International Space Station &Space Transportation System Ravi P. Agrahari (Science & Technology)
International Space Station (ISS)A view from ISS
What is International Space Station??• Internationally developed research facility in space being assembled in Low Earth Orbit• Has a microgravity environment in which Astronauts conduct experiments in biology, humanbiology, physics, astronomy and meteorology• Unique environment for the testing of the spacecraft systems that will be required for missions to the Moon and Mars• A complete home to the humans beyond the Earth• Most expensive object ever constructed by man(upto72 Kharab Rs aprx.)• Maintained at an orbit between 278 km and 460 km altitude• Travels at an average speed of 27,724 km/h completing 15.7 orbits per day or 1 orbit/92min• Joint project between NASA (USA), JAXA (Japan), RKA (Russia), ESA(Europe), CSA (Canada) and small contributions from others
Major Experiments include• Effects of long-term space exposure on the human body• Ultrasound scans and diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions in space• Study on near-weightless and microgravity environment on the evolution, development, growth and internal processes of plants and animals• Investigation of Superconductivity and the physics of fluids in microgravity• Study of the efficiency of burning and control of emissions and pollutants• Study on cosmic rays, cosmic dust, antimatter and dark matter in the universe
Construction of ISS & Purpose of ISSModules• ISS construction started with the help of Russian Space Station Mir on 20 November 1998 and is scheduled to complete by 2011 end Module DescriptionZarya(20.11.1998) provided electrical power, storage, propulsion & guidance initially & now is a storage compartment for PS & EFTUnity node Connected U.S section of the station to(4.12.1998) the Russian section
Zvezda (12.7.2000) stations service module(Russia) providing the main living quarters for resident crews, environmental systems & altitude & orbit control. Also provides docking locationsDestiny (7.2.2001) primary research facility for US.U.S Laboratory intended for general experimentsHarmony Harmony-provide electrical(23.10.2007) power, bus electronic data, and(Europe Builder, acts as a central connectingUSA Operator) point for several otherTranquility node components(8.2.2010) Tranquility-contains an advanced(Europe Builder life support system to recycleUSA Operator) waste water for crew use and generate oxygen for the crew to breathe
Columbus Biology, biomedical(7.2.2008) research and fluid physics study.(European Several mounting locations affixed toLaboratory) the exterior of the module, which provide power and data to external experimentsKibo- ELM-storage and transportationELM (11.3.2008) facilities of exp. devices & samplesPM (31.5.2008) PM-largest ISS module. carry out(Japanese research in space medicine, EarthLaboratory) observations, materials production, biotechnology, and communications research. robotic arm is attached. 23 racks, including 10 experiment racks.Cupola (8.2.2010) observatory module that provides ISS(Europe Builder, crew members with a direct view ofUSA Operator) robotic operations and docked spacecraft, as well as an observation point for watching the Earth. Attached robotic workstations for operating the Canadarm and shutters to protect its windows from damage
•TRUSSES CONTAIN 10 SEGMENTS AND ARE USED TO SUPPORT THE 16SOLAR ARRAYS AND RADIATORS. THE SOLAR ARRAYS PROVIDE ENERGYFOR THE STATION, AND THE RADIATORS GET RID OF EXTRA HEAT THATBUILDS UP IN THE STATION.
Power Supply & Communication in ISSPower Supply• The source of electrical power for the ISS is the sun• Sunlight is converted into electricity by solar arrays. The Russian segment of the station uses 28 volts DC• Solar arrays are arranged as four pairs of wings, and each wing is capable of generating nearly 32.8 kW of DC power• Has rechargeable nickel-hydrogen batteries working life of 6.5 yearsCommunicationTalking with the Ground NASAs Mission Control (Houston) => 60-foot radio antenna (New Mexico) => Pair of Geostationary satellites => U.S. portion of the ISS/Space shuttle• The ISS has two systems for communicating with the ground:• S-band - voice, commands, telemetry and data files• Ku-band (high bandwidth) - video and transfer of two-way data files
• Talking Within the ISS and to Spacewalkers The Internal Audio Subsystem (IAS) will provide intercom, telephone and alarm system communications within the ISSs pressurized modules.
Space shuttle (upper view):reusable space vehicle used for travelbetween a space station and earth.Conical nose:cone-shaped point of the orbiter.Booster parachute:apparatus used to slow the fall of theauxiliary thrusters.Solid rocket booster:solid-rocket booster.Propulsion system:system that enables the shuttle to takeoff.Orbiter:part of the shuttle that goes into space.Exterior tank:large tank attached to the orbiter.
Space Shuttle (Orbiter)Rudder: part of the shuttleused for turning.Main engines: engines thatenable the shuttle to enterand leave spaceTank: part of the shuttlecontaining stored fuelCargo-bay door: part of the shuttle that, when open,provides access to the payloadStar tracker: system of positioning by the starsLiving quarters and flight deck: part of the shuttle where astronauts can work and pilot the shuttle without wearing spacesuitsRemote-control arm: system used to catch a satellite in need of repairSpecial launch: system used to start the shuttle in an emergencyForward control thrusters: system that alters or stabilizes the altitude of the shuttleOrbital rendezvous light: light that announces a link-up if two space vehicle