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# Orthographic projections

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Basics of Orthographic Projections

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### Orthographic projections

1. 1. Orthographic Projection Arya CNC Technologies
2. 2. Arya CNC Technologies
3. 3. Orthographic projection • Orthographic" comes from the Greek word for "straight writing (or drawing)." This projection shows the object as it looks from the front, right, left, top, bottom, or back, and are typically positioned relative to each other according to the rules of either “First Angle” or “Third Angle” projection. Arya CNC Technologies
4. 4. 5 Orthographic projection is a parallel projection technique in which the parallel lines of sight are perpendicular to the projection plane MEANING Object views from top Projection plane 1 2 3 4 51 2 3 4 Arya CNC Technologies
5. 5. Six Principal Views Arya CNC Technologies
6. 6. Which Views to Present Arya CNC Technologies
7. 7. Arya CNC Technologies
8. 8. Glass Box Approach Arya CNC Technologies
9. 9. Glass Box Approach Arya CNC Technologies
10. 10. Glass Box Approach Arya CNC Technologies
11. 11. Glass Box Approach Arya CNC Technologies
12. 12. Glass Box Approach Arya CNC Technologies
13. 13. Glass Box Approach Arya CNC Technologies
14. 14. Arya CNC Technologies
15. 15. Drawing Sheet Trimmed paper of a size A0 ~ A4. Standard sheet size (ISO) A4 210 x 297 A3 297 x 420 A2 420 x 594 A1 594 x 841 A0 841 x 1189 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0(Dimensions in millimeters) Arya CNC Technologies
16. 16. Drawing Scales Scale is the ratio of the linear dimension of an element of an object shown in the drawing to the real linear dimension of the same element of the object. Size in drawing Actual size Length, size : Arya CNC Technologies
17. 17. Drawing Scales Designation of a scale consists of the word “SCALE” followed by the indication of its ratio, as follow SCALE 1:1 for full size SCALE X:1 for enlargement scales (X > 1) SCALE 1:X for reduction scales (X > 1) Dimension numbers shown in the drawing are correspond to “true size” of the object and they are independent of the scale used in creating that drawing. Arya CNC Technologies
18. 18. Basic Line Types Types of Lines Appearance Name according to application Continuous thick line Visible line Continuous thin line Dimension line Extension line Leader line Dash thick line Hidden line Chain thin line Center line NOTE : We will learn other types of line in later chapters. Arya CNC Technologies
19. 19. Visible lines represent features that can be seen in the current view Meaning of Lines Hidden lines represent features that can not be seen in the current view Center line represents symmetry, path of motion, centers of circles, axis of axisymmetrical parts Dimension and Extension lines indicate the sizes and location of features on a drawing Arya CNC Technologies
20. 20. For Example Arya CNC Technologies 1 2 3
21. 21. Dimensioning Arya CNC Technologies
22. 22. Dimensioning Arya CNC Technologies
23. 23. Types of Dimensioning Arya CNC Technologies
24. 24. Types of Dimensioning Arya CNC Technologies
25. 25. Types of Dimensioning Arya CNC Technologies
26. 26. Dimensioning of Circles Arya CNC Technologies
27. 27. Dimensioning Radii Arya CNC Technologies
28. 28. Limits of Size • All dimensions have minimum and maximum values specified by the tolerance block. • Tolerances accumulate in a chain of dimensions. • Accumulation can be avoided by using a single baseline. Arya CNC Technologies
29. 29. Fit Between Parts Clearance Fit Interference Fit Transition Fit 1. Clearance fit: The shaft maximum diameter is smaller than the hole minimum diameter. 2. Interference fit: The shaft minimum diameter is larger than the hole maximum diameter. 3. Transition fit: The shaft maximum diameter and hole minimum have an interference fit, while the shaft minimum diameter and hole maximum diameter have a clearance fit Arya CNC Technologies
30. 30. Drawing Layout The Title Block Should Include : • Title –Title of the Drawing • Name –Name of the person who produced it • Checked – Before manufacturing the drawings are normally checked. • Version –Many Drawings are amended , each revision must be noted. • Date – Date on which drawing was produced or amended • Notes – Any Notes relevant to the drawing • Scale - The scale of the drawing. • Company Name – Name of the company. • Projection – The Projection system used to create the drawing Arya CNC Technologies
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