer, which willserve to differentiate the successful firm from itscompetitors and will provide competitive superiorityon the critical attributes of importance to the consumer
WHAT IS AN INNOVATION? It is any idea or product perceived by the potential adopter to be new. New products are ideas, behaviour or things that are qualitatively different from existing forms
Diffusion of innovation A process by which a new product moves from initial introduction to regular purchase and use A process by which an innovation (idea) is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system – Everett Rogers
Diffusion variables Innovation Communication Time Social system
Types of Innovations Continuous – modification or improvement of an existing product Dynamically continuous – may involve the creation of either a new product or the alteration of an existing one ,but does not generally alter established patterns of customer buying and product use Discontinuous – production of an entirely new product that causes customers to alter their behaviour patterns significantly
INNOVATIONS INCLUDE BOTH AHARDWARE AND A SOFTWARECOMPONENT The hardware are the physical and tangible aspects of a product. The software is the understanding consumers’ values and lifestyles
Likelihood of innovation success Relative advantage – new products that are most likely to succeed are those that appeal to strongly felt needs Compatibility – degree to which the product is consistent with existing values and past experience of the adopters Complexity – degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand and use Trialability – the ability to make trials easy for new products without economic risk to the consumer Observability – reflects the degree to which results from using a new product are visible to friends and neighbours
Types of Innovators Cognitive – problem solving, cerebral, new mental experience Sensory – fantasy, day dreaming, thrill seeking Monomorphic - consumers who are innovators for one type of product Polymorphic – consumers who are innovators for more than one type of product
Communication of new products Mass media WOM Homophily – degree to which pairs of individuals who interact are similar in beliefs, education and social status Heterophily – inconsistent with own beliefs and views
The Adoption – Decision Process Knowledge/Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial Decision Confirmation
Adopter classes Innovators - 2.5% Early adopters – 13.5% Early majority – 34% Late majority – 34% Laggards – 16%
Innovativeness This is the degree to which an individual adopts an innovation relatively earlier than others Based on time of adoption Based on number of new product adoption
Parameters for innovativeness Socio-economic variables Personality and attitude Communication variables
Socio – economic variables Education Literacy Higher social status Upward social mobility Larger-sized units Commercial orientation Favourable attitude towards credit Specialized operations
Personality and attitude Empathy Ability to cope with Ability to deal in uncertainty abstraction Favourable attitude Rationality towards education Intelligence Favourable attitude Favourable attitude towards science towards change High aspirations
Communication variables Social participation Exposure to interpersonal Interconnectedness with the communication channels social system Knowledge of innovations Cosmopoliteness Opinion leadership Change agent contact Belonging to highly Mass media exposure interconnected systems
POLYMORPHISM The degree to which innovators and early adopters for one product are likely to be innovators for other products. Consumers who are innovators for one product are monomorphic. Consumers who are innovators for more than one product are polymorphic.