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INTERNET OF THINGS
Building beacons: the next big “thing “
Ravikiran
November 28, 2015
Bangalore, India
AGENDA
 Introduction
 Industry Forecast
 Architecture
 Enabling Technologies
 Security considerations
 Applications
...
INTRODUCTION
 Internet of everything
 Connected devices
 Artificial Intelligence
 Minimal human interventions
 Combin...
INTERNET OF THINGS
IOT INDUSTRY FORECAST
IOT ARCHITECTURE
ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES
BLUETOOTH LOW ENERGY
 Operates in 2.4GHz-2.48GHz ISM band
 1Mbps over the air data exchange speed (theoretical)
 7.5ms ...
BT/LE ARCHITECTURE
BLE FOR IOT
 Why BLE is popular in IoT world?
 Why it consumes lesser power than classic BT?
BLE PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISING PACKETS
SCAN & SCAN RESPONSE
PAIRING, CHANNEL ENCRYPTION AND LINK KEYS
 AES-128 with encryption engine
 Identity Resolving Key: for privacy
 Signing...
CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT
 Central initiates/terminates connection
 Connection is nothing but periodic exchange of data
a...
PROFILES VS PROTOCOLS
 Protocols:
 Protocol is the set of rules followed by different layers
 Protocol defines packets ...
GENERIC PROFILES
 GAP:
 Defines usage model for low level radio
 Define roles & procedure to broadcast, discover, estab...
SERVICES AND CHARACTERISTICS
SERVICES AND CHARACTERISTICS (CONTD…)
 Services:
 Break data into small logical entities
 Collection of characteristic ...
UNIVERSAL UNIQUE IDENTIFIER:
 16-bit UUID are generally assigned by the
bluetooth.org
 128-bit UUID are custom ID’s.
 S...
BLE FOR IOT RECAP
 Why BLE is popular in IoT world?
 Why it consumes lesser power than classic BT?
THREATS
 MITM: Man In The Middle attack
 Passive Eavesdropping
 Identity tracking
SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
 Encryption
 Signed data
 Privacy feature
 Directed advertisement
 Private address
 Resolvab...
BEACONS FOR BETTER USER EXPERIENCE
 Proximity based applications
 Retail
 Store notification
 System security
 Passen...
CHALLENGES
 Power optimization
 User experience
 Initial setup time
 Security threats
FUTURE OF IOT
 Smart cars
 Smart Couches
 Smart consumer goods
 Technology that could influence politics
 Potential o...
FAQ:
 Is BLE PHY layer is full duplex?
 No !
 What is the difference between GAT/GAP/ATT?
 ATT defines the fundamental...
 What is the MTU size limits?
 MAX=512, MIN=23
 Can slave and Master transmit on same channel?
 Yes ! On every connect...
???
REFERENCES
 https://developer.bluetooth.org
 http://www.bluetooth.com/
 https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us
APPENDIX
NFC (NEAR FIELD COMMUNICATION)
NFC (CONTD…)
 Works on the basis of electro magnetic radio fields
 13.54MHz operating band – same as RFID
 Active and P...
Iot ble and_beacons_2015_nov28
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Iot ble and_beacons_2015_nov28

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IoT & ble beacons presentation in google devfest 2015 @Bangalore

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Iot ble and_beacons_2015_nov28

  1. 1. INTERNET OF THINGS Building beacons: the next big “thing “ Ravikiran November 28, 2015 Bangalore, India
  2. 2. AGENDA  Introduction  Industry Forecast  Architecture  Enabling Technologies  Security considerations  Applications  Challenges and issues  Future of IoT
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Internet of everything  Connected devices  Artificial Intelligence  Minimal human interventions  Combination of multiple technologies: Sensors, M2M.
  4. 4. INTERNET OF THINGS
  5. 5. IOT INDUSTRY FORECAST
  6. 6. IOT ARCHITECTURE
  7. 7. ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES
  8. 8. BLUETOOTH LOW ENERGY  Operates in 2.4GHz-2.48GHz ISM band  1Mbps over the air data exchange speed (theoretical)  7.5ms – 4 S connection interval  Max 6 packets per connection interval  Max packet size 20 Bytes (increased to 256 in 4.2)  133 * 7.5 = 1000ms  Max bytes per sec = 133 conn. intervals*6 packets*20 bytes = 15960Bps = 125Kbps  Range up to 100meter – 2m-5m optimal  Bluetooth 4.0+ to support LE mode  Bluetooth smart and smart ready support (dual mode)  Low power consumption  Fast connection time
  9. 9. BT/LE ARCHITECTURE
  10. 10. BLE FOR IOT  Why BLE is popular in IoT world?  Why it consumes lesser power than classic BT?
  11. 11. BLE PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL
  12. 12. ADVERTISEMENT
  13. 13. ADVERTISING PACKETS
  14. 14. SCAN & SCAN RESPONSE
  15. 15. PAIRING, CHANNEL ENCRYPTION AND LINK KEYS  AES-128 with encryption engine  Identity Resolving Key: for privacy  Signing Resolving Key: authentication without encryption  LTK: used for encryption  Paring encrypts the link using a temporary key  Temporary key is derived key: pass key, nfc pair, public key
  16. 16. CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT  Central initiates/terminates connection  Connection is nothing but periodic exchange of data at regular intervals  Data exchange can be bidirectional, when connected  FHSS – Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum  Channel = (current_channel+hop) mod 37  Hop value will be communicated on successful connection.  GFSK: Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying used to encode bit stream over the air.  Link layer manages the preamble, access address, CRC, encryption, data whitening,
  17. 17. PROFILES VS PROTOCOLS  Protocols:  Protocol is the set of rules followed by different layers  Protocol defines packets format, muxing, encoding and decoding  Protocols are the building blocks to assure device conformant to bluetooth.org standard  Profile:  Profiles defines the basic modes of operation to be supported by all devices conformant to bluetooth.org standard  These are the set of rules, which essentially define how to use protocols
  18. 18. GENERIC PROFILES  GAP:  Defines usage model for low level radio  Define roles & procedure to broadcast, discover, establish connection and manage security etc.  Top most control layer  GATT:  Entry point for the application to interact with protocol layer  Enables discover, read, write and push data.  Use case specific (GATT based):  HRP, HID,  PXP, FindMe  Vendor specific:  Apple ibeacon
  19. 19. SERVICES AND CHARACTERISTICS
  20. 20. SERVICES AND CHARACTERISTICS (CONTD…)  Services:  Break data into small logical entities  Collection of characteristic entities  16-bit/128 UUID  Characteristics:  Smallest data units of a service  This is a encapsulated single data point  Entities where actual exchange of data happens  16-bit/128 UUID
  21. 21. UNIVERSAL UNIQUE IDENTIFIER:  16-bit UUID are generally assigned by the bluetooth.org  128-bit UUID are custom ID’s.  Service UUID  Characteristics UUID
  22. 22. BLE FOR IOT RECAP  Why BLE is popular in IoT world?  Why it consumes lesser power than classic BT?
  23. 23. THREATS  MITM: Man In The Middle attack  Passive Eavesdropping  Identity tracking
  24. 24. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS  Encryption  Signed data  Privacy feature  Directed advertisement  Private address  Resolvable –private address  Non resolvable private address  Random address
  25. 25. BEACONS FOR BETTER USER EXPERIENCE  Proximity based applications  Retail  Store notification  System security  Passenger navigation in airports  Smart cities  Medical devices  Smart home
  26. 26. CHALLENGES  Power optimization  User experience  Initial setup time  Security threats
  27. 27. FUTURE OF IOT  Smart cars  Smart Couches  Smart consumer goods  Technology that could influence politics  Potential opportunities and global trends  Imagination is the limit
  28. 28. FAQ:  Is BLE PHY layer is full duplex?  No !  What is the difference between GAT/GAP/ATT?  ATT defines the fundamental storage unit for data in BLE.  GATT defines server and client models  GAP provides device information and service listing. Enables device features like discovery, scan, advertisement etc.  What is the server client vs. master slave?  Link layer defines - master/slave  GATT defines - server/client  GAP defines - Central/Pheripheral
  29. 29.  What is the MTU size limits?  MAX=512, MIN=23  Can slave and Master transmit on same channel?  Yes ! On every connection it does so.
  30. 30. ???
  31. 31. REFERENCES  https://developer.bluetooth.org  http://www.bluetooth.com/  https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us
  32. 32. APPENDIX
  33. 33. NFC (NEAR FIELD COMMUNICATION)
  34. 34. NFC (CONTD…)  Works on the basis of electro magnetic radio fields  13.54MHz operating band – same as RFID  Active and Passive modes of operation  No requirement for an additional battery (passive mode)  Short range technology – 10cm  Highly secure compare to any other competing technologies - (rfid/ble)  Smart card protocol support (contact less smart cards)

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