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  1. 1. Harvesting Cocoa & Cocoa processingChocolate production starts with harvesting coca in a forest. Cocoa comes from tropical evergreen Cocoa trees, such as Theobroma Cocoa, which grow in the wet lowland tropics of Central and South America, West Africa and Southeast Asia(within 20 C of the equator) (Walter,1981) . Cocoa needs to be harvested manually in the forest. The seed pods of coca will first be collected; the beans will be selected and placedin piles. These cocoa beans will then be ready to be shipped to the manufacturer for mass production.
  2. 2. Plucking and opening the Pods Cocoa beans grow in pods that sprout off of the trunk and branches of cocoa trees. The pods are about the size of a football. The pods start out green and turn orange when theyre ripe. When the pods are ripe, harvesters travel through the cocoa orchards with machetes and hack the pods gently off of the trees. Machines could damage the tree or the clusters of flowers and pods that grow from the trunk, so workers must be harvest the pods by hand, using short, hooked blades mounted on long poles to reach the highest fruit. After the cocoa pods are collected into baskets ,the pods are taken to a processing house. Here they are split open and the cocoa beans are removed. Pods can contain upwards of 50 cocoa beans each. Fresh cocoa beans are not brown at all, they do not taste at all like the sweet chocolate they will eventually produce.
  3. 3. Fermenting the cocoa seeds Now the beans undergo the fermentation processing. They are either placed in large, shallow, heated trays or covered with large banana leaves. If the climate is right, they may be simply heated by the sun. Workers come along periodically and stir them up so that all of the beans come out equally fermented. During fermentation is when the beans turn brown. This process may take five or eight days.
  4. 4. Drying the cocoa seedsAfter fermentation, the cocoaseeds must be dried before theycan be scooped into sacks andshipped to chocolatemanufacturers. Farmers simplyspread the fermented seeds ontrays and leave them in the sun to dry.The drying process usually takesabout a week and results in seedsthat are about half of their originalweight.
  5. 5. Cleaning When seeds arrive to factory they are carefully selected and cleaned by passing through a bean cleaning machine that removes extraneous materials. Different bean varieties are blended to produce the typical flavor of chocolate of particular producer. Then the bean shells are cracked and removed. Crushed cocoa beans are called nibs.
  6. 6. Roasting The beans are then roasted to develop the characteristic chocolate flavour of the bean in large rotary cylinders. The roasting lasts from 30 minutes to 2 hours at very high temperatures. The bean colour changes to a rich brown and the aroma of chocolate comes through.
  7. 7. Grinding The roasted nibs are milled through a process that liquefies the cocoa butter in the nibs and forms cocoa mass (or paste). This liquid mass has dark brown colour, typical strong smell and flavour and contains about 54% of cocoa butter.
  8. 8. Cocoa PressingPart of cocoa mass is fed into the cocoa press which hydraulically squeezes a portion of the cocoa butter from the cocoa mass, leaving "cocoa cakes". The cocoa butter is used in the manufacture of chocolates; the remaining cakes of cocoa solids are pulverized into cocoa powders.
  9. 9. Mixing and Refining Ingredients, like cocoa mass, sugar, cocoa butter, flavourings and powdered or condensed milk for milk chocolate are blended in mixers to a paste with the consistency of dough for refining. Chocolate refiners, a set of rollers, crush the paste into flakes that are significantly reduced in size. This step is critical in determining how smooth chocolate is when eaten.
  10. 10. Conching Conching is a flavour development process during which the chocolate is put under constant agitation. The conching machines, called "conches", have large paddles that sweep back and forth through the refined chocolate mass anywhere from a few hours to several days. Conching reduces moisture, drives off any lingering acidic flavors and coats each particle of chocolate with a layer of cocoa butter. The resulting chocolate has a smoother, mellower flavor.
  11. 11. Tempering and Moulding The chocolate then undergoes a tempering melting and cooling process that creates small, stable cocoa butter crystals in the fluid chocolate mass and is deposited into moulds of different forms. Properly tempered chocolate will result in a finished product that has a glossy, smooth appearance.
  12. 12. Cooling and Packaging The moulded chocolate enters controlled cooling tunnels to solidify the pieces. Depending on the size of the chocolate pieces, the cooling cycle takes between 20 minutes to two hours. From the cooling tunnels, the chocolate is packaged for delivery to retailers and ultimately into the hands of consumers.
  13. 13. Thank