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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 1 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Acknowledgement
“It is not possible to prepare a summer training report without the assistance &
encouragement of other people. This one is certainly no exception.”
On the very outset of this report, I would like to extend my sincere & heartfelt obligation
towards all the personages who have helped me in this endeavor. Without their active guidance,
help, cooperation & encouragement, I would not have made headway in the project.
First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my project guide,
MD. KHALID AHMED, MR. N.K. SINGH, MR. S.K. JHA
I was privileged to experience a sustained enthusiastic and involved interest from his side. This
fuelled my enthusiasm even further and encouraged me to boldly step into what was a totally
dark and unexplored expanse before me. He always fuelled my thoughts to think broad and out
of the box.
Thanking You
RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 2 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 1
Doordarshan History ..................................................................................................................... 2
DD Kendra patna........................................................................................................................... 4
Fundamentals of monochrome and Colour TV system .................................................................. 7
Colour Composite Video Signal (CCVS) ..................................................................................... 15
TV Studio...................................................................................................................................... 19
TV Camera.................................................................................................................................... 23
Studio Lighting ............................................................................................................................. 26
Microphones.................................................................................................................................. 31
Cables and Connectors.................................................................................................................. 34
Anteena ......................................................................................................................................... 38
TV Transmitter.............................................................................................................................. 41
Outdoor Broadcasting van ............................................................................................................ 44
Sattelite Communication............................................................................................................... 46
HDTV............................................................................................................................................ 49
About Free Dish............................................................................................................................ 50
Digital Terrestrial TV.................................................................................................................... 53
Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 57
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 3 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
PREFACE
Doordarshan is an Indian public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati It is one of the
largest broadcasting organisations in India in terms of the studio and transmitter infrastructure.
Recently, it has also started broadcasting on Digital Terrestrial Transmitters. Doordarshan
operates 6-All India Channels, 16 Regional Channels, 11 -State Networks & 1- International
Channel.
Two channels Rajya Sabha TV &Lok Sabha TV for live broadcast of parliamentary proceedings.
On DD National (DD-1), Regional programs and Local Programs are carried on time-sharing
basis. DD News channel, launched on 3 November 2003, which replaced the DD Metro formally
known as (DD-2) Entertainment channel, provides 24-Hour news service. Doordarshan is one of
the largest broadcasting organizations in India in terms of the infrastructure of studios and
transmitters.Doordarshan Kendra, Patna has a setup for the transmission of television
programmes directed from the other Doordarshan Kendra namely DD Delhi.
DD Kendra, Patna also has a set up for the recording and transmission of programmes like talk
shows etc. The DDK has the necessary and sufficient stages for the television coverage. The
Kendra has the television studio, production control room, transmitters, control room, antenna. In
the beginning, only the development programmes were telecast but later on to enlighten the viewers as
per their needs, expectations, many more informative, educative and entertaining programmes have
been introduced from time to time.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 4 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
INTRODUCTION
Doordarshan is an Indian public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati . It is one of the
largest broadcasting organizations in India in terms of the studio and transmitter infrastructure.
Recently, it has also started broadcasting on Digital Terrestrial Transmitters.
On 15 September 2009, Doordarshan celebrated its 50th anniversary. The DD provides
television, radio, online and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional India, as well
as overseas through the Indian Network and Radio India. DD sports channel has provided round
the clock coverage of sport events. Doordarshan is the public television broadcaster of India and a
division of Prasar Bharati, and nominated by the Government of India.
It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in the world in terms of the infrastructure of
studios and transmitters. Prasar Bharati, its parent body has all board members appointed by the
Government of India acting through the Information and Broadcasting Ministry. This control is
evident in a budget that allows expenditure on "propaganda and public relations".
Doordarshan is a network of 1400 terrestrial transmitters covers more than 96% of India's
population. There are about 67 Doordarshan studios producing TV programmes today.
Doordarshan Kendra is a milestone in the field of entertainment and education media source.
Doordarshan Kendra, Bareilly is the Program Production Center and transition. The studios are
housed at same campus and the transmitter is located at the Bareilly.
AIR and Doordarshan aims to provide information, education and entertainment for the public.
DD India is broadcast internationally via satellite. It is available in 146 countries worldwide;
however, information on receiving this channel in other countries is not easily available.
Due to the transmitters and infrastructural facilities of Doordarshan, it is considered amongst the
leading broadcasting organizations throughout the world.
.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 5 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
DOORDARSHAN HISTORY
Prasar Bharati is a statutory autonomous body established under the Prasar Bharati Act and
came into existence on 23.11.1997. It is the Public Service Broadcaster of the country. The
objectives of public service broadcasting are achieved in terms of Prasar Bharati Act through All
India Radio and Doordarshan, which earlier were working as media units under the Ministry of
I&B and since the above said date became constituents of Prasar Bharati.
15 September, 1959 was the first day when the transmission of television
programme begin in India at a make shift studio in the All India Radio building. Pramita Puri
was the first announcer who started the programme with “shehnai recital' of Ustaad Bismillah
Khan. The programme was transmitted in a radius of 25 kilometers with a small
transmitter. From Black & White to becoming color in 1982 to digital telecast in 2004, the
public broadcaster has grown with tune of time.
National telecasts were introduced in 1982. In the same year, color TV was introduced in the Indi
an market with the live telecast of the Independence Day speech by then prime minister Indira
Gandhi on 15 August 1982, followed by the 1982 Asian Games being held in Delhi. Now
more than 96 percent of the Indian population can receive Doordarshan (DD National)
programmes through a network of nearly 1400 terrestrial transmitters and about 46 Doordarshan
studios produce TV programs today.
SIGNIFICANT MILESTONES ACHIEVED WERE
•Launch of international channel - DD India (14 March 1995)
•Formation of Prasar Bharti (Broadcasting Corporation of India) (23 November 1997)
•Launch of sports channels - DD sports (18 March 1999)
•Launch of enrichment/ culture channel - DD Bharti (26 January 2002)
•Launch of 24 hours news channel - DD News (3 November 2002)
•Launch of free to air Direct – To – Home Service DD Direct+ (16 December 2004)
•DD Urdu came into existence on 15 August 2006
•Launch of 24 hours Indian agriculture channel - DD Kisan (26 May 2015)
• Digital Terrestrial Television services to provide mobile TV at 16 cities (25 February 2016)
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 6 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
DOORDARSHAN NETWORK
Doordarshan is presently operating 34 Satellite channels.
All India Channels - 6
DD National
DD News
DD Sports
DD Bharati
DD Urdu
DD Kisan
Regional Channels - 16
DD Malayalam
DD Podhigai
DD Oriya
DD Bangla
DD Saptagiri
(Vijayawada )
DD Chandana
DD Sahyadri
DD Girnar
DD Kashir
DD North East
DD Punjabi
DD Rajasthan
DD Madhya Pradesh
DD Uttar Pradesh
DD Bihar
DD Yadagiri
(Hyderabad)
State Networks - 11
Himachal Pradesh
Jharkhand
Chhattisgarh
Haryana
Uttarakhand
Tripura
Mizoram
Meghalaya
Arunachal Pradesh
Manipur
Nagaland
International Channel -1
DD India
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 7 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
DOORDARSHAN KENDRA: PATNA AT A GLANCE
Doordarshan Kendra, Patna was inaugurated on the 13th October 1990 with an interim set
up converting a Government Quarter located at Chhajubagh, Patna. Adjacent area was
demarcated for the construction of a full-fledged studio. The new studio building with all the
modern equipments and accessories was finally inaugurated on the 15th March 1996.
Initially, Doordarshan Kendra, Patna started its programme having one hour duration with the
news bulletin in Hindi for a duration of 15 minutes. A five-minute Urdu News Bulletin was
subsequently started in May 1992 which was further increased to 10 minutes in the year 1993. A
Satellite Link with all the Transmitters of Bihar was established in 1994. The commercial service
at this Kendra was introduced in the year 1995. The new Studio Complex at Chhajubagh, Patna
started working in March 1999. The Main Studio is having approximately 400 sq. meter
areas. At present, this Studio is being utilized for one shift recording and one shift transmission.
With the passage of time, the Kendra has been provided with the entire latest technical
infrastructure . At present, the infrastructure consists of full- fledged studio with state of art CCD
Cameras and Digital Production Switcher. For ENG recording/ coverage, the Kendra is having
Betacam and Digital DVCPRO Cameras. Two new 10 KW High Power Transmitter for DD-I
and DD- II give primary service to an area around 75 kilometers radius. The Kendra has an
uplink system, which caters to 3 HPT, 34 LPTs and 2 VLPTs (after bifurcation of the erstwhile
State of Bihar) for relaying the regional service. One BEL OB Van is available for OB Live
telecast and recording.
High Power TV Transmitter Complex is located at Bahadurpur, Patna.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 8 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
STUDIO SET UP & COVERAGE DETAILS
STUDIO SETUP
 Studio - A (Main)
• Four Camera Digital set up
• For recording of programmes and other major activities.
 Studio - B (News)
• Two Camera digital set up
• For News & Regional transmissions
 OB VAN
• Six Camera digital set up
• For outdoor major coverage such as Sports, Major functions etc. including
live coverages.
 EFP ( Electronic field production) VAN
•For outdoor coverage such as Crop seminar, Kalyani at village with 3 ENG (DVC)
camera set up
 Earth Station
•Having two uplinking channels in digital mode.
 ENG (Electronic News Gathering)
•With 12 portable ENG units for the purpose of day to day News and outdoor
programmes coverage.
 Post production facilities
•Three nos. of Linear Edit Suits equipped with latest edit controllers.
•Two nos. of Non-Linear computer based edit suits.
•Computer based 3D Graphics facility.
•Separate studio for audio dubbing.
 Total coverage of Doordarshan in Bihar
•Doordarshan is covering both area & population wise 93.4%of the total population of
82.9 millions as per 2011 census
•TV coverage to uncovered areas is being provided through KU Band Free to AIR DTH
Service of Doordarshan.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 9 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
DoordarshanNetwork in Bihar
Doordarshan Studio
• Patna (Major)
• Muzaffarpur
Doordarshan Transmitters (For Terrestrial Transmissions)
BIHAR TRANSMITTERS
HPTs (7)
KATIHAR PATNA PATNA (DD News)
MUZAFFARPUR SAHARSA MUZAFFARPUR
(DD News)
PATNA (DTT)
LPTs (30)
AURANGABAD JAMUI SASARAM
BANKA KISHANGANJ SHEIKHPURA
BEGUSARAI LAKHISARAI SIKANDRA
BETTIAH MADHUBANI SITAMARHI
BHABHUA MOTIHARI SIWAN
BHAGALPUR MUNGER GAYA (DD News)
BUXAR NAWADA DARBHANGA (DD
News)
DARBHANGA PHOOLPARAS
DAUDNAGAR RAMNAGAR
FORBESGANJ RAXAUL
GAYA ROSERA
GOPALGANJ
VLPTs (2)
MASRAKH MARHAURA
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 10 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
FUNDAMENTALS OF MONOCHROME AND COLOUR TV
SYSTEM
Picture formation-
A picture can be considered to contain a number of small elementary areas of light or shade
which are called PICTURE ELEMENTS. The elements thus contain the visual image of the
scene. In the case of a TV camera the scene is focused on the photosensitive surface of pick up
device and a optical image is formed. The photoelectric properties of the pick up device convert
the optical image to a electric charge image depending on the light and shade of the scene
(picture elements). Now it is necessary to pick up this information and transmit it. For this
purpose scanning is employed. Electron beam scans the charge image and produces optical
image. The electron beam scans the image line by line and field by field to provide signal
variations in a successive order.
The scanning is both in horizontal and vertical direction simultaneously. The horizontal scanning
frequency is 15,625 Hertz. The vertical scanning frequency is 50 Hz.
The frame is divided in two fields. Odd lines are scanned first and then the even lines. The odd
and even lines are interlaced. Since the frame is divided into 2 fields the flicker reduces. The
field rate is 50 Hertz. The frame rate is 25 Hertz.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 11 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Number of TV Lines per Frame –
If the number of TV lines is high larger bandwidth of video and hence larger R.F. channel width
is required. If we go for larger RF channel width the number of channels in the R.F. spectrum
will be reduced. However, with more no. of TV lines on the screen the clarity of the picture i.e.
resolution improves. With lesser number of TV lines per frame the clarity (quality) is poor
Resolution: The capability of the system to resolve maximum number of picture elements along
scanning lines determines the horizontal resolution. It means how many alternate black and white
elements can be there in a line. The vertical resolution depends on the number of scanning lines
and the resolution factor (also known as Kell factor)
Grey Scale: In black and white (monochrome) TV system all the colours appear as gray on a 10-
step gray scale chart. TV white corresponds to a reflectance of 60% and TV black 3 % giving
rise to a Contrast Ratio of 20:1 (Film can handle more than 30:1 and eye's capability is much
more).
Brightness: Brightness reveals the average illumination of the reproduced image on the TV
screen. Brightness control in a TV set adjusts the voltage between grid and cathode of the picture
tube (Bias voltage).
Contrast: Contrast is the relative difference between black and white parts of the reproduced
picture. In a TV set the contrast control adjusts the level of video signal fed to the picture tube.
Viewing Distance: Optimum viewing distance from TV set is about 4 to 8 times the height of
the TV screen. While viewing TV screen one has to ensure that no direct light falls on the TV
screen.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 12 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
TELEVISION STANDARDS
•NTSC-National television standards committee
(US) (525 Horizontal & 60 vertical lines)
Developed in the US and first used in 1954, NTSC is the oldest existing broadcast standard. It
consists of 525 horizontal lines of display and 60 vertical lines. Only one type exists, known as
NTSC M. It is sometimes irreverently referred to as "Never Twice the Same Color."
•SECAM- Système Électronique pour Couleur avec Mèmoire
(FRANCE)(625 vertical 50horizantal lines)
Developed in France and first used in 1967. It uses a 625-line vertical, 50-line horizontal display.
Different types use different video bandwidth and audio carrier specifications. Types B and D
are usually used for VHF. Types G, H, and K are used for UHF. Types I, N, M, K1 and L are
used for both VHF and UHF. These different types are generally not compatible with one
another. SECAM is sometimes irreverently referred to as "Something Essentially Contrary to the
American Method" or "Second Color Always Magenta."
•PAL- Phase Alternating Line
Phase Alternating lines(GERMANY)(625 horizontal & 50 vertical line)
Developed in Germany and first used in 1967. A variant of NTSC, PAL uses a 625/50-line
display. Different types use different video bandwidth and audio carrier specifications. Common
types are B, G, and H. Less common types include D, I, K, N, and M. These different types are
generally not compatible with one another. Proponents of PAL irreverently call it "Perfection At
Last," while critics of its enormous circuit complexity call it "Pay A Lot" or "Picture Always
Lousy
Television standards used in India is PAL.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 13 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
PAL(PHASE ALTERNATING LINE)
PAL, short for Phase Alternating Line, is an analogue television colour encoding system used in
broadcast television systems in many countries. Other common analogue television systems are
NTSC and SECAM. This page primarily discusses the PAL colour encoding system. The articles
on broadcast television systems and analogue television further describe frame rates, image
resolution and audio modulation. For discussion of the 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second
television standard.
In the 1950s, the Western European countries commenced planning to introduce colour
television, and were faced with the problem that the NTSC standard demonstrated several
weaknesses, including colour tone shifting under poor transmission conditions. To overcome
NTSC's shortcomings, alternative standards were devised, resulting in the development of the
PAL and SECAM standards. The goal was to provide a colour TV standard for the European
picture frequency of 50 fields per second (50 hertz), and finding a way to eliminate the problems
with NTSC.
PAL was developed by Walter Bruch at Telefunken in Germany. The format was unveiled in
1963, with the first broadcasts beginning in the United Kingdom and West Germany in 1967, the
one BBC channel initially using the broadcast standard was BBC2 which had been the first UK
TV service to introduce '625-lines' in 1964. Telefunken PALcolor 708T was the first PAL
commercial TV set. It was followed by Loewe S 920 & F 900.
Telefunken was later bought by the French electronics manufacturer Thomson. Thomson also
bought the Compagnie Générale de Télévision where Henri de France developed SECAM, the
first European Standard for colour television. Thomson, now called Technicolor SA, also owns
the RCA brand and licenses it to other companies; Radio Corporation of America, the originator
of that brand, created the NTSC colour TV standard before Thomson became involved.
The term PAL is often used informally and somewhat imprecisely to refer to the 625-line/50 Hz
television system in general, to differentiate from the 525-line/60 Hz system generally used with
NTSC. Accordingly, DVDs are labelled as either PAL or NTSC (referring informally to the line
count and frame rate) even though technically the discs do not have either PAL or NTSC
composite colour. The line count and frame rate are defined as EIA 525/60 or CCIR 625/50;
PAL and NTSC are only the method of embedding colour in the transmission.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 14 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
COLOUR ENCODING
Both the PAL and the NTSC system use a quadrature amplitude modulated subcarrier carrying
the chrominance information added to the luminance video signal to form a composite
videobaseband signal. The frequency of this subcarrier is 4.43361875 MHz for PAL, compared
to 3.579545 MHz for NTSC. The SECAM system, on the other hand, uses a frequency
modulation scheme on its two line alternate colour subcarriers 4.25000 and 4.40625 MHz.
The name "Phase Alternating Line" describes the way that the phase of part of the colour
information on the video signal is reversed with each line, which automatically corrects phase
errors in the transmission of the signal by cancelling them out, at the expense of vertical frame
colour resolution. Lines where the colour phase is reversed compared to NTSC are often called
PAL or phase-alternation lines, which justifies one of the expansions of the acronym, while the
other lines are called NTSC lines. Early PAL receivers relied on the human eye to do that
cancelling; however, this resulted in a comb-like effect known as Hanover bars on larger phase
errors. Thus, most receivers now use a chrominance delay line, which stores the received colour
information on each line of display; an average of the colour information from the previous line
and the current line is then used to drive the picture tube. The effect is that phase errors result in
saturation changes, which are less objectionable than the equivalent hue changes of NTSC.
A minor drawback is that the vertical colour resolution is poorer than the NTSC system's, but
since the human eye also has a colour resolution that is much lower than its brightness
resolution, this effect is not visible. In any case, NTSC, PAL, and SECAM all have chrominance
bandwidth (horizontal colour detail) reduced greatly compared to the luminance signal.
Spectrum of a System I television channel with PAL
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 15 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
TELEVISION PRINCIPLES AND SCANNING
The earliest mechanical television systems used spinning disks with patterns of holes punched
into the disc to "scan" an image. A similar disk reconstructed the image at the receiver.
Synchronization of the receiver disc rotation was handled through sync pulses broadcast with the
image information. However these mechanical systems were slow, the images were dim and
flickered severely, and the image resolution very low. Camera systems used similar spinning
discs and required intensely bright illumination of the subject for the light detector to work.
Analog television did not really begin as an industry until the development of the cathode-ray
tube (CRT), which uses a steered electron beam to "write" lines of electrons across a phosphor
coated surface. The electron beam could be swept across the screen much faster than any
mechanical disc system, allowing for more closely spaced scan lines and much higher image
resolution, while slow-fade phosphors removed image flicker effects. Also far less maintenance
was required of an all-electronic system compared to a spinning disc system.
Displaying an image
A cathode-ray tube (CRT) television displays an image by scanning a beam of electrons across
the screen in a pattern of horizontal lines known as a raster. At the end of each line the beam
returns to the start of the next line; at the end of the last line it returns to the top of the screen. As
it passes each point the intensity of the beam is varied, varying the luminance of that point.
Acolor television system is identical except that an additional signal known as chrominance
controls the color of the spot.
Raster scanning is shown in a slightly simplified form below
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 16 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
When analog television was developed, no affordable technology for storing any video signals
existed; the luminance signal has to be generated and transmitted at the same time at which it is
displayed on the CRT. It is therefore essential to keep the raster scanning in the camera (or other
device for producing the signal) in exact synchronization with the scanning in the television.
The physics of the CRT require that a finite time interval be allowed for the spot to move back to
the start of the next line (horizontal retrace) or the start of the screen (vertical retrace). The
timing of the luminance signal must allow for this.
The human eye has a characteristic called Persistence of vision. Quickly displaying successive
scan images will allow the apparent illusion of smooth motion. Flickering of the image can be
partially solved using a long persistence phosphor coating on the CRT, so that successive images
fade slowly. However, slow phosphor has the negative side-effect of causing image smearing
and blurring when there is a large amount of rapid on-screen motion occurring.
The maximum frame rate depends on the bandwidth of the electronics and the transmission
system, and the number of horizontal scan lines in the image. A frame rate of 25 or 30 hertz is a
satisfactory compromise, while the process of interlacing two video fields of the picture per
frame is used to build the image. This process doubles the apparent number of video fields per
second and further reduces flicker and other defects in transmission.
Receiving signals
The television system for each country will specify a number of television channels within the
UHF or VHF frequency ranges. A channel actually consists of two signals: the picture
information is transmitted using amplitude modulation on one frequency, and the sound is
transmitted with frequency modulation at a frequency at a fixed offset (typically 4.5 to 6 MHz)
from the picture signal.
The channel frequencies chosen represent a compromise between allowing enough bandwidth
for video (and hence satisfactory picture resolution), and allowing enough channels to be packed
into the available frequency band. In practice a technique called vestigial sideband is used to
reduce the channel spacing, which would be at least twice the video bandwidth if pure AM was
used.
Signal reception is invariably done via a superheterodyne receiver: the first stage is a tuner which
selects a television channel and frequency-shifts it to a fixed intermediate frequency (IF). The
signal amplifier (from the microvolt range to fractions of a volt) performs amplification to the IF
stages.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 17 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Extracting the sound
At this point the IF signal consists of a video carrier wave at one frequency and the sound carrier
at a fixed offset. A demodulator recovers the video signal and sound as an FM signal at the offset
frequency (this is known as intercarrier sound).
The FM sound carrier is then demodulated, amplified, and used to drive a loudspeaker. Until the
advent of the NICAM and MTS systems, television sound transmissions were invariably
monophonic.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 18 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Colour composite Video Signal(CCVS)
What is video signal?
Video is nothing but a sequence of picture. The image we see is maintained in our eye for a 1/16
sec so if we see image at the rate more than 16 pictures per sec our eye cannot recognize the
difference and we see the continuous motion.
In TV cameras image is converted in electrical signal using photo sensitive material. Whole
image is divided into many micro particle known as Pixels.
These pixels are small enough so that our eyes cannot recognize pixel and we see continuous
image , thus at any instant there are almost an infinite no. of pixel that needs to be converted in
electrical signals simultaneously for transmitting picture details. However this is not practicable
because it is no feasible to provide a separate path for each pixel in practice this problem is
solved by scanning method in which information is converted in one by one pixel line by line
and frame by frame.
Colour composite video signal is formed with video, sync and blanking signals. The level is
standardized to 1.0 V peak to peak (0.7 volts of video and 0.3 volts of sync pulse). The Colour
Composite Video Signal(CCVS) has been shown in the figure
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 19 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Frequency Content of TV Signal
The TV signal have varying content. The lowest frequency is zero(when we are transmitting a
white window in the entire active period of 52 micro seconds the frequency is Zero ). In CCIR
system B the highest frequency that can be transmitted is 5 MHz even though the TV signal can
contain much higher frequency components. (In film the reproduction of frequencies is much
higher than 5MHz and hence clarity is superior to TV system.) long shots carry higher frequency
components than mid close ups and close ups. Hence in TV productions long shots are kept to a
minimum. In fact is a medium of close ups and mid close ups.
DC Component of video signal and DC restoration
A TV signal is a continuously varying amplitude signal as the picture elements give rise to
varying level which depends on how much of incident light the picture elements can reflect and
transmit the light signal to the TV camera. Hence the video signal has an average value i.e. a DC
component corresponding to the average brightness of the scene to scene.
RF TransmissionofVision and Sound Signals
TV Transmission takes place in VHF Bands I and III and UHF Bands IV and V. Picture is
amplitude modulated and sound is frequency modulated on different carriers separated by MHz.
Also for video amplitude modulation negative modulation is employed because of the following
main advantages.
Pictures contain more information towards white than black and hence the average power is
lower resulting in energy saving. (Bright picture points correspond to a low carrier amplitude and
sync pulse to maximum carrier amplitude).
Interference such as car ignition interfering signals appear as black which is less objectionable.
Picture information is in linear portion of modulation characteristic and hence does not suffer
compression. Any compression that may take place is confined to sync pulse only. The design of
AGC circuit for TV Receiver is simpler. AM produces double side bands. The information is the
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 20 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
same in both side bands. It is enough to transmit single side band only. Carrier also need not be
transmitted in full and a pilot carrier can help. However, suppressing the carrier and one
complete side band and transmitting a pilot carrier leads to costly TV sets. A compromise to save
RF channel capacity is to resort to vestigial side band system in which one side band in full,
carrier and a part of other side band are transmitted.
Sound Signal Transmission
In CCIR system B sound carrier is 5.5 MHz above the vision carrier and is frequency
modulated. The maximum frequency deviation is 50 KHz. Also the ratio of vision and sound
carriers is 10:1 (20:1 is also employed in some countries) If we assume maximum audio signal is
15 KHz the band width is 130 KHz. According to Carson's Rule the bandwidth is 2 x (Maximum
frequency deviation + highest modulating frequency).However, calculated value(using Bessel's
function) of Bandwidth is 150 KHz i.e. 75 KHz on either side of sound carrier. In CCIR
system picture IF is 38.9 MHz and sound. IF is 33.4 MHz. At the receiver end it is
necessary to ensure that signal frequencies in the region of the vestigial side band do not appear
with double amplitude after detection. For this purpose the IF curve employs
NYQUIIST slope
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 21 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
The ColourTelevision
It is possible to obtain any desired colour by mixing three primary colours i.e. Red, Blue and
green in a suitable proportion. The retina of human eye consists of very large number of light-
sensitive cells. These are of two types, rods and cones. Rods are sensitive only to the intensity of
the incident light and cones are responsible for normal colour vision. The small range of
frequencies to which the human eye is responsive is known as visible spectrum.
This visible spectrum is from 780 mm (Red) to 380 mm(Violet).
Additive Colour Mixing
The figure shows the effect of projecting red, green, blue beams of light so that they overlap on
screen.Input is the primary colour (i.e. red, green, blue) into matrix circuit as Y, R-Y, and B-Y.
Y= 0.3 Red + 0.59 Green + 0.11 Blue
Y=0.30R+0.59G+0.11B
U=0.477(R-Y)
V=0.895(B-Y)
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 22 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
TV STUDIO
A TV studio is an acoustically treated compact anechoic room. It is suitably furnished and
equipped with flood lights for proper light effects. The use of dimmer stats with flood lights
enables suitable illumination level of any particular area of the studio depending on the scene to
be televised. Several cameras are used to telecast the scene from different angles. Similarly a
large number of microphones are provided at different locations to pick up sound associated with
the programme.
In addition to a live studio, video tape recording and telecine machine rooms are located close to
the control room. In most cases, programmes as enacted in the studio are recorded on a video
tape recorder (VTR) through the control room. These are later broadcast with the VTR output
passing through the same control room.
TV STUDIO CONSTITUENTS
•POWER SUPPLY
•ACOUSTICS
•CAMERA
•AUDIO SYSTEM (MICROPHONE AND AUDIO CONSOLE)
•LIGHTS
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 23 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
•AIR CONDITIONING
•SPEAKERS
•COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
•POST PRODUCTION AND VIDEO EFFECTS
•MSR
•VTR
Power Supply:
Patna Doordarshan has 2 dedicated 11kV ac sources. Its power supply is divided into two parts -
(i) Essential (ii) Non Essential power supply. 4 generators (45kv, 45kV, 40kV, 20kV) are also
available for emergency backup. 4 UPS are also available for the same purpose
Studio floor:
The studio floor is the actual stage on which the actions that will be recorded take place. A studio
floor has the following characteristics and installations:
 decoration and/or sets
 professional video camera (sometimes one, usually several) on pedestals
 microphones
 stage lighting rigs and the associated controlling equipment.
 several video monitors for visual feedback from the production control room (PCR)
 a small public address system for communication
 a glass window between PCR and studio floor for direct visual contact is usually desired,
but not always possible
While a production is in progress, people composing a television crew work the studio floor.
 The on-screen "talent" themselves, and any guests - the subjects of the television show.
 A floor manager, who has overall charge of the studio area stage management, and who
relays timing and other information from the television director.
 One or more camera operators who operate the professional video cameras, though in
some instances these can also be operated from the PCR using remotely controlled
robotic pan tilt zoom camera(PTZ) heads.
 possibly a teleprompter operator, especially if this is a live television news broadcast
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 24 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Production-control room:-
The studio control room (SCR) is the place in a television studio in which the composition of the
outgoing program takes place. The production control room is occasionally also called a studio
control room (SCR) or a "gallery" - the latter name comes from the original placement of the
director on an ornately carved bridge spanning the BBC's first studio at Alexandra Palace which
was once referred to as like a minstrels gallery. Mastercontrol is the technical hub of a
broadcast operation common among most over-the-air television stations and television
networks. Master control is distinct from a PCR in television studios where the activities such as
switching from camera to camera are coordinated. A transmission control room (TCR) is
usually smaller in size and is a scaled down version of central casting.
Facilities in a PCR include:
 A video monitor wall, with monitors for program, preview, VTRs, cameras, graphics
and other video sources. In some facilities, the monitor wall is a series of racks
containing physical television and computer monitors; in others, the monitor wall has
been replaced with a virtual monitor wall (sometimes called a "glass cockpit"), one or
more large video screens, each capable of displaying multiple sources in a simulation of a
monitor wall.
 A vision mixer, a large control panel used to select the multiple-camera setup and other
various sources to be recorded or seen on air and, in many cases, in any video
monitors on the set. The term 'vision mixer' is primarily used in Europe, while the term
'video switcher' is usually used in North America.
A professional audio mixing console and other audio equipment such as effects devices.
 A character generator (CG), which creates the majority of the names and full digital on-
screen graphics that are inserted into the program lower third portion of the television
screen
 Digital video effects, or DVE, for manipulation of video sources. In newer vision mixers,
the DVE is integrated into the vision mixer; older models without built-in DVE's can
often control external DVE devices, or an external DVE can be manually run by an
operator.
 A still store, or still frame, device for storage of graphics or other images. While the
name suggests that the device is only capable of storing still images, newer still stores can
store moving video clips and motion graphics.
 The technical director's station, with waveform monitors, vectorscopes and the camera
control units (CCU) or remote control panels for the CCUs.
 In some facilities, VTRs may also be located in the PCR, but are also often found in
the central apparatus room
 Intercom and IFB equipment for communication with talent and television crew
 A signal generator to gunlock all of the video equipment to a common reference that
requires colorburst.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 25 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Master-control room:-
The Master control(MCR) room houses equipment that is too noisy or runs too hot for
the Production control room (PCR). It also makes sure that coax cable and other wire lengths
and installation requirements keep within manageable lengths, since most high-quality wiring
runs only between devices in this room. This can include the actual circuitry and connections
between
1. character generator (CG)
2. camera control units (CCU)
3. digital video effects (DVE)
4. video servers
5. vision mixer (Video Switcher)
6. VTRs
7. patch panels
The Master control room in a US television station. US is the place where the on-air signal is
controlled. It may include controls to playout television programs and television commercials,
switch local or television network feeds, record satellite feeds and monitor the transmitter(s), or
these items may be in an adjacent equipment rack room. The term "studio" usually refers to a
place where a particular local program is originated. If the program is broadcast live, the signal
goes from the PCR to MCR and then out to the transmitter.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 26 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
TV CAMERA
KEY TERMS
The camera utilizes two devices that control the amount of light that will reach the sensor.
•One of these devices is the shutter that can be likened to a normally closed opaque window
shade. When activated the window shade will be opened for a predetermined period of time to
admit light to the sensor.
•The other device is the aperture control that is an iris diaphragm located inside the lens and the
diaphragm functions much like the iris in the human eye. This diaphragm is made either larger or
smaller in size to control the amount of light passing through the lens to the sensor.
Shutter Speed
The shutter speed of the camera specifies how fast the shutter will operate that is for how long a
period of time the shutter will be open to admit light through the lens. A faster shutter speed will
be better to stop motion. A slower shutter speed can permit use of a smaller aperture that will
result in a greater depth of field (to be explained in a few minutes). Shutter speeds are expressed
in numbers such as 60, 125, 250 etc. The number 60 means 1/60 of a second and 125 means
1/125 of a second and so on. A special setting is sometimes included and labeled B. When B is
used the shutter will remain open as long as the shutter release remains pressed. The B stands for
Bulb an expression that goes back to operation of old cameras. Each time you increase the speed
you reduce the light striking the film. As the shutter speed goes from 60 to 125 you cut the light
in half. You do exactly the same if you go from 250 to 500. Full stop shutter speeds are; 1, ½ , ¼,
1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000, 1/4000, 1/8000.
Aperture
The aperture controls the amount of light that passes through the lens to the sensor. On a cloudy
day you need to make the diaphragm opening larger to allow more light to reach the film and
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 27 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
conversely on a bright day at the beach you need to close down the diaphragm to let less light in.
The numbers used to identify the discrete steps are 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6 8, 11, 16, 22, etc. and are
known as f-stops. I know the numbers are strange looking but they have a basis in mathematics
and as the number increases by one stop the light getting through the lens is cut in half. Thus if
you go from f2 to f2.8 you cut the light in half. You also cut it in half if you go from f11 to f16.
Just to reinforce the idea if you go from f16 to f11 you double the light reaching the lens. The
term “stopping down” refers to closing down the diaphragm such as going from f11 to f16.
Notice as the f-stop numbers get larger the diaphragm gets smaller.
Lens Selection
Lens selection has a great affect on your images. Lenses are measured in terms of focal length.
Telephoto lenses have a long focal length and wide- angle lenses have a short focal length. For
35mm a 50mm lens is called a “normal” lens since that lens sees approximately the same field of
view that the human eye and brain see when they look at a scene. Let us look at lenses from the
following perspective. Say that you are standing at one point and attempting to photograph a
subject of a given size with a 50mm lens. If the object that you want to photograph appears too
small in the viewfinder a longer telephoto lens will allow you to fill more of the frame with that
subject without moving closer.
Zoom Lens
A zoom lens has a variable focal length with a range of 10 : 1 or more. In this lens the viewing
angle and field view can be varied without loss of focus. This enables dramatic close-up control.
The smooth and gradual change of focal length by the cameraman while televising a scene
appears to the viewer as it he is approaching or receding from the scene.
The variable focal length is obtained by moving individual lens elements of a compound lens
assembly. A zoom lens can in principle simulate any fixed lens which has a focal length within
the zoom range. It may, however, be noted that the zoom lens is not a fast lens. The speed of a
lens is determined by the amount of light it allows to pass through it. Thus under poor lighting
conditions, faster fixed focal length lenses mounted on the turret are preferred.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 28 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
A TYPICAL STUDIO CAMERA
A TV Camera consists ofthree sections:
a) A Camera lens & Optics: To form optical image on the face plate of a pick up device
b) A transducer or pick up device: To convert optical image into a electrical signal
c) Electronics: To process output of a transducer to get a CCVS signal
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 29 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
STUDIO LIGHTING
Lighting for television is very exciting and needs creative talent. There is always a tremendous
scope for doing experiments to achieve the required effect. Light is a kind of electromagnetic
radiation with a visible spectrum from red to violet i.e., wavelength from 700 nm to 380 nm
respectively. However to effectively use the hardware and software connected with lighting it is
important to know more about this energy.
The lighting control system is the most important tool that the lighting man has to work with.
The lighting control system, commonly called the Dimming System, is the nerve centre of any
lighting package. The Control System allows the studio production lights to be varied in intensity
for the various special effects that are required. It’s dimming system that allows color blending
of the cyclorama curtain background. It is the dimming system that allows complex light changes
to be easily accomplished.
Lighting instudiois of three types-
•Key Light- It is used to illuminate the main object. It has most intensity.
•Fill Light- It is used to remove blank shadows and the shadows created by key light.
•Back Light-It is used to give the object a 3D look. It helps to give a depth in the video.
Fig: Light arrangement
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 30 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Other lightings are background lights and lights synchronized with audio.
Light Source: Any light source has a Luminance intensity (I) which is measured in Candelas. One
Candela is equivalent to an intensity released by standard one candle source of light.
Luminance flux (F): It is a radiant energy weighted by the photonic curve and is measured in
Lumens. One Lumen is the luminous flux emitted by a point source of 1 Candela.
Illumination (E): It is a Luminous Flux incident onto a surface. It is measured in LUMENS/m2,
which is also called as LUX. A point source of 1 candela at a uniform distance of 1 meter from a
surface of 1 square meter gives illumination of 1 LUX.
Luminance (L): It is a measure of the reflected light from a surface. Measured in Apostilbs . A
surface which reflects a total flux of 1 lumen/m2 has a luminance of 1.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 31 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
COLOUR BALANCE IN COLOUR TEMPERATURE AND
PHOTOGRAPHY
Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in lighting,
photography, videography, publishing, manufacturing, astrophysics, horticulture, and other
fields. The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black body radiator
that radiates light of comparable hue to that of the light source. Color temperature is
conventionally stated in the unit of absolute temperature, the kelvin, having the unit symbol K.
Color temperatures over 5,000K are called cool colors (blueish white), while lower color
temperatures (2,700–3,000 K) are called warm colors (yellowish white through red). This
relation, however, is a psychological one in contrast to the physical relation implied by Wien's
displacement law, according to which the spectral peak is shifted towards shorter wavelengths
(resulting in a more blueish white) for higher temperatures.
Temperature Source
1,700 K Match flame
1,850 K Candle flame, sunset/sunrise
2,700-3,300 K Incandescent lamps
3,000 K Soft White compact fluorescent lamps
3,200 K Studio lamps, photofloods,etc.
3,350 K Studio "CP" light
4,100-4,150 K Moonlight, xenon arc lamp
5,000 K Horizon daylight
5,000 K tubular fluorescent lamps or Cool White/Daylight compact fluorescent lamps (CFL)
5,500-6,000 K Vertical daylight, electronic flash
6,500 K Daylight, overcast
6,500-9,300 K LCD or CRT screen
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 32 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
It can be noted that as the temperature is increased, the following things
happen:
1) Increase in maximum energy released
2) Shift in peak radiation to shorter wavelengths (Blue)
3) Colour of radiation is a function of temperature
Colour Balance:
If you want to accurately simulate the way a light source would appear if it were really
photographed, then you need to start by understanding the idea of colour balance.
Colors of light do not directly translate into the tints that are reproduced in a photograph. Instead,
the colors that appear in a photograph are relative to the color balance of the film that was used.
The color balance of the film determines what color of light will appear to be white light.
DIFFERENT LIGHTING TECHNIQUES:
-Eye light, Low intensity light on camera itself to get extra sparkle to an actor's eye
-Rim light, to highlight actor's outline, it is an extra back on entire body at camera level
-Kickkar light, Extra light on shadow side of the face at an angle behind and to the side of the
actor
-Limbo Lighting, Only subject is visible, no back ground light
-Sillhoutt lighting, No light on subject, BG is highly lit
LIGHTING CONSOLE
In a television production, each scene will require its own lighting plan to give the desired effect.
In order to assist in setting up a particular lighting plon, a console should provide :-
a) One man operation and a centralised control desk with ability to switch any circuit.
b) Facilities to obtain good balance with flexibility to have dimming on any circuit.
c) With all controls for power at low voltage and current.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 33 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Modern lighting consoles also provide file & memory to enable the console operator to store and
recall the appropriate luminaries used for a particular lighting plot. These console also provide
Mimic panels to show which channels are in use and which memories or files have been recalled.
DIMMERS
The basic methods for dimming are :-
1.Resistance
This is the simplest and cheapest form of dimmer. It consists of a wire wound resistor with a
wiper .It is used in series with the load.
2.Saturable Reactor (System SR)
The basic principle of the saturable reactor is to connect an iron cored choke in series with the
lamp.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 34 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
MICROPHONES
Introduction
Pressure variations, whether in air, water or other mediums, which the human ear can detect, are
considered sounds. Acoustics is the science or the study of sound. Sound can be generally
pleasing to the ear, as in music, or undesirable, referred to as noise. The typical audible range of
a healthy human ear is 20 to 20,000Hz. A Sound Pressure Level(SPL) beyond the detectable
frequencies of the human ear can also be very important to design engineers. Noise, Vibration
and Harshness (NVH) is concerned with the study of vibration and audible sounds. Vibrations
represent a rapid linear motion of a particle or of an elastic solid about an equilibrium position,or
fluctuation of pressure level.
Harshness refers to the treatments of transient frequencies or shock. Usually treatments are
employed to eliminate noise, but in some cases products are designed to magnify the sound and
vibration at particular frequencies. The sound produced or received by a typical object, which
may be above and below the frequencies that are detectable by the human ear, or amplitudes
concerning its resonant frequencies,are important to designers, in order to characterize the items
performance and longevity.
Types of Microphones
•Dynamic
Dynamic microphones employ a diaphragm, a voice coil and a magnet. The voice coil is
surrounded by a magnetic field and is attached to the rear of the diaphragm. The motion of
the voice coil in this magnetic field field generates the electrical signals corresponding to the
picked up sound. Dynamic microphones have a relatively simple construction and are
therefore economical and rugged. They can handle extremely high sound pressure
levels and are largely unaffected by extreme temperatures or humidity.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 35 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
•Condenser
Condenser microphones are based on an electrically- charged diaphragm/ backplate
assembly which forms a sound sensitive capacitor. When the diaphragm is set in motion
through sound, the space between the diaphragm and the backplate is changing, and therefore the
capacity of the capacitor. This variation in spacing produces the electrical signal.
Condensers are more sensitive and can provide a smoother, more natural sound, particularly at
higher frequencies. All condenser microphones need to be powered: either by batteries in the
microphone,by phantom power provided by a mixer, a sound card or an external analogue to
digital converter
There are two main types of condenser microphones:
Small diaphragm – generally used for live performance and recording. They are called small
diaphragm because the transducer’s diaphragm is less than one inch in diameter. Small
diaphragm microphones provide a more natural sound reproduction and are preferably used for
miking instruments.
Large diaphragm – traditionally favored by recording studio engineers and broadcast
announcers, condenser microphones with a large diaphragm (one inch in diameter or larger)
usually have higher output, less self-noise (the “hiss“ the microphone might make), and better
low-frequency response, which can result in a “higher fidelity“ sound for both vocals and
instruments.
BASED ON PICKUP PATTERN(POLAR DIAGRAM)
•OMNI DIRECTIONAL
An omnidirectional microphone picks up sounds equally from all directions and reproduces the
sound source more natural than a unidirectional microphone. It is good for natural room sound
and group vocals. Also good for when the singer or talker may move around different sides of
the microphone (but their distance to the mic stays the same).
As an omnidirectional microphone picks up all the ambient sound in a room,
e.g. the computer fan, it is not the recommended choice for home recording. However, if the goal
is to enable listeners to hear what is occurring in the background, you should consider an
omnidirectional pick-up pattern.
•CARDIOID
This is the most common type of microphone.It is called “cardioid“ due to its heart-shaped pick
up pattern and has the most sensitivity at the front and is least sensitive at the back. This
microphone helps reduce pick up of background noise or bleed from nearby sound sources.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 36 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
•SUPERCARDIOID
A supercardioid microphone is even more directional than the cardioid. Supercardioids have the
tightest pickup pattern, further isolating the sound source. But they also have some pickup at the
rear. Good for noisy, crowded spaces and when multiple microphones arebeing used, such as for
round-table discussions where you want to keep the voices distinct
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 37 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
CABLES AND CONNECTORS
•The earliest use of cables was in Telegraphy lines. The cables were termed as SWER (Single
Wire Earth Return) circuits. These are single phase lines (un-insulated), that were used in Single
Wire Transmission. The use of this form of communication soon started having interference
(noise) from the Trams (Electric Trains) and other electricity-using devices.
•After this, companies converted to Balanced circuits lines. These are implemented using two
wires which have circuits installed at every distance, or at the receiving or transmitting end, that
cancel out the interference.
–Secondly, since the they are two wires, on transmitting and the other receiving, the interference
in the two lines is canceled out automatically.
–Balanced lines increase length by decreasing the signal attenuation.
•Since most of the telephone lines were installed next to power lines, this caused the interference
that is induced from the power lines, and with the advancement of power, the interference kept
on increasing.
•This brought in a new era of the wire transposition, Figure 4 in a bid to reduce on the
interference induced into the cables. In wire transposition, the transmit and receive cables change
position every 6 to 7 poles (around 4 twists every Kilometer). The change in position helps to
increase interference cancelation.
The wire transposition was not enough in the reduction of noise in the communication lines. This
led to the introduction of twisted pair cables.
Types of Cables-
1. E1
2. Ethernet
3. Coaxial
4. Fiber
5. Waveguide
6. Wireless Medium
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 38 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
E1/T1-
Depending on the Size of the Cable, it can carry from 8 to 32 E1s/T1s, each E1 being made up of
4 twisted cables. Each pair of cables is twisted onto each other to achieve noise
cancellation.Please note that E1s can also be achieved using the an RJ 45 Connector.
Coaxial-
Coaxial cables provide the simplest and most versatile method for transmission of RF and
microwave energy. The common types consist of a cylindrical metallic inner conductor
surrounded by a dielectric material and then enclosed by a cylindrical metallic outer
conductor.The dielectric material is used to maintain the inner conductor concentrically within
the outer conductor. The dielectric material is typically polyethylene (PE), Polyproplene (PP) or
tetraflouroethylene (TFE). Most coaxial cables are then coated with a protective jacket made of
polyethylene or poly-vinyl chloride (PVC).
Fiber-
An optical fiber or optical fiber is a thin, flexible, transparent fiber that acts as a waveguide, or
"light pipe", to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. Optical fibers are widely used in
fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher
bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communication. Fibers are used instead of metal
wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic
interference. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so they can be
used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in tight spaces. Specially designed fibers are used
for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers.
Optical fiber typically consists of a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding
material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by total internal reflection.
This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide.
Two types of Fiber media :
Multimode
Singlemode
Single-mode fiber
Carries light pulses along single path
Uses Laser Light Source Has a very small core and carry only one beam of light. It can support
Gbps data rates over > 100 Km without using repeaters.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 39 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Multimode fiber
Many pulses of light generated by LED travel at different angles
Can support less bandwidth than Single mode Fiber
Waveguides-
In electromagnetics and communications engineering, the term waveguide may refer to any
linear structure that conveys electromagnetic waves between its endpoints. However, the original
and most common meaning is a hollow metal pipe used to carry radio waves. This type of
waveguide is used as a transmission line mostly at microwave frequencies, for such purposes as
connecting microwave transmitters and receivers to their antennas, in equipment such as
microwave ovens, radar sets, satellite communications, and microwave radio links.
A dielectric waveguide employs a solid dielectric rod rather than a hollow pipe. An optical fiber
is a dielectric guide designed to work at optical frequencies. Transmission lines such as
microstrip, coplanar waveguide, stripline or coaxial may also be considered to be waveguides.
The electromagnetic waves in (metal-pipe) waveguide may be imagined as travelling down the
guide in a zig-zag path, being repeatedly reflected between opposite walls of the guide. For the
particular case of rectangular waveguide, it is possible to base an exact analysis on this view.
Propagation in dielectric waveguide may be viewed in the same way, with the waves confined to
the dielectric by total internal reflection at its surface. Some structures, such as Non-radiative
dielectric waveguide and the Goubau line, use both metal walls and dielectric surfaces to confine
the wave.
Types of waveguides:
-Rectangular waveguide: This is the most commonly used form of waveguide and has a
rectangular cross section.
-Circular waveguide: Circular waveguide is less common than rectangular waveguide. They
have many similarities in their basic approach, although signals often use a different mode of
propagation.
- Circuit board stripline: This form of waveguide is used on printed circuit boards as a
transmission line for microwave signals. It typically consists of a line of a given thickness above
an earth plane. Its thickness defines the impedance.
Uses:
-Optical fibers applications
-In microwave, a waveguide guides microwaves from a magnetron were waves are formed.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 40 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
-In radar applications
Important parameters of cables-
1. Characteristic Impedance
2. VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)
3. Capacitance
4. Power Rating
5. Maximum Operating Voltage
6. Attenuation
7. Electrical length stability
8. Pulse Response
9. Shielding
10. Cut Off frequency
11. Flexibility
12. Cable design and Construction
13. Operating temperature range
14. Cable noise
Various Types of Connectors Used Are-
BNC connectors (Bayanet Neill Concelnam/ Bayanet Navy Connector)
SMA connectors (Subminiature A)
SMC connectors (Subminiature C)
TNC connectors (Threshold Navy Connectors)
RCA connector (Radio Connector of America)
Elbow connectors
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 41 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
ANTEENA
To transmit and receive a RF signal an antennae is required to be used. In other words, antennae
convert electromagnetic waves into electrical currents and vice versa. Antennae are used in
systems such as radio and TV broadcasting, point-to-point radio communication, mobile, radar,
and space exploration etc. Antennae are most commonly employed air but can also be operated
under water or even through soil and rock at certain frequencies for short distances. Physically,
an antenna is simply an arrangement of one or more conductors usually called elements in this
context. In transmission, an alternating current is created in the elements by applying a voltage at
the antennae terminals, causing the elements to radiate an electromagnetic field. In reception, the
inverse occurs: an electromagnetic field from another source induces an alternating current in the
elements and a corresponding voltage at the antenna's terminals.
Some receiving antennae (such as parabolic and horn types) incorporate shape reflective surfaces
to collect EM waves from free space and direct or focus them onto the actual conductive
elements. The performance of an array depends on the number of elements in the array
(generally more elements yields better performance), the weighting vector used, and the
geometry of the array. An antennae array (often called a 'phased array') is a set of 2 or more
antennae. The signals from the antennae are combined or processed in order to achieve improved
performance over that of a single antenna. The antennae array can be used to:
 Increase the overall gain
 Provide diversity reception
 Cancel out interference from a particular set of directions
 Steer the array so that it is most sensitive in a particular direction
 Determine the direction of arrival of the incoming signals
 To maximize the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR)
Various types of antennae used in Doordarshan network are as follows:
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 42 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Omnidirectional Antennae: An omnidirectional antenna is an antennae system which radiates
power uniformly in one plane with a directive pattern shape in a perpendicular plane. This
pattern is often described as donut shaped.
Panel Type Antennae: Panel type antennae used Panel Arrays can be designed to provide
customized radiation patterns with or without beam tilt and null fill for specific coverage
requirements. Panel arrays are used for the band I, II, III, IV and V TV and FM. These types of
antennae have been extensively used in Doordarshan network.
Slot Antennae: Slot antennae are used typically at frequencies between 300 MHz and 24 GHz.
These antennas are popular because they can be cut out of whatever surface they are to be
mounted on, and have radiation patterns that are roughly omnidirectional. The polarization is
linear (H or V). The slot size, shape and what is behind it (the cavity) offer design variables that
can be used to tune performance. Doordarshan generally uses cylindrical slot antennae for
transmission.
Whip Antennae: A whip antenna is the most common example of monopole antennae, i.e.
antennae with a single driven element and a ground plane. The whip antenna is a stiff but flexible
wire mounted, usually vertically, with one end adjacent to a ground plane. The whip antennae
can also be called a half-dipole antenna, and as such, has a toroidal radiation pattern where the
axis of the toroid centres about the whip. The length of the whip determines its wavelength,
although it may be shortened with a loading coil anywhere along the antennae. Whips are
generally a fraction of their actual operating wavelength, with half-wave and quarter-wave whips
being very common. These antennae are widely used, especially for mobile applications and
hand-held radios.
Parabolic Reflector Antennae: The most well-known reflector antenna is the parabolic
reflector antennae, commonly known as a satellite dish antennae. Parabolic reflectors typically
have a very high gain (30-40 dB is common) and low cross polarization. They also have a
reasonable bandwidth, with the fractional bandwidth being at least 5% on commercially
available models, and can be very wideband in the case of huge dishes (which can operate from
150 MHz to 1.5 GHz).The smaller dish antennae typically operate somewhere between 2 and 28
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 43 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
GHz. The large dishes can operate in the VHF region (30-300 MHz), but typically need to be
extremely large at this operating band.
Fig :Types of Antennas
Yagi Antennae
A Yagi-Uda Antennae, commonly known simply as a Yagi antennae or Yagi, is a directional
antennae system consisting of an array of a dipole and additional closely coupled parasitic
elements (usually a reflector and one or more directors). The dipole in the array is driven, and
another element, typically 10 percent longer, effectively operates as a reflector. Other parasitic
elements shorter than the dipole may be added in front of the dipole and are referred to as
directors. This arrangement gives the antennae directionality that a single dipole lacks.
Doordarshan is having TV transmitting antennae of following types: panel type antennae, slot
type antennae, super-turnstile antennae; parabolic dish antennae for uplinking and down linking
of RF signal to satellite in the space; and microwave dish antennae for linking RF signal between
two locations.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 44 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
TV TRANSMITTER
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 45 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device
which, with the aid of an antenna, produces radio waves. The transmitter itself generates a radio
frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating
current, the antenna radiates radio waves. In addition to their use in broadcasting, transmitters are
necessary component parts of many electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as cell
phones, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way
radios in aircraft, ships, and spacecraft, radar sets, and navigational beacons. The term
transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication
purposes; or radio location, such as radar and navigational transmitters. Generators of radio
waves for heating or industrial purposes, such as microwave ovens or diathermy equipment, are
not usually called transmitters even though they often have similar circuits.
The term is popularly used more specifically to refer to a broadcast transmitter, a transmitter
used in broadcasting, as in FM radio transmitter or television transmitter. This usage usually
includes both the transmitter proper, the antenna, and often the building it is housed in.
An unrelated use of the term is in industrial process control, where a "transmitter" is a telemetry
device which converts measurements from a sensor into a signal, and sends it, usually via wires,
to be received by some display or control device located a distance away.
Block diagram of a TV transmitter (intercarrier method).
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 46 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
The installed antenna systemshould fulfill the following requirements :
a) It should have required gain and provide desired field strength at the point of reception.
b) It should have desired horizontal radiation pattern and directivity for serving the planned area
of interest. The radiation pattern should be omni directional if the location of the transmitting
station is at the center of the service area and directional one, if the location is otherwise.
c) It should offer proper impedance to the main feeder cable and thereby to the transmitter so that
optimum RF energy is transferred into space. Impedance mismatch results into reflection of
power and formation of standing waves. The standard RF impedance at VHF/UHF is 50 ohms.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 47 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Outdoor Broadcasting Van (OB Van)
O B Van (Outdoor Broadcasting van ): OB van is used for live broadcasting like any match or
any event. It consist all the equipments that is present in the studio for telecasting. It also
referring as mini studio .
It has mainly 3 parts :
1) Power supply unit
2) Production control unit
3) Audio console and VTR
Main Components of OB Van
1. Parabolic Dish Antenna
2. Feed
3. LNA / LNBC
4. Wave Guide / Low Loss Cable
5, HPA / SSPA
6. UP Converter
7. Modulator / Multiplexer
8. Encoder / Decoder
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 48 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Inner
View of OB van
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 49 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
SATELLITE COMMUNICATION
A communications satellite (or COMSAT) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the
purpose of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits
including geostationary orbits, Molniya orbits, other elliptical orbits and low (polar and non-
polar) Earth orbits.
For fixed (point-to-point) services, communications satellites provide a microwave radio relay
technology complementary to that of communication cables. They are also used for mobile
applications such as communications to ships, vehicles, planes and hand-held terminals, and for
TV and radio broadcasting, for which application of other technologies, such as cable television,
is impractical or impossible.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 50 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
EARTH STATION:-
A ground station, earth station, or earth terminal is a terrestrial terminal station designed for extra
planetary telecommunication with spacecraft, or reception of radio waves from an astronomical
radio source. Ground stations are located either on the surface of the Earth, or within the
atmosphere. Earth stations communicate with spacecraft by transmitting and receiving radio
waves in the super high frequency or extremely high frequency bands (e.g., microwaves). When
a ground station successfully transmits radio waves to a spacecraft (or vice versa), it establishes a
telecommunications link.
Ground stations may occupy either a fixed or itinerant position. Article 1 § III of the ITU Radio
Regulations describes various types of stationary and mobile ground stations, and their
interrelationships.
Specialized satellite earth stations are used to telecommunicate with satellites—chiefly
communications satellites. Other ground stations communicate with manned space stations or
unmanned space probes. A ground station that primarily receives telemetry data, or that follows a
satellite not in geostationary orbit, is called a tracking station.
When a satellite is within a ground station's line of sight, the station is said to have a view of the
satellite. It is possible for a satellite to communicate with more than one ground station at a time.
A pair of ground stations are said to have a satellite in mutual view when the stations share
simultaneous, unobstructed, line-of-sight contact with the satellite.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 51 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
UPLINK:-
Pertaining to satellite communications, an uplink (UL or U/L) is the portion of a communications
link used for the transmission of signals from an Earth terminal to a satellite or to an airborne
platform. An uplink is the inverse of a downlink. An uplink or downlink is distinguished from
reverse link or forward link.
Pertaining to GSM and cellular networks, the radio uplink is the transmission path from the
mobile station (cell phone) to a base station (cell site). Traffic and signalling flows within the
BSSand NSS may also be identified as uplink and downlink.
Pertaining to computer networks, an uplink is a connection from data communications
equipment toward the network core. This is also known as an upstream connection.
DOWNLINK:-
In the context of satellite communications, a downlink (DL) is the link from a satellite to a
ground station.Pertaining to cellular networks, the radio downlink is the transmission path from a
cell site to the cell phone. Traffic and signalling flows within the base station subsystem (BSS)
and network switching subsystem (NSS) may also be identified as uplink and downlink.
Pertaining to a computer networks, a downlink is a connection from data communications
equipment towards data terminal equipment. This is also known as a downstream connection.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 52 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
HDTV
High-definition television (HDTV) provides a resolution that is substantially higher than that of
standard-definition television.
HDTV may be transmitted in various formats:
:-1080p - 1920×1080p: 2,073,600 pixels (approximately 2.1 megapixels) per frame
:-1080i - typically either:
:-1920×1080i: 1,036,800 pixels (approximately 1 megapixel) per field or 2,073,600 pixels
(approximately 2.1 megapixels) per frame
:- 1440×1080i:[1] 777,600 pixels (approximately 0.8 megapixels) per field or 1,555,200 pixels
(approximately 1.6 megapixels) per frame
:-720p - 1280×720p: 921,600 pixels (approximately 0.9 megapixels) per frame
The letter "p" here stands for progressive scan while "i" indicates interlaced.
When transmitted at two megapixels per frame, HDTV provides about five times as many pixels
as SD (standard-definition television).
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 53 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
About DD Free Dish
DD Free Dish is India's only Free Direct-To-Home Service previously known as DD Direct +.
This service was launched in December, 2004. DD Free Dish DTH service is owned and
operated by Public Service Broadcaster Prasar Bharati (Doordarshan).
More about DTH
· What is DTH
· DD Free Dish
· Future of DD Free Dish
· Difference
· How to Receive
What is DTH ?
In general, DTH service is the one in which a large number of channels are digitally
compressed, encrypted, uplinked and beamed down over a territory from a very high power
satellite. The DTH signals can be received directly at homes with the help of a small sized dish
receive unit containing a Dish Antenna of diameter 60 to 90 cm installed at the building’s roof-
top or on the wall facing clear south and one indoor
Set-Top-Box unit facilitating viewing of demultiplexed signals from DTH channel
bouquet on TV set. The DTH signals can be received anywhere across the country irrespective of
the terrain conditions provided the area comes under the footprint of the Satellite.
DTH transmission eliminates the intervening role of a local cable operator since a user is
directly connected to the DTH service. DTH Transmission is most preferred in Ku- Band so as
to avoid the need of larger Dish sizes for suitably receiving the DTH signals. As the DTH
telecast is in the Digital mode, user is able to reap all the benefits of Digital transmission.
Programs in the DTH bouquet are having higher resolution picture and better audio quality than
traditional analog signals.
Direct-to-Home (DTH) satellite television is becoming a buzzword in the satellite
broadcast industry due to the fact that DTH offers immense opportunities to both broadcasters
and viewers. Thanks to the rapid development of digital technology, DTH broadcast operators
worldwide have been able to introduce a large number of new interactive applications in the
television market besides a large number of entertainment programmes over a single delivery
platform. In addition, since digital technology permits a highly efficient exploitation of the
frequency spectrum, the number of TV channels that can be broadcast using digital technology is
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 54 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
significantly higher than with analogue technology. The increased number of television channels
allows the operator to satisfy the demand of a number of niche markets with dedicated
transmissions.
What is DD Free Dish?
Doordarshan’s DD Free Dish is a multi-channel Free-To-Air Direct to Home (DTH) service.
This service was launched in December’2004 with the modest beginning of 33 channels. This
service was inaugurated by Hon’ble Prime Minister of India. DD Free Dish has been upgraded
time to time and at present Doordarshan’s DTH platform has the capacity of 80 SDTV channels
along with 32 Radio channels. DD Free Dish is available in Ku-Band on GSAT-15 (at 93.5°E)
having MPEG-2 DVB-S, 5 streams of channels with Downlink Frequencies -11090, 11170,
11470, 11510 and 11550 MHz. This Ku-Band DTH service provides the TV coverage
throughout the Indian territory (except Andaman & Nicobar Islands). DTH signals can be
received through a small sized dish receive system ( i.e. Set Top Box and Dish of size 60 to 90
cm in diameter) for which no monthly subscription fee is payable by the viewers.
A separate DTH service in C-Band with a bouquet of 10 channels has also been provided by
Doordarshan exclusively for Andaman & Nicobar Islands, which is also Free-To-Air. This C-
Band DTH service is available on INSAT-4B (at 93.5°E) with downlink frequency of 3925
MHz, 27500 Ksps, FEC-3/4, Pol-H, L.O.-5150MHz. This service can be received through a STB
and small sized Dish Antenna (approximately 120 cm diameter) for which also no monthly
subscription fee is payable by viewers.
Future of DD Free Dish?
Expansion of DD Free Dish has been carried out time to time. The present capacity is
likely to be enhanced to 104 SDTV channels and 40 Radio channels in near future with the
introduction of new MPEG-4, DVB-S2 stream.
How DD Free Dish is different from other DTH systems?
Most of the DTH Services, operating all over the world and in India, provide paid DTH
Service. In the paid service, the DTH operators uplink the encrypted TV signals to the satellite
and the signals are received by subscribers through a Dish receive system having a Dish Antenna
and one Customized Set Top Box (DIGITAL DECODER). By choosing the bunch of various
desired TV channels viz-a-viz the respective payment plan options, subscribers are given a key-
code to decode/decrypt the TV channels through customized set top box. The subscription
charges for viewing these channels are collected by the DTH operator.
Whereas, DD Free Dish is absolutely different, as Doordarshan is not charging any monthly
subscription fee from the viewers for complete bouquet of the DD Free Dish channels, making
the system quite affordable for all as it requires only a small one time investment in purchasing
of Dish Receive System containing Set-Top-Box and small sized Dish Antenna.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 55 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
How to receive DD Free Dish?
Receive system of DD Free Dish contains three units: 1) One small sized Dish Antenna
along with LNBF 2) Indoor Set-Top-Box (STB) also known as IRD (Integrated Receiver
Decoder) and 3) Handy Remote control unit for STB. Dish Antenna installed at the roof top or
on wall facing clear south receives the signal from satellite and transmits it to the indoor Set top
box unit. The set top box further decodes the different TV channels from the DTH bouquet and
feeds it to the TV set for viewing.
The complete DD Free Dish DTH system (Dish Antenna, Set Top Box and Remote
control unit) is a one-time purchase from the open market with a nominal cost. There is
absolutely no further recurring expenditure in terms of monthly subscription etc. for viewing DD
Free Dish Channels.
Installation of the Receive System:
Installation of the DTH receive system is very easy and does not take much time. The
viewers may take the services of skilled technical personnel to get the dish installed and oriented
towards the desired Satellite, followed by tuning/configuring the Set-Top-Box unit. Dish
Installation and STB-Tuning procedure is normally mentioned in the manual supplied by
respective manufacturer along with their receive system. As a broad guideline, some of the
parameters which may be required to be fed to the STB are indicated below.
Satellite in Use:
GSAT series Geostationary Satellite GSAT-15 from ISRO is being used to provide the
services of DD Free Dish in Ku-Band. Reception of DD Free Dish signal is available throughout
the length and breadth of the Indian Territory except Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
Satellite.type: Geo-synchronous
Satellite’s Orbital location: 93.5° East
DTG Receive Parameters:
Receive parameters of the Doordarshan’s DTH bouquet of TV channels (spread in 5 streams),
are as follows:
Transponder Polarization Downlink
Frequency
(MHz)
LNB
Frequency
(MHz)
Symbol Rate(Ksps) FEC
K-16 (36
MHz)
V 11090 9750 29500 3/4
K-18 (36
MHz)
V 11170 9750 29500 3/4
K-19 (36 V 11470 9750 29500 3/4
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 56 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
MHz)
K-20 (36
MHz)
V 11510 9750 29500 3/4
K-21 (36
MHz)
V 11550 9750 29500 3/4
DIGITAL TERRESTRIAL TV
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 57 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
The existing 1412 Analogue TV Transmitters in India serve about 88% of Indian population.
Constrained by limited frequency capacity, the analogue terrestrial television platform needed a
new & more efficient transmission system to meet the demands of the future and to allow for the
launch of new services. Therefore digitalization of Terrestrial TV Transmitters has been started
by Doordarshan at 40 cities and another 23 Transmitters have been approved in XII Plan. India
has adopted DVB Standard. The 2nd generation DVB T2 Standard, launched in June 2008, has
about 50% more capacity than its first generation DVB T. The DVB T2 Transmitter has high
data capacity (upto 40 Mbps). Further upgradation of DVB Standard ETSI EN 302 755 V1.3.1
(T2-Lite) in June 2011, it has provided more flexibility for Mobile TV and T2 Radio alongwith
transmission of SDTV and HDTV programmes. .
The T2-Lite profile is basically a subset of the DVB-T2 standard which is called now "DVB T2-
base" profile and the Future Extension Frame (FEF) feature of the DVB-T2 standard enables
transmitting services using both the DVB-T2 Lite and DVB-T2 Base profile within the same
frequency channel. The DVB T2 Transmitters are thus equipped for Fixed, Portable and Mobile
equipments. Accordingly to reap its benefits DD adopted DVB T2 standard. With Digital
Terrestrial Transmitters it will be useful for Fixed, Portable and Mobile devices.
DTT Update
Doordarshan started Mobile TV in India:
Digital Terrestrial Television services to provide mobile TV at 16 cities e.g Pitampura(Delhi),
Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Guwahati, Patna, Ranchi, Cuttack, Lucknow, Jallandhar, Raipur,
Indore, Aurangabad, Bhopal, Bangalore and Ahmadabad, have been started from 25.02.2016.
Mobile TV can be received using DVB-T2 Dongles in OTG enabled smart phones and tablets,
Wi-Fi dongles, besides in integrated digital TV(iDTV). While iDTV are available in plenty like
Sony, LG, Panasonic, Samsung etc., the dongles are also available in online Flip kart and eBay.
Public and private transportation vehicles and public places are potential environments for
Mobile Television. Currently DD National, DD News, DD Bharati, DD Sports, DD Regional/DD
Kisan are being relayed. Only one time investment of Dongle will be required by viewers and no
extra expenditure unlike streaming with internet.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 58 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Why Terrestrial TV?
Doordarshan is transmitting all free-to-air channels in analog format since 15th September 1959.
It is necessary to migrate to digital terrestrial broadcasting as the world is moving away from
analogue to digital broadcasting. Going digital will provide multiple programme channels , better
video and audio quality, provide signals for mobile and portable devices like mobiles/tablets/PC
etc. and other value added services, besides it will allow the government to free up frequency
spectrum which can be used for new services like mobile, wireless broadband and potentially
more TV services and channels.
Some advantages of DTT Transmission are as below:
1. Analog TV (ATV) is subject to interference, such as ghosting and snow, depending on the
distance and geographical location of the TV receiving the signal.
2. SDTV pictures are free from "ghosting" and "snowing", which are commonly found in
analogue TV pictures.
3. Digital digital TV supports Standard Digital TV (SDTV) High Definition TV (HDTV) and
Ultra High Definition TV (UHDTV).
4. DTT secures greater plurality in Platform ownership, ensuring that no single platform owner is
so powerful that they can exert undue influence on public opinion or political agendas.
5. The DTT will provide signals for portable and mobile devices and also provide signals for
Vehicles etc.
6. The digital transition offers an opportunity to increase the production of local content. This in
turn creates job opportunity and increase creativity and entrepreneurship.
7.A strong DTT platform is critical to healthy competition in the TV market and to the
realisation of a wide range of social benefits and most essentially an all weather reliable platform
and unlike DTH there is no risk of catastrophic failure of total network. It provide alternative
distribution platform.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 59 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
8.DTT creates the opportunity for convergence . Services like internet, LTE A+ overlay are
feasible with DVB T2.
Broadcasting and telecommunications are in many countries treated as separate, vertical markets.
But the digital technology creates the possibility of service convergence, infrastructure
convergence, terminal and service provider convergence. The digital dividend at the UHF band
has a potential to provide mobile internet broadband services to the rural and that will help
greatly to fulfil one of the millennium development goals of bridging the digital divide.
How to receive DTT?
It require ordinary antenna (Indoor or outdoor depending upon location of your site) as used in
analogue TV. With the existing TV a Set Top Box compliant with DVB T2 Standard is required.
But some integrated Digital TVs (iDTV) are available in market having in built set top box.
Additional equipment required will be a 75-ohm coaxial cable and a HDMI cable if you are
using the DVB T2 set-top box.
The mobile should be with USB host function or ‘On The Go’(OTG) enabled Android Phone.
Any such mobile is capable to transfer data to devices like Pendrive etc. It is always described in
mobile specifications. Some examples of such mobile includes: Micromax Q380, Oppo Joy 3
A11W, Intex Power HD, Lava iris X8, Samsung DUOS etc. DVB-T2 Dongles will be required
for attachment to such mobile. Some Wi-Fi Dongles with antenna are also available in market. If
such wi-fi dongle with antenna is plugged on power and placed near to window, the signal may
be received in mobile/tablet within 20 m from it.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 60 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
Conclusion
Doordarshan is the oldest and the biggest Broadcasting media in India.
Now I have studied a lot about the television broadcast system. One must have never thought
that so many things are required for watching a television. The camera, the studio, the
transmitter, the PDA, the setup box (installed in houses) everything is connected to each other.
Here man and electronics work as if they are a family. So many process and lots of hard work,
sincerity is required to just have a show or say a movie on air i.e. to be broadcasted. So many
people are involved in it. I really enjoyed of being part of it. The saying is really true that…
“Tell me, I may forget
Teach me, I may remember
But involve me, and I have learnt it”
In my training session I learned a lot. Not only in technical field but also in social field too. I got
a great experience of working in a Public Sector Company.
I learned about the recent trends in Broadcasting Media and also the market strategies to
maximize the profit using limited resources.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
Dept. of ECE ~ 61 ~ GEC JHALAWAR
BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
References
1) http://prasarbharati.gov.in
2) http://www.ddbihar.org/
3) http://www.ddinews.gov.in
4) www.ddindia.gov.in/
5) www.slideshare.com/
6) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DD_Bihar

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Doordarshan kendra patna training report

  • 1. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 1 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Acknowledgement “It is not possible to prepare a summer training report without the assistance & encouragement of other people. This one is certainly no exception.” On the very outset of this report, I would like to extend my sincere & heartfelt obligation towards all the personages who have helped me in this endeavor. Without their active guidance, help, cooperation & encouragement, I would not have made headway in the project. First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my project guide, MD. KHALID AHMED, MR. N.K. SINGH, MR. S.K. JHA I was privileged to experience a sustained enthusiastic and involved interest from his side. This fuelled my enthusiasm even further and encouraged me to boldly step into what was a totally dark and unexplored expanse before me. He always fuelled my thoughts to think broad and out of the box. Thanking You RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR
  • 2. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 2 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 1 Doordarshan History ..................................................................................................................... 2 DD Kendra patna........................................................................................................................... 4 Fundamentals of monochrome and Colour TV system .................................................................. 7 Colour Composite Video Signal (CCVS) ..................................................................................... 15 TV Studio...................................................................................................................................... 19 TV Camera.................................................................................................................................... 23 Studio Lighting ............................................................................................................................. 26 Microphones.................................................................................................................................. 31 Cables and Connectors.................................................................................................................. 34 Anteena ......................................................................................................................................... 38 TV Transmitter.............................................................................................................................. 41 Outdoor Broadcasting van ............................................................................................................ 44 Sattelite Communication............................................................................................................... 46 HDTV............................................................................................................................................ 49 About Free Dish............................................................................................................................ 50 Digital Terrestrial TV.................................................................................................................... 53 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 57
  • 3. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 3 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR PREFACE Doordarshan is an Indian public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati It is one of the largest broadcasting organisations in India in terms of the studio and transmitter infrastructure. Recently, it has also started broadcasting on Digital Terrestrial Transmitters. Doordarshan operates 6-All India Channels, 16 Regional Channels, 11 -State Networks & 1- International Channel. Two channels Rajya Sabha TV &Lok Sabha TV for live broadcast of parliamentary proceedings. On DD National (DD-1), Regional programs and Local Programs are carried on time-sharing basis. DD News channel, launched on 3 November 2003, which replaced the DD Metro formally known as (DD-2) Entertainment channel, provides 24-Hour news service. Doordarshan is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in India in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters.Doordarshan Kendra, Patna has a setup for the transmission of television programmes directed from the other Doordarshan Kendra namely DD Delhi. DD Kendra, Patna also has a set up for the recording and transmission of programmes like talk shows etc. The DDK has the necessary and sufficient stages for the television coverage. The Kendra has the television studio, production control room, transmitters, control room, antenna. In the beginning, only the development programmes were telecast but later on to enlighten the viewers as per their needs, expectations, many more informative, educative and entertaining programmes have been introduced from time to time.
  • 4. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 4 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR INTRODUCTION Doordarshan is an Indian public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati . It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in India in terms of the studio and transmitter infrastructure. Recently, it has also started broadcasting on Digital Terrestrial Transmitters. On 15 September 2009, Doordarshan celebrated its 50th anniversary. The DD provides television, radio, online and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional India, as well as overseas through the Indian Network and Radio India. DD sports channel has provided round the clock coverage of sport events. Doordarshan is the public television broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati, and nominated by the Government of India. It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in the world in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters. Prasar Bharati, its parent body has all board members appointed by the Government of India acting through the Information and Broadcasting Ministry. This control is evident in a budget that allows expenditure on "propaganda and public relations". Doordarshan is a network of 1400 terrestrial transmitters covers more than 96% of India's population. There are about 67 Doordarshan studios producing TV programmes today. Doordarshan Kendra is a milestone in the field of entertainment and education media source. Doordarshan Kendra, Bareilly is the Program Production Center and transition. The studios are housed at same campus and the transmitter is located at the Bareilly. AIR and Doordarshan aims to provide information, education and entertainment for the public. DD India is broadcast internationally via satellite. It is available in 146 countries worldwide; however, information on receiving this channel in other countries is not easily available. Due to the transmitters and infrastructural facilities of Doordarshan, it is considered amongst the leading broadcasting organizations throughout the world. .
  • 5. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 5 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR DOORDARSHAN HISTORY Prasar Bharati is a statutory autonomous body established under the Prasar Bharati Act and came into existence on 23.11.1997. It is the Public Service Broadcaster of the country. The objectives of public service broadcasting are achieved in terms of Prasar Bharati Act through All India Radio and Doordarshan, which earlier were working as media units under the Ministry of I&B and since the above said date became constituents of Prasar Bharati. 15 September, 1959 was the first day when the transmission of television programme begin in India at a make shift studio in the All India Radio building. Pramita Puri was the first announcer who started the programme with “shehnai recital' of Ustaad Bismillah Khan. The programme was transmitted in a radius of 25 kilometers with a small transmitter. From Black & White to becoming color in 1982 to digital telecast in 2004, the public broadcaster has grown with tune of time. National telecasts were introduced in 1982. In the same year, color TV was introduced in the Indi an market with the live telecast of the Independence Day speech by then prime minister Indira Gandhi on 15 August 1982, followed by the 1982 Asian Games being held in Delhi. Now more than 96 percent of the Indian population can receive Doordarshan (DD National) programmes through a network of nearly 1400 terrestrial transmitters and about 46 Doordarshan studios produce TV programs today. SIGNIFICANT MILESTONES ACHIEVED WERE •Launch of international channel - DD India (14 March 1995) •Formation of Prasar Bharti (Broadcasting Corporation of India) (23 November 1997) •Launch of sports channels - DD sports (18 March 1999) •Launch of enrichment/ culture channel - DD Bharti (26 January 2002) •Launch of 24 hours news channel - DD News (3 November 2002) •Launch of free to air Direct – To – Home Service DD Direct+ (16 December 2004) •DD Urdu came into existence on 15 August 2006 •Launch of 24 hours Indian agriculture channel - DD Kisan (26 May 2015) • Digital Terrestrial Television services to provide mobile TV at 16 cities (25 February 2016)
  • 6. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 6 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR DOORDARSHAN NETWORK Doordarshan is presently operating 34 Satellite channels. All India Channels - 6 DD National DD News DD Sports DD Bharati DD Urdu DD Kisan Regional Channels - 16 DD Malayalam DD Podhigai DD Oriya DD Bangla DD Saptagiri (Vijayawada ) DD Chandana DD Sahyadri DD Girnar DD Kashir DD North East DD Punjabi DD Rajasthan DD Madhya Pradesh DD Uttar Pradesh DD Bihar DD Yadagiri (Hyderabad) State Networks - 11 Himachal Pradesh Jharkhand Chhattisgarh Haryana Uttarakhand Tripura Mizoram Meghalaya Arunachal Pradesh Manipur Nagaland International Channel -1 DD India
  • 7. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 7 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR DOORDARSHAN KENDRA: PATNA AT A GLANCE Doordarshan Kendra, Patna was inaugurated on the 13th October 1990 with an interim set up converting a Government Quarter located at Chhajubagh, Patna. Adjacent area was demarcated for the construction of a full-fledged studio. The new studio building with all the modern equipments and accessories was finally inaugurated on the 15th March 1996. Initially, Doordarshan Kendra, Patna started its programme having one hour duration with the news bulletin in Hindi for a duration of 15 minutes. A five-minute Urdu News Bulletin was subsequently started in May 1992 which was further increased to 10 minutes in the year 1993. A Satellite Link with all the Transmitters of Bihar was established in 1994. The commercial service at this Kendra was introduced in the year 1995. The new Studio Complex at Chhajubagh, Patna started working in March 1999. The Main Studio is having approximately 400 sq. meter areas. At present, this Studio is being utilized for one shift recording and one shift transmission. With the passage of time, the Kendra has been provided with the entire latest technical infrastructure . At present, the infrastructure consists of full- fledged studio with state of art CCD Cameras and Digital Production Switcher. For ENG recording/ coverage, the Kendra is having Betacam and Digital DVCPRO Cameras. Two new 10 KW High Power Transmitter for DD-I and DD- II give primary service to an area around 75 kilometers radius. The Kendra has an uplink system, which caters to 3 HPT, 34 LPTs and 2 VLPTs (after bifurcation of the erstwhile State of Bihar) for relaying the regional service. One BEL OB Van is available for OB Live telecast and recording. High Power TV Transmitter Complex is located at Bahadurpur, Patna.
  • 8. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 8 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR STUDIO SET UP & COVERAGE DETAILS STUDIO SETUP  Studio - A (Main) • Four Camera Digital set up • For recording of programmes and other major activities.  Studio - B (News) • Two Camera digital set up • For News & Regional transmissions  OB VAN • Six Camera digital set up • For outdoor major coverage such as Sports, Major functions etc. including live coverages.  EFP ( Electronic field production) VAN •For outdoor coverage such as Crop seminar, Kalyani at village with 3 ENG (DVC) camera set up  Earth Station •Having two uplinking channels in digital mode.  ENG (Electronic News Gathering) •With 12 portable ENG units for the purpose of day to day News and outdoor programmes coverage.  Post production facilities •Three nos. of Linear Edit Suits equipped with latest edit controllers. •Two nos. of Non-Linear computer based edit suits. •Computer based 3D Graphics facility. •Separate studio for audio dubbing.  Total coverage of Doordarshan in Bihar •Doordarshan is covering both area & population wise 93.4%of the total population of 82.9 millions as per 2011 census •TV coverage to uncovered areas is being provided through KU Band Free to AIR DTH Service of Doordarshan.
  • 9. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 9 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR DoordarshanNetwork in Bihar Doordarshan Studio • Patna (Major) • Muzaffarpur Doordarshan Transmitters (For Terrestrial Transmissions) BIHAR TRANSMITTERS HPTs (7) KATIHAR PATNA PATNA (DD News) MUZAFFARPUR SAHARSA MUZAFFARPUR (DD News) PATNA (DTT) LPTs (30) AURANGABAD JAMUI SASARAM BANKA KISHANGANJ SHEIKHPURA BEGUSARAI LAKHISARAI SIKANDRA BETTIAH MADHUBANI SITAMARHI BHABHUA MOTIHARI SIWAN BHAGALPUR MUNGER GAYA (DD News) BUXAR NAWADA DARBHANGA (DD News) DARBHANGA PHOOLPARAS DAUDNAGAR RAMNAGAR FORBESGANJ RAXAUL GAYA ROSERA GOPALGANJ VLPTs (2) MASRAKH MARHAURA
  • 10. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 10 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR FUNDAMENTALS OF MONOCHROME AND COLOUR TV SYSTEM Picture formation- A picture can be considered to contain a number of small elementary areas of light or shade which are called PICTURE ELEMENTS. The elements thus contain the visual image of the scene. In the case of a TV camera the scene is focused on the photosensitive surface of pick up device and a optical image is formed. The photoelectric properties of the pick up device convert the optical image to a electric charge image depending on the light and shade of the scene (picture elements). Now it is necessary to pick up this information and transmit it. For this purpose scanning is employed. Electron beam scans the charge image and produces optical image. The electron beam scans the image line by line and field by field to provide signal variations in a successive order. The scanning is both in horizontal and vertical direction simultaneously. The horizontal scanning frequency is 15,625 Hertz. The vertical scanning frequency is 50 Hz. The frame is divided in two fields. Odd lines are scanned first and then the even lines. The odd and even lines are interlaced. Since the frame is divided into 2 fields the flicker reduces. The field rate is 50 Hertz. The frame rate is 25 Hertz.
  • 11. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 11 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Number of TV Lines per Frame – If the number of TV lines is high larger bandwidth of video and hence larger R.F. channel width is required. If we go for larger RF channel width the number of channels in the R.F. spectrum will be reduced. However, with more no. of TV lines on the screen the clarity of the picture i.e. resolution improves. With lesser number of TV lines per frame the clarity (quality) is poor Resolution: The capability of the system to resolve maximum number of picture elements along scanning lines determines the horizontal resolution. It means how many alternate black and white elements can be there in a line. The vertical resolution depends on the number of scanning lines and the resolution factor (also known as Kell factor) Grey Scale: In black and white (monochrome) TV system all the colours appear as gray on a 10- step gray scale chart. TV white corresponds to a reflectance of 60% and TV black 3 % giving rise to a Contrast Ratio of 20:1 (Film can handle more than 30:1 and eye's capability is much more). Brightness: Brightness reveals the average illumination of the reproduced image on the TV screen. Brightness control in a TV set adjusts the voltage between grid and cathode of the picture tube (Bias voltage). Contrast: Contrast is the relative difference between black and white parts of the reproduced picture. In a TV set the contrast control adjusts the level of video signal fed to the picture tube. Viewing Distance: Optimum viewing distance from TV set is about 4 to 8 times the height of the TV screen. While viewing TV screen one has to ensure that no direct light falls on the TV screen.
  • 12. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 12 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR TELEVISION STANDARDS •NTSC-National television standards committee (US) (525 Horizontal & 60 vertical lines) Developed in the US and first used in 1954, NTSC is the oldest existing broadcast standard. It consists of 525 horizontal lines of display and 60 vertical lines. Only one type exists, known as NTSC M. It is sometimes irreverently referred to as "Never Twice the Same Color." •SECAM- Système Électronique pour Couleur avec Mèmoire (FRANCE)(625 vertical 50horizantal lines) Developed in France and first used in 1967. It uses a 625-line vertical, 50-line horizontal display. Different types use different video bandwidth and audio carrier specifications. Types B and D are usually used for VHF. Types G, H, and K are used for UHF. Types I, N, M, K1 and L are used for both VHF and UHF. These different types are generally not compatible with one another. SECAM is sometimes irreverently referred to as "Something Essentially Contrary to the American Method" or "Second Color Always Magenta." •PAL- Phase Alternating Line Phase Alternating lines(GERMANY)(625 horizontal & 50 vertical line) Developed in Germany and first used in 1967. A variant of NTSC, PAL uses a 625/50-line display. Different types use different video bandwidth and audio carrier specifications. Common types are B, G, and H. Less common types include D, I, K, N, and M. These different types are generally not compatible with one another. Proponents of PAL irreverently call it "Perfection At Last," while critics of its enormous circuit complexity call it "Pay A Lot" or "Picture Always Lousy Television standards used in India is PAL.
  • 13. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 13 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR PAL(PHASE ALTERNATING LINE) PAL, short for Phase Alternating Line, is an analogue television colour encoding system used in broadcast television systems in many countries. Other common analogue television systems are NTSC and SECAM. This page primarily discusses the PAL colour encoding system. The articles on broadcast television systems and analogue television further describe frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation. For discussion of the 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second television standard. In the 1950s, the Western European countries commenced planning to introduce colour television, and were faced with the problem that the NTSC standard demonstrated several weaknesses, including colour tone shifting under poor transmission conditions. To overcome NTSC's shortcomings, alternative standards were devised, resulting in the development of the PAL and SECAM standards. The goal was to provide a colour TV standard for the European picture frequency of 50 fields per second (50 hertz), and finding a way to eliminate the problems with NTSC. PAL was developed by Walter Bruch at Telefunken in Germany. The format was unveiled in 1963, with the first broadcasts beginning in the United Kingdom and West Germany in 1967, the one BBC channel initially using the broadcast standard was BBC2 which had been the first UK TV service to introduce '625-lines' in 1964. Telefunken PALcolor 708T was the first PAL commercial TV set. It was followed by Loewe S 920 & F 900. Telefunken was later bought by the French electronics manufacturer Thomson. Thomson also bought the Compagnie Générale de Télévision where Henri de France developed SECAM, the first European Standard for colour television. Thomson, now called Technicolor SA, also owns the RCA brand and licenses it to other companies; Radio Corporation of America, the originator of that brand, created the NTSC colour TV standard before Thomson became involved. The term PAL is often used informally and somewhat imprecisely to refer to the 625-line/50 Hz television system in general, to differentiate from the 525-line/60 Hz system generally used with NTSC. Accordingly, DVDs are labelled as either PAL or NTSC (referring informally to the line count and frame rate) even though technically the discs do not have either PAL or NTSC composite colour. The line count and frame rate are defined as EIA 525/60 or CCIR 625/50; PAL and NTSC are only the method of embedding colour in the transmission.
  • 14. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 14 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR COLOUR ENCODING Both the PAL and the NTSC system use a quadrature amplitude modulated subcarrier carrying the chrominance information added to the luminance video signal to form a composite videobaseband signal. The frequency of this subcarrier is 4.43361875 MHz for PAL, compared to 3.579545 MHz for NTSC. The SECAM system, on the other hand, uses a frequency modulation scheme on its two line alternate colour subcarriers 4.25000 and 4.40625 MHz. The name "Phase Alternating Line" describes the way that the phase of part of the colour information on the video signal is reversed with each line, which automatically corrects phase errors in the transmission of the signal by cancelling them out, at the expense of vertical frame colour resolution. Lines where the colour phase is reversed compared to NTSC are often called PAL or phase-alternation lines, which justifies one of the expansions of the acronym, while the other lines are called NTSC lines. Early PAL receivers relied on the human eye to do that cancelling; however, this resulted in a comb-like effect known as Hanover bars on larger phase errors. Thus, most receivers now use a chrominance delay line, which stores the received colour information on each line of display; an average of the colour information from the previous line and the current line is then used to drive the picture tube. The effect is that phase errors result in saturation changes, which are less objectionable than the equivalent hue changes of NTSC. A minor drawback is that the vertical colour resolution is poorer than the NTSC system's, but since the human eye also has a colour resolution that is much lower than its brightness resolution, this effect is not visible. In any case, NTSC, PAL, and SECAM all have chrominance bandwidth (horizontal colour detail) reduced greatly compared to the luminance signal. Spectrum of a System I television channel with PAL
  • 15. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 15 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR TELEVISION PRINCIPLES AND SCANNING The earliest mechanical television systems used spinning disks with patterns of holes punched into the disc to "scan" an image. A similar disk reconstructed the image at the receiver. Synchronization of the receiver disc rotation was handled through sync pulses broadcast with the image information. However these mechanical systems were slow, the images were dim and flickered severely, and the image resolution very low. Camera systems used similar spinning discs and required intensely bright illumination of the subject for the light detector to work. Analog television did not really begin as an industry until the development of the cathode-ray tube (CRT), which uses a steered electron beam to "write" lines of electrons across a phosphor coated surface. The electron beam could be swept across the screen much faster than any mechanical disc system, allowing for more closely spaced scan lines and much higher image resolution, while slow-fade phosphors removed image flicker effects. Also far less maintenance was required of an all-electronic system compared to a spinning disc system. Displaying an image A cathode-ray tube (CRT) television displays an image by scanning a beam of electrons across the screen in a pattern of horizontal lines known as a raster. At the end of each line the beam returns to the start of the next line; at the end of the last line it returns to the top of the screen. As it passes each point the intensity of the beam is varied, varying the luminance of that point. Acolor television system is identical except that an additional signal known as chrominance controls the color of the spot. Raster scanning is shown in a slightly simplified form below
  • 16. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 16 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR When analog television was developed, no affordable technology for storing any video signals existed; the luminance signal has to be generated and transmitted at the same time at which it is displayed on the CRT. It is therefore essential to keep the raster scanning in the camera (or other device for producing the signal) in exact synchronization with the scanning in the television. The physics of the CRT require that a finite time interval be allowed for the spot to move back to the start of the next line (horizontal retrace) or the start of the screen (vertical retrace). The timing of the luminance signal must allow for this. The human eye has a characteristic called Persistence of vision. Quickly displaying successive scan images will allow the apparent illusion of smooth motion. Flickering of the image can be partially solved using a long persistence phosphor coating on the CRT, so that successive images fade slowly. However, slow phosphor has the negative side-effect of causing image smearing and blurring when there is a large amount of rapid on-screen motion occurring. The maximum frame rate depends on the bandwidth of the electronics and the transmission system, and the number of horizontal scan lines in the image. A frame rate of 25 or 30 hertz is a satisfactory compromise, while the process of interlacing two video fields of the picture per frame is used to build the image. This process doubles the apparent number of video fields per second and further reduces flicker and other defects in transmission. Receiving signals The television system for each country will specify a number of television channels within the UHF or VHF frequency ranges. A channel actually consists of two signals: the picture information is transmitted using amplitude modulation on one frequency, and the sound is transmitted with frequency modulation at a frequency at a fixed offset (typically 4.5 to 6 MHz) from the picture signal. The channel frequencies chosen represent a compromise between allowing enough bandwidth for video (and hence satisfactory picture resolution), and allowing enough channels to be packed into the available frequency band. In practice a technique called vestigial sideband is used to reduce the channel spacing, which would be at least twice the video bandwidth if pure AM was used. Signal reception is invariably done via a superheterodyne receiver: the first stage is a tuner which selects a television channel and frequency-shifts it to a fixed intermediate frequency (IF). The signal amplifier (from the microvolt range to fractions of a volt) performs amplification to the IF stages.
  • 17. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 17 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Extracting the sound At this point the IF signal consists of a video carrier wave at one frequency and the sound carrier at a fixed offset. A demodulator recovers the video signal and sound as an FM signal at the offset frequency (this is known as intercarrier sound). The FM sound carrier is then demodulated, amplified, and used to drive a loudspeaker. Until the advent of the NICAM and MTS systems, television sound transmissions were invariably monophonic.
  • 18. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 18 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Colour composite Video Signal(CCVS) What is video signal? Video is nothing but a sequence of picture. The image we see is maintained in our eye for a 1/16 sec so if we see image at the rate more than 16 pictures per sec our eye cannot recognize the difference and we see the continuous motion. In TV cameras image is converted in electrical signal using photo sensitive material. Whole image is divided into many micro particle known as Pixels. These pixels are small enough so that our eyes cannot recognize pixel and we see continuous image , thus at any instant there are almost an infinite no. of pixel that needs to be converted in electrical signals simultaneously for transmitting picture details. However this is not practicable because it is no feasible to provide a separate path for each pixel in practice this problem is solved by scanning method in which information is converted in one by one pixel line by line and frame by frame. Colour composite video signal is formed with video, sync and blanking signals. The level is standardized to 1.0 V peak to peak (0.7 volts of video and 0.3 volts of sync pulse). The Colour Composite Video Signal(CCVS) has been shown in the figure
  • 19. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 19 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Frequency Content of TV Signal The TV signal have varying content. The lowest frequency is zero(when we are transmitting a white window in the entire active period of 52 micro seconds the frequency is Zero ). In CCIR system B the highest frequency that can be transmitted is 5 MHz even though the TV signal can contain much higher frequency components. (In film the reproduction of frequencies is much higher than 5MHz and hence clarity is superior to TV system.) long shots carry higher frequency components than mid close ups and close ups. Hence in TV productions long shots are kept to a minimum. In fact is a medium of close ups and mid close ups. DC Component of video signal and DC restoration A TV signal is a continuously varying amplitude signal as the picture elements give rise to varying level which depends on how much of incident light the picture elements can reflect and transmit the light signal to the TV camera. Hence the video signal has an average value i.e. a DC component corresponding to the average brightness of the scene to scene. RF TransmissionofVision and Sound Signals TV Transmission takes place in VHF Bands I and III and UHF Bands IV and V. Picture is amplitude modulated and sound is frequency modulated on different carriers separated by MHz. Also for video amplitude modulation negative modulation is employed because of the following main advantages. Pictures contain more information towards white than black and hence the average power is lower resulting in energy saving. (Bright picture points correspond to a low carrier amplitude and sync pulse to maximum carrier amplitude). Interference such as car ignition interfering signals appear as black which is less objectionable. Picture information is in linear portion of modulation characteristic and hence does not suffer compression. Any compression that may take place is confined to sync pulse only. The design of AGC circuit for TV Receiver is simpler. AM produces double side bands. The information is the
  • 20. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 20 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR same in both side bands. It is enough to transmit single side band only. Carrier also need not be transmitted in full and a pilot carrier can help. However, suppressing the carrier and one complete side band and transmitting a pilot carrier leads to costly TV sets. A compromise to save RF channel capacity is to resort to vestigial side band system in which one side band in full, carrier and a part of other side band are transmitted. Sound Signal Transmission In CCIR system B sound carrier is 5.5 MHz above the vision carrier and is frequency modulated. The maximum frequency deviation is 50 KHz. Also the ratio of vision and sound carriers is 10:1 (20:1 is also employed in some countries) If we assume maximum audio signal is 15 KHz the band width is 130 KHz. According to Carson's Rule the bandwidth is 2 x (Maximum frequency deviation + highest modulating frequency).However, calculated value(using Bessel's function) of Bandwidth is 150 KHz i.e. 75 KHz on either side of sound carrier. In CCIR system picture IF is 38.9 MHz and sound. IF is 33.4 MHz. At the receiver end it is necessary to ensure that signal frequencies in the region of the vestigial side band do not appear with double amplitude after detection. For this purpose the IF curve employs NYQUIIST slope
  • 21. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 21 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR The ColourTelevision It is possible to obtain any desired colour by mixing three primary colours i.e. Red, Blue and green in a suitable proportion. The retina of human eye consists of very large number of light- sensitive cells. These are of two types, rods and cones. Rods are sensitive only to the intensity of the incident light and cones are responsible for normal colour vision. The small range of frequencies to which the human eye is responsive is known as visible spectrum. This visible spectrum is from 780 mm (Red) to 380 mm(Violet). Additive Colour Mixing The figure shows the effect of projecting red, green, blue beams of light so that they overlap on screen.Input is the primary colour (i.e. red, green, blue) into matrix circuit as Y, R-Y, and B-Y. Y= 0.3 Red + 0.59 Green + 0.11 Blue Y=0.30R+0.59G+0.11B U=0.477(R-Y) V=0.895(B-Y)
  • 22. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 22 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR TV STUDIO A TV studio is an acoustically treated compact anechoic room. It is suitably furnished and equipped with flood lights for proper light effects. The use of dimmer stats with flood lights enables suitable illumination level of any particular area of the studio depending on the scene to be televised. Several cameras are used to telecast the scene from different angles. Similarly a large number of microphones are provided at different locations to pick up sound associated with the programme. In addition to a live studio, video tape recording and telecine machine rooms are located close to the control room. In most cases, programmes as enacted in the studio are recorded on a video tape recorder (VTR) through the control room. These are later broadcast with the VTR output passing through the same control room. TV STUDIO CONSTITUENTS •POWER SUPPLY •ACOUSTICS •CAMERA •AUDIO SYSTEM (MICROPHONE AND AUDIO CONSOLE) •LIGHTS
  • 23. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 23 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR •AIR CONDITIONING •SPEAKERS •COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS •POST PRODUCTION AND VIDEO EFFECTS •MSR •VTR Power Supply: Patna Doordarshan has 2 dedicated 11kV ac sources. Its power supply is divided into two parts - (i) Essential (ii) Non Essential power supply. 4 generators (45kv, 45kV, 40kV, 20kV) are also available for emergency backup. 4 UPS are also available for the same purpose Studio floor: The studio floor is the actual stage on which the actions that will be recorded take place. A studio floor has the following characteristics and installations:  decoration and/or sets  professional video camera (sometimes one, usually several) on pedestals  microphones  stage lighting rigs and the associated controlling equipment.  several video monitors for visual feedback from the production control room (PCR)  a small public address system for communication  a glass window between PCR and studio floor for direct visual contact is usually desired, but not always possible While a production is in progress, people composing a television crew work the studio floor.  The on-screen "talent" themselves, and any guests - the subjects of the television show.  A floor manager, who has overall charge of the studio area stage management, and who relays timing and other information from the television director.  One or more camera operators who operate the professional video cameras, though in some instances these can also be operated from the PCR using remotely controlled robotic pan tilt zoom camera(PTZ) heads.  possibly a teleprompter operator, especially if this is a live television news broadcast
  • 24. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 24 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Production-control room:- The studio control room (SCR) is the place in a television studio in which the composition of the outgoing program takes place. The production control room is occasionally also called a studio control room (SCR) or a "gallery" - the latter name comes from the original placement of the director on an ornately carved bridge spanning the BBC's first studio at Alexandra Palace which was once referred to as like a minstrels gallery. Mastercontrol is the technical hub of a broadcast operation common among most over-the-air television stations and television networks. Master control is distinct from a PCR in television studios where the activities such as switching from camera to camera are coordinated. A transmission control room (TCR) is usually smaller in size and is a scaled down version of central casting. Facilities in a PCR include:  A video monitor wall, with monitors for program, preview, VTRs, cameras, graphics and other video sources. In some facilities, the monitor wall is a series of racks containing physical television and computer monitors; in others, the monitor wall has been replaced with a virtual monitor wall (sometimes called a "glass cockpit"), one or more large video screens, each capable of displaying multiple sources in a simulation of a monitor wall.  A vision mixer, a large control panel used to select the multiple-camera setup and other various sources to be recorded or seen on air and, in many cases, in any video monitors on the set. The term 'vision mixer' is primarily used in Europe, while the term 'video switcher' is usually used in North America. A professional audio mixing console and other audio equipment such as effects devices.  A character generator (CG), which creates the majority of the names and full digital on- screen graphics that are inserted into the program lower third portion of the television screen  Digital video effects, or DVE, for manipulation of video sources. In newer vision mixers, the DVE is integrated into the vision mixer; older models without built-in DVE's can often control external DVE devices, or an external DVE can be manually run by an operator.  A still store, or still frame, device for storage of graphics or other images. While the name suggests that the device is only capable of storing still images, newer still stores can store moving video clips and motion graphics.  The technical director's station, with waveform monitors, vectorscopes and the camera control units (CCU) or remote control panels for the CCUs.  In some facilities, VTRs may also be located in the PCR, but are also often found in the central apparatus room  Intercom and IFB equipment for communication with talent and television crew  A signal generator to gunlock all of the video equipment to a common reference that requires colorburst.
  • 25. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 25 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Master-control room:- The Master control(MCR) room houses equipment that is too noisy or runs too hot for the Production control room (PCR). It also makes sure that coax cable and other wire lengths and installation requirements keep within manageable lengths, since most high-quality wiring runs only between devices in this room. This can include the actual circuitry and connections between 1. character generator (CG) 2. camera control units (CCU) 3. digital video effects (DVE) 4. video servers 5. vision mixer (Video Switcher) 6. VTRs 7. patch panels The Master control room in a US television station. US is the place where the on-air signal is controlled. It may include controls to playout television programs and television commercials, switch local or television network feeds, record satellite feeds and monitor the transmitter(s), or these items may be in an adjacent equipment rack room. The term "studio" usually refers to a place where a particular local program is originated. If the program is broadcast live, the signal goes from the PCR to MCR and then out to the transmitter.
  • 26. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 26 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR TV CAMERA KEY TERMS The camera utilizes two devices that control the amount of light that will reach the sensor. •One of these devices is the shutter that can be likened to a normally closed opaque window shade. When activated the window shade will be opened for a predetermined period of time to admit light to the sensor. •The other device is the aperture control that is an iris diaphragm located inside the lens and the diaphragm functions much like the iris in the human eye. This diaphragm is made either larger or smaller in size to control the amount of light passing through the lens to the sensor. Shutter Speed The shutter speed of the camera specifies how fast the shutter will operate that is for how long a period of time the shutter will be open to admit light through the lens. A faster shutter speed will be better to stop motion. A slower shutter speed can permit use of a smaller aperture that will result in a greater depth of field (to be explained in a few minutes). Shutter speeds are expressed in numbers such as 60, 125, 250 etc. The number 60 means 1/60 of a second and 125 means 1/125 of a second and so on. A special setting is sometimes included and labeled B. When B is used the shutter will remain open as long as the shutter release remains pressed. The B stands for Bulb an expression that goes back to operation of old cameras. Each time you increase the speed you reduce the light striking the film. As the shutter speed goes from 60 to 125 you cut the light in half. You do exactly the same if you go from 250 to 500. Full stop shutter speeds are; 1, ½ , ¼, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000, 1/4000, 1/8000. Aperture The aperture controls the amount of light that passes through the lens to the sensor. On a cloudy day you need to make the diaphragm opening larger to allow more light to reach the film and
  • 27. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 27 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR conversely on a bright day at the beach you need to close down the diaphragm to let less light in. The numbers used to identify the discrete steps are 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6 8, 11, 16, 22, etc. and are known as f-stops. I know the numbers are strange looking but they have a basis in mathematics and as the number increases by one stop the light getting through the lens is cut in half. Thus if you go from f2 to f2.8 you cut the light in half. You also cut it in half if you go from f11 to f16. Just to reinforce the idea if you go from f16 to f11 you double the light reaching the lens. The term “stopping down” refers to closing down the diaphragm such as going from f11 to f16. Notice as the f-stop numbers get larger the diaphragm gets smaller. Lens Selection Lens selection has a great affect on your images. Lenses are measured in terms of focal length. Telephoto lenses have a long focal length and wide- angle lenses have a short focal length. For 35mm a 50mm lens is called a “normal” lens since that lens sees approximately the same field of view that the human eye and brain see when they look at a scene. Let us look at lenses from the following perspective. Say that you are standing at one point and attempting to photograph a subject of a given size with a 50mm lens. If the object that you want to photograph appears too small in the viewfinder a longer telephoto lens will allow you to fill more of the frame with that subject without moving closer. Zoom Lens A zoom lens has a variable focal length with a range of 10 : 1 or more. In this lens the viewing angle and field view can be varied without loss of focus. This enables dramatic close-up control. The smooth and gradual change of focal length by the cameraman while televising a scene appears to the viewer as it he is approaching or receding from the scene. The variable focal length is obtained by moving individual lens elements of a compound lens assembly. A zoom lens can in principle simulate any fixed lens which has a focal length within the zoom range. It may, however, be noted that the zoom lens is not a fast lens. The speed of a lens is determined by the amount of light it allows to pass through it. Thus under poor lighting conditions, faster fixed focal length lenses mounted on the turret are preferred.
  • 28. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 28 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR A TYPICAL STUDIO CAMERA A TV Camera consists ofthree sections: a) A Camera lens & Optics: To form optical image on the face plate of a pick up device b) A transducer or pick up device: To convert optical image into a electrical signal c) Electronics: To process output of a transducer to get a CCVS signal
  • 29. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 29 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR STUDIO LIGHTING Lighting for television is very exciting and needs creative talent. There is always a tremendous scope for doing experiments to achieve the required effect. Light is a kind of electromagnetic radiation with a visible spectrum from red to violet i.e., wavelength from 700 nm to 380 nm respectively. However to effectively use the hardware and software connected with lighting it is important to know more about this energy. The lighting control system is the most important tool that the lighting man has to work with. The lighting control system, commonly called the Dimming System, is the nerve centre of any lighting package. The Control System allows the studio production lights to be varied in intensity for the various special effects that are required. It’s dimming system that allows color blending of the cyclorama curtain background. It is the dimming system that allows complex light changes to be easily accomplished. Lighting instudiois of three types- •Key Light- It is used to illuminate the main object. It has most intensity. •Fill Light- It is used to remove blank shadows and the shadows created by key light. •Back Light-It is used to give the object a 3D look. It helps to give a depth in the video. Fig: Light arrangement
  • 30. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 30 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Other lightings are background lights and lights synchronized with audio. Light Source: Any light source has a Luminance intensity (I) which is measured in Candelas. One Candela is equivalent to an intensity released by standard one candle source of light. Luminance flux (F): It is a radiant energy weighted by the photonic curve and is measured in Lumens. One Lumen is the luminous flux emitted by a point source of 1 Candela. Illumination (E): It is a Luminous Flux incident onto a surface. It is measured in LUMENS/m2, which is also called as LUX. A point source of 1 candela at a uniform distance of 1 meter from a surface of 1 square meter gives illumination of 1 LUX. Luminance (L): It is a measure of the reflected light from a surface. Measured in Apostilbs . A surface which reflects a total flux of 1 lumen/m2 has a luminance of 1.
  • 31. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 31 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR COLOUR BALANCE IN COLOUR TEMPERATURE AND PHOTOGRAPHY Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in lighting, photography, videography, publishing, manufacturing, astrophysics, horticulture, and other fields. The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black body radiator that radiates light of comparable hue to that of the light source. Color temperature is conventionally stated in the unit of absolute temperature, the kelvin, having the unit symbol K. Color temperatures over 5,000K are called cool colors (blueish white), while lower color temperatures (2,700–3,000 K) are called warm colors (yellowish white through red). This relation, however, is a psychological one in contrast to the physical relation implied by Wien's displacement law, according to which the spectral peak is shifted towards shorter wavelengths (resulting in a more blueish white) for higher temperatures. Temperature Source 1,700 K Match flame 1,850 K Candle flame, sunset/sunrise 2,700-3,300 K Incandescent lamps 3,000 K Soft White compact fluorescent lamps 3,200 K Studio lamps, photofloods,etc. 3,350 K Studio "CP" light 4,100-4,150 K Moonlight, xenon arc lamp 5,000 K Horizon daylight 5,000 K tubular fluorescent lamps or Cool White/Daylight compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) 5,500-6,000 K Vertical daylight, electronic flash 6,500 K Daylight, overcast 6,500-9,300 K LCD or CRT screen
  • 32. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 32 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR It can be noted that as the temperature is increased, the following things happen: 1) Increase in maximum energy released 2) Shift in peak radiation to shorter wavelengths (Blue) 3) Colour of radiation is a function of temperature Colour Balance: If you want to accurately simulate the way a light source would appear if it were really photographed, then you need to start by understanding the idea of colour balance. Colors of light do not directly translate into the tints that are reproduced in a photograph. Instead, the colors that appear in a photograph are relative to the color balance of the film that was used. The color balance of the film determines what color of light will appear to be white light. DIFFERENT LIGHTING TECHNIQUES: -Eye light, Low intensity light on camera itself to get extra sparkle to an actor's eye -Rim light, to highlight actor's outline, it is an extra back on entire body at camera level -Kickkar light, Extra light on shadow side of the face at an angle behind and to the side of the actor -Limbo Lighting, Only subject is visible, no back ground light -Sillhoutt lighting, No light on subject, BG is highly lit LIGHTING CONSOLE In a television production, each scene will require its own lighting plan to give the desired effect. In order to assist in setting up a particular lighting plon, a console should provide :- a) One man operation and a centralised control desk with ability to switch any circuit. b) Facilities to obtain good balance with flexibility to have dimming on any circuit. c) With all controls for power at low voltage and current.
  • 33. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 33 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Modern lighting consoles also provide file & memory to enable the console operator to store and recall the appropriate luminaries used for a particular lighting plot. These console also provide Mimic panels to show which channels are in use and which memories or files have been recalled. DIMMERS The basic methods for dimming are :- 1.Resistance This is the simplest and cheapest form of dimmer. It consists of a wire wound resistor with a wiper .It is used in series with the load. 2.Saturable Reactor (System SR) The basic principle of the saturable reactor is to connect an iron cored choke in series with the lamp.
  • 34. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 34 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR MICROPHONES Introduction Pressure variations, whether in air, water or other mediums, which the human ear can detect, are considered sounds. Acoustics is the science or the study of sound. Sound can be generally pleasing to the ear, as in music, or undesirable, referred to as noise. The typical audible range of a healthy human ear is 20 to 20,000Hz. A Sound Pressure Level(SPL) beyond the detectable frequencies of the human ear can also be very important to design engineers. Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) is concerned with the study of vibration and audible sounds. Vibrations represent a rapid linear motion of a particle or of an elastic solid about an equilibrium position,or fluctuation of pressure level. Harshness refers to the treatments of transient frequencies or shock. Usually treatments are employed to eliminate noise, but in some cases products are designed to magnify the sound and vibration at particular frequencies. The sound produced or received by a typical object, which may be above and below the frequencies that are detectable by the human ear, or amplitudes concerning its resonant frequencies,are important to designers, in order to characterize the items performance and longevity. Types of Microphones •Dynamic Dynamic microphones employ a diaphragm, a voice coil and a magnet. The voice coil is surrounded by a magnetic field and is attached to the rear of the diaphragm. The motion of the voice coil in this magnetic field field generates the electrical signals corresponding to the picked up sound. Dynamic microphones have a relatively simple construction and are therefore economical and rugged. They can handle extremely high sound pressure levels and are largely unaffected by extreme temperatures or humidity.
  • 35. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 35 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR •Condenser Condenser microphones are based on an electrically- charged diaphragm/ backplate assembly which forms a sound sensitive capacitor. When the diaphragm is set in motion through sound, the space between the diaphragm and the backplate is changing, and therefore the capacity of the capacitor. This variation in spacing produces the electrical signal. Condensers are more sensitive and can provide a smoother, more natural sound, particularly at higher frequencies. All condenser microphones need to be powered: either by batteries in the microphone,by phantom power provided by a mixer, a sound card or an external analogue to digital converter There are two main types of condenser microphones: Small diaphragm – generally used for live performance and recording. They are called small diaphragm because the transducer’s diaphragm is less than one inch in diameter. Small diaphragm microphones provide a more natural sound reproduction and are preferably used for miking instruments. Large diaphragm – traditionally favored by recording studio engineers and broadcast announcers, condenser microphones with a large diaphragm (one inch in diameter or larger) usually have higher output, less self-noise (the “hiss“ the microphone might make), and better low-frequency response, which can result in a “higher fidelity“ sound for both vocals and instruments. BASED ON PICKUP PATTERN(POLAR DIAGRAM) •OMNI DIRECTIONAL An omnidirectional microphone picks up sounds equally from all directions and reproduces the sound source more natural than a unidirectional microphone. It is good for natural room sound and group vocals. Also good for when the singer or talker may move around different sides of the microphone (but their distance to the mic stays the same). As an omnidirectional microphone picks up all the ambient sound in a room, e.g. the computer fan, it is not the recommended choice for home recording. However, if the goal is to enable listeners to hear what is occurring in the background, you should consider an omnidirectional pick-up pattern. •CARDIOID This is the most common type of microphone.It is called “cardioid“ due to its heart-shaped pick up pattern and has the most sensitivity at the front and is least sensitive at the back. This microphone helps reduce pick up of background noise or bleed from nearby sound sources.
  • 36. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 36 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR •SUPERCARDIOID A supercardioid microphone is even more directional than the cardioid. Supercardioids have the tightest pickup pattern, further isolating the sound source. But they also have some pickup at the rear. Good for noisy, crowded spaces and when multiple microphones arebeing used, such as for round-table discussions where you want to keep the voices distinct
  • 37. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 37 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR CABLES AND CONNECTORS •The earliest use of cables was in Telegraphy lines. The cables were termed as SWER (Single Wire Earth Return) circuits. These are single phase lines (un-insulated), that were used in Single Wire Transmission. The use of this form of communication soon started having interference (noise) from the Trams (Electric Trains) and other electricity-using devices. •After this, companies converted to Balanced circuits lines. These are implemented using two wires which have circuits installed at every distance, or at the receiving or transmitting end, that cancel out the interference. –Secondly, since the they are two wires, on transmitting and the other receiving, the interference in the two lines is canceled out automatically. –Balanced lines increase length by decreasing the signal attenuation. •Since most of the telephone lines were installed next to power lines, this caused the interference that is induced from the power lines, and with the advancement of power, the interference kept on increasing. •This brought in a new era of the wire transposition, Figure 4 in a bid to reduce on the interference induced into the cables. In wire transposition, the transmit and receive cables change position every 6 to 7 poles (around 4 twists every Kilometer). The change in position helps to increase interference cancelation. The wire transposition was not enough in the reduction of noise in the communication lines. This led to the introduction of twisted pair cables. Types of Cables- 1. E1 2. Ethernet 3. Coaxial 4. Fiber 5. Waveguide 6. Wireless Medium
  • 38. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 38 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR E1/T1- Depending on the Size of the Cable, it can carry from 8 to 32 E1s/T1s, each E1 being made up of 4 twisted cables. Each pair of cables is twisted onto each other to achieve noise cancellation.Please note that E1s can also be achieved using the an RJ 45 Connector. Coaxial- Coaxial cables provide the simplest and most versatile method for transmission of RF and microwave energy. The common types consist of a cylindrical metallic inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric material and then enclosed by a cylindrical metallic outer conductor.The dielectric material is used to maintain the inner conductor concentrically within the outer conductor. The dielectric material is typically polyethylene (PE), Polyproplene (PP) or tetraflouroethylene (TFE). Most coaxial cables are then coated with a protective jacket made of polyethylene or poly-vinyl chloride (PVC). Fiber- An optical fiber or optical fiber is a thin, flexible, transparent fiber that acts as a waveguide, or "light pipe", to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communication. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so they can be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in tight spaces. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers. Optical fiber typically consists of a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by total internal reflection. This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Two types of Fiber media : Multimode Singlemode Single-mode fiber Carries light pulses along single path Uses Laser Light Source Has a very small core and carry only one beam of light. It can support Gbps data rates over > 100 Km without using repeaters.
  • 39. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 39 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Multimode fiber Many pulses of light generated by LED travel at different angles Can support less bandwidth than Single mode Fiber Waveguides- In electromagnetics and communications engineering, the term waveguide may refer to any linear structure that conveys electromagnetic waves between its endpoints. However, the original and most common meaning is a hollow metal pipe used to carry radio waves. This type of waveguide is used as a transmission line mostly at microwave frequencies, for such purposes as connecting microwave transmitters and receivers to their antennas, in equipment such as microwave ovens, radar sets, satellite communications, and microwave radio links. A dielectric waveguide employs a solid dielectric rod rather than a hollow pipe. An optical fiber is a dielectric guide designed to work at optical frequencies. Transmission lines such as microstrip, coplanar waveguide, stripline or coaxial may also be considered to be waveguides. The electromagnetic waves in (metal-pipe) waveguide may be imagined as travelling down the guide in a zig-zag path, being repeatedly reflected between opposite walls of the guide. For the particular case of rectangular waveguide, it is possible to base an exact analysis on this view. Propagation in dielectric waveguide may be viewed in the same way, with the waves confined to the dielectric by total internal reflection at its surface. Some structures, such as Non-radiative dielectric waveguide and the Goubau line, use both metal walls and dielectric surfaces to confine the wave. Types of waveguides: -Rectangular waveguide: This is the most commonly used form of waveguide and has a rectangular cross section. -Circular waveguide: Circular waveguide is less common than rectangular waveguide. They have many similarities in their basic approach, although signals often use a different mode of propagation. - Circuit board stripline: This form of waveguide is used on printed circuit boards as a transmission line for microwave signals. It typically consists of a line of a given thickness above an earth plane. Its thickness defines the impedance. Uses: -Optical fibers applications -In microwave, a waveguide guides microwaves from a magnetron were waves are formed.
  • 40. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 40 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR -In radar applications Important parameters of cables- 1. Characteristic Impedance 2. VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) 3. Capacitance 4. Power Rating 5. Maximum Operating Voltage 6. Attenuation 7. Electrical length stability 8. Pulse Response 9. Shielding 10. Cut Off frequency 11. Flexibility 12. Cable design and Construction 13. Operating temperature range 14. Cable noise Various Types of Connectors Used Are- BNC connectors (Bayanet Neill Concelnam/ Bayanet Navy Connector) SMA connectors (Subminiature A) SMC connectors (Subminiature C) TNC connectors (Threshold Navy Connectors) RCA connector (Radio Connector of America) Elbow connectors
  • 41. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 41 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR ANTEENA To transmit and receive a RF signal an antennae is required to be used. In other words, antennae convert electromagnetic waves into electrical currents and vice versa. Antennae are used in systems such as radio and TV broadcasting, point-to-point radio communication, mobile, radar, and space exploration etc. Antennae are most commonly employed air but can also be operated under water or even through soil and rock at certain frequencies for short distances. Physically, an antenna is simply an arrangement of one or more conductors usually called elements in this context. In transmission, an alternating current is created in the elements by applying a voltage at the antennae terminals, causing the elements to radiate an electromagnetic field. In reception, the inverse occurs: an electromagnetic field from another source induces an alternating current in the elements and a corresponding voltage at the antenna's terminals. Some receiving antennae (such as parabolic and horn types) incorporate shape reflective surfaces to collect EM waves from free space and direct or focus them onto the actual conductive elements. The performance of an array depends on the number of elements in the array (generally more elements yields better performance), the weighting vector used, and the geometry of the array. An antennae array (often called a 'phased array') is a set of 2 or more antennae. The signals from the antennae are combined or processed in order to achieve improved performance over that of a single antenna. The antennae array can be used to:  Increase the overall gain  Provide diversity reception  Cancel out interference from a particular set of directions  Steer the array so that it is most sensitive in a particular direction  Determine the direction of arrival of the incoming signals  To maximize the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) Various types of antennae used in Doordarshan network are as follows:
  • 42. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 42 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Omnidirectional Antennae: An omnidirectional antenna is an antennae system which radiates power uniformly in one plane with a directive pattern shape in a perpendicular plane. This pattern is often described as donut shaped. Panel Type Antennae: Panel type antennae used Panel Arrays can be designed to provide customized radiation patterns with or without beam tilt and null fill for specific coverage requirements. Panel arrays are used for the band I, II, III, IV and V TV and FM. These types of antennae have been extensively used in Doordarshan network. Slot Antennae: Slot antennae are used typically at frequencies between 300 MHz and 24 GHz. These antennas are popular because they can be cut out of whatever surface they are to be mounted on, and have radiation patterns that are roughly omnidirectional. The polarization is linear (H or V). The slot size, shape and what is behind it (the cavity) offer design variables that can be used to tune performance. Doordarshan generally uses cylindrical slot antennae for transmission. Whip Antennae: A whip antenna is the most common example of monopole antennae, i.e. antennae with a single driven element and a ground plane. The whip antenna is a stiff but flexible wire mounted, usually vertically, with one end adjacent to a ground plane. The whip antennae can also be called a half-dipole antenna, and as such, has a toroidal radiation pattern where the axis of the toroid centres about the whip. The length of the whip determines its wavelength, although it may be shortened with a loading coil anywhere along the antennae. Whips are generally a fraction of their actual operating wavelength, with half-wave and quarter-wave whips being very common. These antennae are widely used, especially for mobile applications and hand-held radios. Parabolic Reflector Antennae: The most well-known reflector antenna is the parabolic reflector antennae, commonly known as a satellite dish antennae. Parabolic reflectors typically have a very high gain (30-40 dB is common) and low cross polarization. They also have a reasonable bandwidth, with the fractional bandwidth being at least 5% on commercially available models, and can be very wideband in the case of huge dishes (which can operate from 150 MHz to 1.5 GHz).The smaller dish antennae typically operate somewhere between 2 and 28
  • 43. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 43 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR GHz. The large dishes can operate in the VHF region (30-300 MHz), but typically need to be extremely large at this operating band. Fig :Types of Antennas Yagi Antennae A Yagi-Uda Antennae, commonly known simply as a Yagi antennae or Yagi, is a directional antennae system consisting of an array of a dipole and additional closely coupled parasitic elements (usually a reflector and one or more directors). The dipole in the array is driven, and another element, typically 10 percent longer, effectively operates as a reflector. Other parasitic elements shorter than the dipole may be added in front of the dipole and are referred to as directors. This arrangement gives the antennae directionality that a single dipole lacks. Doordarshan is having TV transmitting antennae of following types: panel type antennae, slot type antennae, super-turnstile antennae; parabolic dish antennae for uplinking and down linking of RF signal to satellite in the space; and microwave dish antennae for linking RF signal between two locations.
  • 44. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 44 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR TV TRANSMITTER
  • 45. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 45 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which, with the aid of an antenna, produces radio waves. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves. In addition to their use in broadcasting, transmitters are necessary component parts of many electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as cell phones, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships, and spacecraft, radar sets, and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radio location, such as radar and navigational transmitters. Generators of radio waves for heating or industrial purposes, such as microwave ovens or diathermy equipment, are not usually called transmitters even though they often have similar circuits. The term is popularly used more specifically to refer to a broadcast transmitter, a transmitter used in broadcasting, as in FM radio transmitter or television transmitter. This usage usually includes both the transmitter proper, the antenna, and often the building it is housed in. An unrelated use of the term is in industrial process control, where a "transmitter" is a telemetry device which converts measurements from a sensor into a signal, and sends it, usually via wires, to be received by some display or control device located a distance away. Block diagram of a TV transmitter (intercarrier method).
  • 46. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 46 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR The installed antenna systemshould fulfill the following requirements : a) It should have required gain and provide desired field strength at the point of reception. b) It should have desired horizontal radiation pattern and directivity for serving the planned area of interest. The radiation pattern should be omni directional if the location of the transmitting station is at the center of the service area and directional one, if the location is otherwise. c) It should offer proper impedance to the main feeder cable and thereby to the transmitter so that optimum RF energy is transferred into space. Impedance mismatch results into reflection of power and formation of standing waves. The standard RF impedance at VHF/UHF is 50 ohms.
  • 47. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 47 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Outdoor Broadcasting Van (OB Van) O B Van (Outdoor Broadcasting van ): OB van is used for live broadcasting like any match or any event. It consist all the equipments that is present in the studio for telecasting. It also referring as mini studio . It has mainly 3 parts : 1) Power supply unit 2) Production control unit 3) Audio console and VTR Main Components of OB Van 1. Parabolic Dish Antenna 2. Feed 3. LNA / LNBC 4. Wave Guide / Low Loss Cable 5, HPA / SSPA 6. UP Converter 7. Modulator / Multiplexer 8. Encoder / Decoder
  • 48. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 48 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Inner View of OB van
  • 49. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 49 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR SATELLITE COMMUNICATION A communications satellite (or COMSAT) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits including geostationary orbits, Molniya orbits, other elliptical orbits and low (polar and non- polar) Earth orbits. For fixed (point-to-point) services, communications satellites provide a microwave radio relay technology complementary to that of communication cables. They are also used for mobile applications such as communications to ships, vehicles, planes and hand-held terminals, and for TV and radio broadcasting, for which application of other technologies, such as cable television, is impractical or impossible.
  • 50. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 50 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR EARTH STATION:- A ground station, earth station, or earth terminal is a terrestrial terminal station designed for extra planetary telecommunication with spacecraft, or reception of radio waves from an astronomical radio source. Ground stations are located either on the surface of the Earth, or within the atmosphere. Earth stations communicate with spacecraft by transmitting and receiving radio waves in the super high frequency or extremely high frequency bands (e.g., microwaves). When a ground station successfully transmits radio waves to a spacecraft (or vice versa), it establishes a telecommunications link. Ground stations may occupy either a fixed or itinerant position. Article 1 § III of the ITU Radio Regulations describes various types of stationary and mobile ground stations, and their interrelationships. Specialized satellite earth stations are used to telecommunicate with satellites—chiefly communications satellites. Other ground stations communicate with manned space stations or unmanned space probes. A ground station that primarily receives telemetry data, or that follows a satellite not in geostationary orbit, is called a tracking station. When a satellite is within a ground station's line of sight, the station is said to have a view of the satellite. It is possible for a satellite to communicate with more than one ground station at a time. A pair of ground stations are said to have a satellite in mutual view when the stations share simultaneous, unobstructed, line-of-sight contact with the satellite.
  • 51. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 51 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR UPLINK:- Pertaining to satellite communications, an uplink (UL or U/L) is the portion of a communications link used for the transmission of signals from an Earth terminal to a satellite or to an airborne platform. An uplink is the inverse of a downlink. An uplink or downlink is distinguished from reverse link or forward link. Pertaining to GSM and cellular networks, the radio uplink is the transmission path from the mobile station (cell phone) to a base station (cell site). Traffic and signalling flows within the BSSand NSS may also be identified as uplink and downlink. Pertaining to computer networks, an uplink is a connection from data communications equipment toward the network core. This is also known as an upstream connection. DOWNLINK:- In the context of satellite communications, a downlink (DL) is the link from a satellite to a ground station.Pertaining to cellular networks, the radio downlink is the transmission path from a cell site to the cell phone. Traffic and signalling flows within the base station subsystem (BSS) and network switching subsystem (NSS) may also be identified as uplink and downlink. Pertaining to a computer networks, a downlink is a connection from data communications equipment towards data terminal equipment. This is also known as a downstream connection.
  • 52. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 52 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR HDTV High-definition television (HDTV) provides a resolution that is substantially higher than that of standard-definition television. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: :-1080p - 1920×1080p: 2,073,600 pixels (approximately 2.1 megapixels) per frame :-1080i - typically either: :-1920×1080i: 1,036,800 pixels (approximately 1 megapixel) per field or 2,073,600 pixels (approximately 2.1 megapixels) per frame :- 1440×1080i:[1] 777,600 pixels (approximately 0.8 megapixels) per field or 1,555,200 pixels (approximately 1.6 megapixels) per frame :-720p - 1280×720p: 921,600 pixels (approximately 0.9 megapixels) per frame The letter "p" here stands for progressive scan while "i" indicates interlaced. When transmitted at two megapixels per frame, HDTV provides about five times as many pixels as SD (standard-definition television).
  • 53. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 53 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR About DD Free Dish DD Free Dish is India's only Free Direct-To-Home Service previously known as DD Direct +. This service was launched in December, 2004. DD Free Dish DTH service is owned and operated by Public Service Broadcaster Prasar Bharati (Doordarshan). More about DTH · What is DTH · DD Free Dish · Future of DD Free Dish · Difference · How to Receive What is DTH ? In general, DTH service is the one in which a large number of channels are digitally compressed, encrypted, uplinked and beamed down over a territory from a very high power satellite. The DTH signals can be received directly at homes with the help of a small sized dish receive unit containing a Dish Antenna of diameter 60 to 90 cm installed at the building’s roof- top or on the wall facing clear south and one indoor Set-Top-Box unit facilitating viewing of demultiplexed signals from DTH channel bouquet on TV set. The DTH signals can be received anywhere across the country irrespective of the terrain conditions provided the area comes under the footprint of the Satellite. DTH transmission eliminates the intervening role of a local cable operator since a user is directly connected to the DTH service. DTH Transmission is most preferred in Ku- Band so as to avoid the need of larger Dish sizes for suitably receiving the DTH signals. As the DTH telecast is in the Digital mode, user is able to reap all the benefits of Digital transmission. Programs in the DTH bouquet are having higher resolution picture and better audio quality than traditional analog signals. Direct-to-Home (DTH) satellite television is becoming a buzzword in the satellite broadcast industry due to the fact that DTH offers immense opportunities to both broadcasters and viewers. Thanks to the rapid development of digital technology, DTH broadcast operators worldwide have been able to introduce a large number of new interactive applications in the television market besides a large number of entertainment programmes over a single delivery platform. In addition, since digital technology permits a highly efficient exploitation of the frequency spectrum, the number of TV channels that can be broadcast using digital technology is
  • 54. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 54 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR significantly higher than with analogue technology. The increased number of television channels allows the operator to satisfy the demand of a number of niche markets with dedicated transmissions. What is DD Free Dish? Doordarshan’s DD Free Dish is a multi-channel Free-To-Air Direct to Home (DTH) service. This service was launched in December’2004 with the modest beginning of 33 channels. This service was inaugurated by Hon’ble Prime Minister of India. DD Free Dish has been upgraded time to time and at present Doordarshan’s DTH platform has the capacity of 80 SDTV channels along with 32 Radio channels. DD Free Dish is available in Ku-Band on GSAT-15 (at 93.5°E) having MPEG-2 DVB-S, 5 streams of channels with Downlink Frequencies -11090, 11170, 11470, 11510 and 11550 MHz. This Ku-Band DTH service provides the TV coverage throughout the Indian territory (except Andaman & Nicobar Islands). DTH signals can be received through a small sized dish receive system ( i.e. Set Top Box and Dish of size 60 to 90 cm in diameter) for which no monthly subscription fee is payable by the viewers. A separate DTH service in C-Band with a bouquet of 10 channels has also been provided by Doordarshan exclusively for Andaman & Nicobar Islands, which is also Free-To-Air. This C- Band DTH service is available on INSAT-4B (at 93.5°E) with downlink frequency of 3925 MHz, 27500 Ksps, FEC-3/4, Pol-H, L.O.-5150MHz. This service can be received through a STB and small sized Dish Antenna (approximately 120 cm diameter) for which also no monthly subscription fee is payable by viewers. Future of DD Free Dish? Expansion of DD Free Dish has been carried out time to time. The present capacity is likely to be enhanced to 104 SDTV channels and 40 Radio channels in near future with the introduction of new MPEG-4, DVB-S2 stream. How DD Free Dish is different from other DTH systems? Most of the DTH Services, operating all over the world and in India, provide paid DTH Service. In the paid service, the DTH operators uplink the encrypted TV signals to the satellite and the signals are received by subscribers through a Dish receive system having a Dish Antenna and one Customized Set Top Box (DIGITAL DECODER). By choosing the bunch of various desired TV channels viz-a-viz the respective payment plan options, subscribers are given a key- code to decode/decrypt the TV channels through customized set top box. The subscription charges for viewing these channels are collected by the DTH operator. Whereas, DD Free Dish is absolutely different, as Doordarshan is not charging any monthly subscription fee from the viewers for complete bouquet of the DD Free Dish channels, making the system quite affordable for all as it requires only a small one time investment in purchasing of Dish Receive System containing Set-Top-Box and small sized Dish Antenna.
  • 55. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 55 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR How to receive DD Free Dish? Receive system of DD Free Dish contains three units: 1) One small sized Dish Antenna along with LNBF 2) Indoor Set-Top-Box (STB) also known as IRD (Integrated Receiver Decoder) and 3) Handy Remote control unit for STB. Dish Antenna installed at the roof top or on wall facing clear south receives the signal from satellite and transmits it to the indoor Set top box unit. The set top box further decodes the different TV channels from the DTH bouquet and feeds it to the TV set for viewing. The complete DD Free Dish DTH system (Dish Antenna, Set Top Box and Remote control unit) is a one-time purchase from the open market with a nominal cost. There is absolutely no further recurring expenditure in terms of monthly subscription etc. for viewing DD Free Dish Channels. Installation of the Receive System: Installation of the DTH receive system is very easy and does not take much time. The viewers may take the services of skilled technical personnel to get the dish installed and oriented towards the desired Satellite, followed by tuning/configuring the Set-Top-Box unit. Dish Installation and STB-Tuning procedure is normally mentioned in the manual supplied by respective manufacturer along with their receive system. As a broad guideline, some of the parameters which may be required to be fed to the STB are indicated below. Satellite in Use: GSAT series Geostationary Satellite GSAT-15 from ISRO is being used to provide the services of DD Free Dish in Ku-Band. Reception of DD Free Dish signal is available throughout the length and breadth of the Indian Territory except Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Satellite.type: Geo-synchronous Satellite’s Orbital location: 93.5° East DTG Receive Parameters: Receive parameters of the Doordarshan’s DTH bouquet of TV channels (spread in 5 streams), are as follows: Transponder Polarization Downlink Frequency (MHz) LNB Frequency (MHz) Symbol Rate(Ksps) FEC K-16 (36 MHz) V 11090 9750 29500 3/4 K-18 (36 MHz) V 11170 9750 29500 3/4 K-19 (36 V 11470 9750 29500 3/4
  • 56. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 56 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR MHz) K-20 (36 MHz) V 11510 9750 29500 3/4 K-21 (36 MHz) V 11550 9750 29500 3/4 DIGITAL TERRESTRIAL TV
  • 57. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 57 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR The existing 1412 Analogue TV Transmitters in India serve about 88% of Indian population. Constrained by limited frequency capacity, the analogue terrestrial television platform needed a new & more efficient transmission system to meet the demands of the future and to allow for the launch of new services. Therefore digitalization of Terrestrial TV Transmitters has been started by Doordarshan at 40 cities and another 23 Transmitters have been approved in XII Plan. India has adopted DVB Standard. The 2nd generation DVB T2 Standard, launched in June 2008, has about 50% more capacity than its first generation DVB T. The DVB T2 Transmitter has high data capacity (upto 40 Mbps). Further upgradation of DVB Standard ETSI EN 302 755 V1.3.1 (T2-Lite) in June 2011, it has provided more flexibility for Mobile TV and T2 Radio alongwith transmission of SDTV and HDTV programmes. . The T2-Lite profile is basically a subset of the DVB-T2 standard which is called now "DVB T2- base" profile and the Future Extension Frame (FEF) feature of the DVB-T2 standard enables transmitting services using both the DVB-T2 Lite and DVB-T2 Base profile within the same frequency channel. The DVB T2 Transmitters are thus equipped for Fixed, Portable and Mobile equipments. Accordingly to reap its benefits DD adopted DVB T2 standard. With Digital Terrestrial Transmitters it will be useful for Fixed, Portable and Mobile devices. DTT Update Doordarshan started Mobile TV in India: Digital Terrestrial Television services to provide mobile TV at 16 cities e.g Pitampura(Delhi), Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Guwahati, Patna, Ranchi, Cuttack, Lucknow, Jallandhar, Raipur, Indore, Aurangabad, Bhopal, Bangalore and Ahmadabad, have been started from 25.02.2016. Mobile TV can be received using DVB-T2 Dongles in OTG enabled smart phones and tablets, Wi-Fi dongles, besides in integrated digital TV(iDTV). While iDTV are available in plenty like Sony, LG, Panasonic, Samsung etc., the dongles are also available in online Flip kart and eBay. Public and private transportation vehicles and public places are potential environments for Mobile Television. Currently DD National, DD News, DD Bharati, DD Sports, DD Regional/DD Kisan are being relayed. Only one time investment of Dongle will be required by viewers and no extra expenditure unlike streaming with internet.
  • 58. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 58 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Why Terrestrial TV? Doordarshan is transmitting all free-to-air channels in analog format since 15th September 1959. It is necessary to migrate to digital terrestrial broadcasting as the world is moving away from analogue to digital broadcasting. Going digital will provide multiple programme channels , better video and audio quality, provide signals for mobile and portable devices like mobiles/tablets/PC etc. and other value added services, besides it will allow the government to free up frequency spectrum which can be used for new services like mobile, wireless broadband and potentially more TV services and channels. Some advantages of DTT Transmission are as below: 1. Analog TV (ATV) is subject to interference, such as ghosting and snow, depending on the distance and geographical location of the TV receiving the signal. 2. SDTV pictures are free from "ghosting" and "snowing", which are commonly found in analogue TV pictures. 3. Digital digital TV supports Standard Digital TV (SDTV) High Definition TV (HDTV) and Ultra High Definition TV (UHDTV). 4. DTT secures greater plurality in Platform ownership, ensuring that no single platform owner is so powerful that they can exert undue influence on public opinion or political agendas. 5. The DTT will provide signals for portable and mobile devices and also provide signals for Vehicles etc. 6. The digital transition offers an opportunity to increase the production of local content. This in turn creates job opportunity and increase creativity and entrepreneurship. 7.A strong DTT platform is critical to healthy competition in the TV market and to the realisation of a wide range of social benefits and most essentially an all weather reliable platform and unlike DTH there is no risk of catastrophic failure of total network. It provide alternative distribution platform.
  • 59. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 59 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR 8.DTT creates the opportunity for convergence . Services like internet, LTE A+ overlay are feasible with DVB T2. Broadcasting and telecommunications are in many countries treated as separate, vertical markets. But the digital technology creates the possibility of service convergence, infrastructure convergence, terminal and service provider convergence. The digital dividend at the UHF band has a potential to provide mobile internet broadband services to the rural and that will help greatly to fulfil one of the millennium development goals of bridging the digital divide. How to receive DTT? It require ordinary antenna (Indoor or outdoor depending upon location of your site) as used in analogue TV. With the existing TV a Set Top Box compliant with DVB T2 Standard is required. But some integrated Digital TVs (iDTV) are available in market having in built set top box. Additional equipment required will be a 75-ohm coaxial cable and a HDMI cable if you are using the DVB T2 set-top box. The mobile should be with USB host function or ‘On The Go’(OTG) enabled Android Phone. Any such mobile is capable to transfer data to devices like Pendrive etc. It is always described in mobile specifications. Some examples of such mobile includes: Micromax Q380, Oppo Joy 3 A11W, Intex Power HD, Lava iris X8, Samsung DUOS etc. DVB-T2 Dongles will be required for attachment to such mobile. Some Wi-Fi Dongles with antenna are also available in market. If such wi-fi dongle with antenna is plugged on power and placed near to window, the signal may be received in mobile/tablet within 20 m from it.
  • 60. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 60 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR Conclusion Doordarshan is the oldest and the biggest Broadcasting media in India. Now I have studied a lot about the television broadcast system. One must have never thought that so many things are required for watching a television. The camera, the studio, the transmitter, the PDA, the setup box (installed in houses) everything is connected to each other. Here man and electronics work as if they are a family. So many process and lots of hard work, sincerity is required to just have a show or say a movie on air i.e. to be broadcasted. So many people are involved in it. I really enjoyed of being part of it. The saying is really true that… “Tell me, I may forget Teach me, I may remember But involve me, and I have learnt it” In my training session I learned a lot. Not only in technical field but also in social field too. I got a great experience of working in a Public Sector Company. I learned about the recent trends in Broadcasting Media and also the market strategies to maximize the profit using limited resources.
  • 61. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Dept. of ECE ~ 61 ~ GEC JHALAWAR BY- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR References 1) http://prasarbharati.gov.in 2) http://www.ddbihar.org/ 3) http://www.ddinews.gov.in 4) www.ddindia.gov.in/ 5) www.slideshare.com/ 6) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DD_Bihar