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Chapter 1


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Chapter 1

  2. 2. Outline • Sentence • Phrase • Exercise 1 • Kinds of sentences • Exercise 2
  3. 3. Sentence • A combination of words that makes complete sense is called a sentence. • Look at the following groups of words: • Boys are going to school. • He went home yesterday. • She is my best friend. • God helps those who help themselves. • Each of the above groups of words express a complete sense. We call groups of words a sentence.
  4. 4. Phrase • A combination of words that makes sense, but not complete sense is called a Phrase. • Look at the following groups of words: • in the morning. • after an hour. • on the table. • with my brother. • Each of the above group of words does have some sense, but not complete sense. In order to express complete sense, some more words are required. A group of words having incomplete sense is called a phrase.
  5. 5. Exercise 1 • Say whether the following groups of words make a sentence or phrase After breakfast in the morning. I shall get up early tomorrow. Doctors earn a lot of money. On the roof of his house. You studied very hard last year. From a shop near my house. In the house where he was born. She will never speak to you again. The teacher asked us to sit in the hall. You can finish this work today.
  6. 6. Exercise 1(Contd.) • Arrange the following sets of words into sentences letter a writing is she. have not I book this bought. class in best our boy is he the. daily mother my goes to temple to. bought my apples father this from shop. near he lives house my. policy best is the honesty. match we yesterday a played. week us every writes to my father. been since raining it morning has.
  7. 7. Kinds of sentences • There are four kinds of sentences: Sentence Assertive Sentence Affirmative Sentence Emphatic Sentence Non-Emphatic Sentence Negative Sentence Interrogative Sentence Imperative Sentence Exclamatory Sentence
  8. 8. Kinds of sentences • Assertive sentences: These sentences state a fact, describe things or report events. They are also called Declarative sentences or Statements. An assertive sentence can be of various kinds:- (i) Affirmative [Non-Emphatic] a. Mohan wrote a story. b. I helped my friends. c. Mohan tells us lies. d. They hope to pass this year. (i) Affirmative [Emphatic] a. Mohan did write a story. b. I did help my friends. c. Mohan does tell us lies. d. They do hope to pass this year. (i) Negative a. Mohan did not write a story. b. I did not help my friends. c. Mohan does not tell us lies. d. They do not hope to pass this year.
  9. 9. Kinds of sentences • Interrogative sentences: Sentences which inquire about something are called Interrogative sentences. Such sentences take a question mark (?) at their end. • What is your father? • Why are the boys making noise? • Are you not happy here? • Did the teacher punish him?
  10. 10. Kinds of sentences • Imperative sentences: Sentences which express command, request, advice etc., are called Imperative sentences. The subject (you) is not ordinarily used in such sentences. • Bring a glass of water, please. • Tell him to leave the room at once. • Switch off the lights. • March forward.
  11. 11. Kinds of sentences • Exclamatory sentences: Sentences which express some sudden feelings (pleasure, anger or surprise) about something which has been said are called Exclamatory sentences. Such sentences or expressions take exclamation (!) at their end. • Hurrah! We have won. • Alas! He is ruined. • What a lovely flower (it is)! • How foolish he is!
  12. 12. Exercise 2 • Name the kind of each of the following sentences:- • He did not do his work honestly. • What a charming site it is! • Don’t make noise in the class. • Who has done this mischief? • The boys were playing in the field. • Why did you beat my brother? • Leave this place at once. • How noble this man is! • He did come to see me. • Did she finish her home-work?
  13. 13. Exercise 2 • Make the following sentences emphatic:- • I respect my teachers. • He respects his teachers. • You respected your teachers. • He came to me yesterday. • Please pay me a visit. • She wants to marry him. • The teacher took the class. • Please help my brother. • My father knows the secret. • He sent me a letter.