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# Orthographic

Orthographic Projection

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### Orthographic

1. 1. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 1 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 1E9 Created By:-Ravi Patel
2. 2. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 2 Projections (1) • Projections transform points from n (here, n = 3) dimensional space into a space of dimension less than n (here, n = 2) • Points to be considered, – Location of object – Location of observer – Plane of projection – Projectors/lines of projection
3. 3. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 3 Projections (2) Projections Parallel/ Cylindrical Perspective/ Conical Oblique Orthographic One-Point Two-Point Three-Point Cabinet Cavalier Other Multi-view First-angle Fourth-angle Third-angle Second-angle Axonometric Isometric (30°) Di-metric Trimetric
4. 4. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 4 Parallel Projections
5. 5. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 5 Perspective Projections
6. 6. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 6 Oblique Projections • Projectors are parallel to each other but not perpendicular to projection plane • An oblique projection shows front and top surfaces that include the three dimensions of height, width, and depth. • The front or principal surface of an object (the surface toward the plane of projection) is parallel to the plane of projection. • Effective in pictorially representing objects
7. 7. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 7 Orthographic Projections • Orthographic projections are drawings where the projectors, the observer or station point remain parallel to each other and perpendicular to the plane of projection. • Orthographic projections are further subdivided into axonometric projections and multi-view projections. • Effective in technical representation of objects
8. 8. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 8 Axonometric • The observer is at infinity & the projectors are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the plane of projection. # • A key feature of axonometric projections is that the object is inclined toward the plane of projection showing all three surfaces in one view. • The length of the lines, sizes of the angles, and proportions of the object varies according to the amount of angle between the object and the plane of projection.
9. 9. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 9 Axonometric The object is tilted with all three coordinate axes are visible in any one view (PP projection plane)
10. 10. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 10 Orthographic (Orthogonal) The object is at rest and two coordinate axes are visible in any one view (PP projection plane)
11. 11. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 11 Multiview Projections
12. 12. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 12 Multiview Projections • Front surfaces of object is parallel to plane of projection • Projectors or line of sights are perpendicular to projection plane • Projectors are parallel to each other and originate from any point on object
13. 13. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 13 The six views
14. 14. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 14 Angles • First angle projection – European System • Third angle projection – American System
15. 15. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 15 First Angle Projection
16. 16. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 16 First Angle Projection 1 How to draw plan and elevation?
17. 17. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 17 First Angle Projection 2 How to draw end view?
18. 18. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 18 First Angle Projection 3 Points to remember: • The ‘front view’ (or elevation) is the view with maximum information. •The ‘plan’ is below the ‘elevation’ (in projection). •The ‘end view’ is placed on the right if viewed from left side of object and on the left if viewed from right side. •‘End view’ and plan face inwards from ‘elevation’.
19. 19. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 19 Third Angle Projection
20. 20. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 20 Third Angle Projection 1 How to draw plan and elevation? In 3rd angle projection planes are transparent and objects are viewed through them
21. 21. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 21 Third Angle Projection 2 How to draw end view?
22. 22. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 22 Third Angle Projection 3 Points to remember: • The ‘front view’ (or elevation) is the view with maximum information. •The ‘plan’ is above the ‘elevation’ (in projection). •The ‘end view’ is placed on the right if viewed from right side of object and on the left if viewed from left side. •‘End view’ and plan face outwards from ‘elevation’.
23. 23. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 23 Example 1
24. 24. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 24 Example 2
25. 25. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 25 Example1 movie
26. 26. Lecture 3 Saturday 22 November 2014 26 Example 2 movie

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• #### Alphanababu

Apr. 19, 2021

Orthographic Projection

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