A Multitasking mobile is a compact version ofvarious features embedded in a single device tofulfill all the business and personnel technologiesgiving users the flexibility in their communicationsby uploading all the functionality onto thesoftware. •These Mobiles are popularly known as “Smartphones”. • And the applications are known as ‘Apps’.
There are two types of ‘apps’:-1.Native Apps2.Web Apps• Native apps are those which work offline and are inbuilt withthe device and are platform (i.e. OS)dependent. They are muchfaster then the web apps as the relative applications are presenton the device itself. [ex. Radio, Calculator, Clock, Calendar, Pictures etc.]•Web apps work online and they are platform independent asthey are opened through web browsers(ex. Opera, Safari,Webkit).These are comparatively slower then Native apps as thedata is not readily available as it fetches the data throughinternet service provider. [ex. Face book, Twitter, Hi5, Friendster etc.]
•Operating system is an interface between the machine and the user.It is just a visualization of the machine for the user to make it moreuser friendly to operate.•An OS or the platform manages the hardware and softwareresources of the device and controls all its basic operation .• Without an OS, the mobile is just a piece of metal in the user’s handas it keeps the device functioning according to the user’srequirements.• OS is the heart of a Smartphone because it enables all theprogrammers to build such sophisticated applications to make itmore receptive to the users as these phones are of no use if they arenot user understandable even if they are much sophisticated.[ex. iOS(Apple), Android(Google), Windows for mobiles(Microsoft),Blackberry OS(RIM), Symbian(Symbian Foundation)]
Operating iOS Android Windows Windown Blackberry Symbian System mobile Phone OS Owned by Apple Google Inc. Microsoft Microsoft RIM Symbian Company FoundationProgrammed C, C++, C, C++, Java Many, C++, Many, NET Java C++ in Objective NET, (Silverlight) C Lazarus
• Touch Sensitivity• Voice Recognition• Global Positioning system• Mobile Camera• Motion Sensors
•Touch screen previously consisted ofa thin layer of polyester film over alayer of glass or plastic. These layerswere crisscrossed with nearlytransparent wires. When the screen istouched the top layer pushes towardsthe lower layer and these wiresintersect. This changes the flow ofcurrent, which in turn helps indetermining the location of thetouch on the screen.
• The most recent touch screen are capacitive and haveuniform sensitivity. These capacitors are arrangedaccording to a co-ordinate system. When the screen istouched electrical impulses are generated. This signaltravels from the screen to the processor, which in turnuses a software to analyze the feature of a touch. (i.e. thesize, shape and location of the effected area on thescreen.)• If the raw data does not match any applicable gesture orcommands, the processor disregards it as an extraneoustouch.• Custom apps are linked almost entirely throughcomputational means ready to be summoned at user’stouch overcoming the tedious task of pushing buttonsand frequent keypad disruption.
•Voice recognition software is speaker-independent where there is noneed of training to understand our voice .•The speaker independent voice control can be either built into thephone or offered through ‘apps’.• The processing power and speech recognition that are built into thephone serve very limited speech commands but the majority of ‘apps’in mobile phones mostly rely on AUTOMATIC SPEECHRECOGNITION(ASR) with the help of which the user can use dialing,phonebook search etc.• The ASR technology converts a speech signal into a text messagetranscription of the spoken words. When a speaker articulates astream of words with pauses and utterances(like ‘uhh’, ‘umm’), the
software produces a speech waveform representing the words as wellas the extra sound and pauses in the spoken input.•The fragments of the sentences are then measured based on theiramplitude and the level of compression of air released from themouth. The software then decodes the speech into the best estimateof a sentence.• A microphone uses ASR and analog –digital converter to convert theanalog data into digital data.
•GPS navigational system are supported by 27 satellitesin Low Earth Orbit. A receivers exact location isdetermined through a process called ‘Triangulation’where 3 Satellites work together to track downpossible location points.• A GPS Tracking system uses the GLOBAL NAVIGTIONSATELLITE SYSTEM(GNSS) network. This networkincludes a range of satellites that uses microwavesignals that are being transmitted to GPS devices togive information on locations, vehicle speed, time anddirection.• It provide real time and past navigation data.
The sequence of events of image formation and storage in aSmartphone is as follows:- Light from the object Camera’s Digital Sensor’s Pixels Imprint of the object (passed to) Color Filters (generate) Analog Electric Signal (A-D converter) Digital Signal Stored in Chips
Chips are of two types:1.Charged-Coupled Devices(CCDs).2.Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductors(CMOSs)• Both these Silicon Chips detect light and covert light photons intoelectrical energy(Video).•CMOS provide better quality images then CCDs.• The earlier technology used to be VGA(Visual Graphics Array)which is obsolete nowadays.
•These Sensors sense the change in the position of an object relativeto its surroundings.• The motion sensor used in mobiles is known as ‘ACCELEROMETER’which measures linear acceleration. It translates motion into actionon the screen. Advance accelerometer work on 6-axes (i.e. up &down, left & & right, forward & backward).These are often smallMicro Electro Mechanical System(MEMS).
• They provide many application (For ex. Allow users to monitor afitness workout by measuring the number of steps, the speed andcalories burn).• The most popular application is Mobile Gaming which allowsmotion gestures such as swinging and shaking.
•Talking Tom• You Tube•Shazam•MS Office•Online Dictionary•Internet radio