Musicians and the PreventionMusicians and the Prevention
of Hearing Lossof Hearing Loss
Catherine V. Palmer, PhD
Associate...
WarningWarning
By attending this presentation, you will
have to think differently about the way you
do things.
I would g...
Understanding the ear andUnderstanding the ear and
hearinghearing
3 Primary Divisions3 Primary Divisions
Tour through the Ear.wmv
Auditory SystemAuditory System
Two Critical Factors AffectingTwo Critical Factors Affecting
Hearing LossHearing Loss
 Intensity
 Duration
Who is in danger?Who is in danger?
Remember, the danger of damage to the
hair cells and subsequent hearing loss has to
do...
Functional ImpactFunctional Impact
Decreased sensitivity (you need sounds
louder to hear them)
Diminished clarity (frequ...
After exposure there may be no symptoms,
or the individual may experience ringing in
the ears, a sensation of fullness, o...
The damage continuesThe damage continues
We know that hair cells continue to die well
after the exposure.
Musical LevelsMusical Levels
Normal Piano Practice 60-70 dB
Chamber Music in Small Auditorium 75-85 dB
Regular, Sustained ...
Musical Levels (cont)Musical Levels (cont)
Music Levels dB
Clarinet (1.25 hours) 92-103
French Horn (5 min to 1.25 hrs) 90...
Take a look at the graph in yourTake a look at the graph in your
handouthandout
Maximum Weekly Noise Exposure (NIOSH,
1998...
Take home messageTake home message
 Once instrumentalists play in a group, they are in
danger of permanent noise induced ...
What can instrumental instructorsWhat can instrumental instructors
(and parents) do?(and parents) do?
Protect yourself
P...
Hearing ProtectionHearing Protection
“Who wants earplugs that won’t let you
hear?”
Mead Killion
Description of School ProgramsDescription of School Programs
A recent national study estimated that
approximately 12% of ...
Goals of the ProgramGoals of the Program
 Provide instrumental music instructors with
education related to hearing loss a...
Putting Hearing Protection inPutting Hearing Protection in
ContextContext
 We would not consider sending students to chem...
It actually would be much simpler if noise
induced hearing loss caused pain or
bleeding – then you can be sure hearing
pr...
Are we saying that music isAre we saying that music is
dangerous?dangerous?
No, but we are saying like many things we
eng...
Successful Programs So FarSuccessful Programs So Far
 What message is the teacher sending if he/she
wears hearing protect...
We are trying to make this veryWe are trying to make this very
easy…easy…
 The plugs come with cords so the students can
...
If the schools you work with haveIf the schools you work with have
a school color that is:a school color that is:
Purple
...
Goals of the Program (cont)Goals of the Program (cont)
Provide college music programs with a
foundation to understand:
– ...
Who should absolutely be usingWho should absolutely be using
hearing protection?hearing protection?
Instructors
Band stu...
What about IPods?What about IPods?
 They are not inherently dangerous.
 It’s the level and amount of time.
 Custom earp...
Arms-Length RuleArms-Length Rule
If you have to shout to be heard from 3 feet
away, then the noise (music) is too loud.
...
E Earplugs/earmuffs
A Avoid loud sounds
R Reduce the volume
S Shorten the time in noise
FactsFacts
 Any type of music can cause
permanent hearing loss and
ringing in the ears.
 It is intensity level and lengt...
Musicians 9.1.07
Musicians 9.1.07
Musicians 9.1.07
Musicians 9.1.07
Musicians 9.1.07
Musicians 9.1.07
Musicians 9.1.07
Musicians 9.1.07
Musicians 9.1.07
Musicians 9.1.07
Musicians 9.1.07
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  • The ear is divided into 3 parts, each with its own function.
    The outer ear collects sounds from the environment and funnels them down the ear canal to the eardrum.
    The eardrum vibrates and moves three tiny bones, the Hammer, the Anvil and the Stirrup. This movement amplifies the sounds and pass them on to the inner ear.
    The sound vibrations are converted to nerve impulses by the microscopic hair cells of the cochlea.
    From there, the impulses travel along the auditory nerve to the brain.
  • The peripheral auditory system is located deep within the temporal bone of the skull. The inner ear structures are located roughly posterior or the eye sockets. This slide provides a very simplified animation of the position of these structures as they would be discovered during a dissection.
  • Musicians 9.1.07

    1. 1. Musicians and the PreventionMusicians and the Prevention of Hearing Lossof Hearing Loss Catherine V. Palmer, PhD Associate Professor, Communication Science and Disorders Director, Audiology and Hearing Aids, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center palmercv@upmc.edu
    2. 2. WarningWarning By attending this presentation, you will have to think differently about the way you do things. I would go as far as to say that it would be extremely uncomfortable to have this information and not take action…
    3. 3. Understanding the ear andUnderstanding the ear and hearinghearing
    4. 4. 3 Primary Divisions3 Primary Divisions
    5. 5. Tour through the Ear.wmv
    6. 6. Auditory SystemAuditory System
    7. 7. Two Critical Factors AffectingTwo Critical Factors Affecting Hearing LossHearing Loss  Intensity  Duration
    8. 8. Who is in danger?Who is in danger? Remember, the danger of damage to the hair cells and subsequent hearing loss has to do with the individual’s total dose. You have to think about all the loud sounds that the individual will be exposed to during the day.
    9. 9. Functional ImpactFunctional Impact Decreased sensitivity (you need sounds louder to hear them) Diminished clarity (frequency resolution is poor). This impacts playing music, enjoying music, and hearing speech. Tinnitus (ringing sounds, often high pitched)
    10. 10. After exposure there may be no symptoms, or the individual may experience ringing in the ears, a sensation of fullness, or sounds my seem “dull” The damage and functional change is gradual. The individual may not notice a problem for a decade or more.
    11. 11. The damage continuesThe damage continues We know that hair cells continue to die well after the exposure.
    12. 12. Musical LevelsMusical Levels Normal Piano Practice 60-70 dB Chamber Music in Small Auditorium 75-85 dB Regular, Sustained Exposure May Cause Permanent Damage >90 dB Piano Fortissimo (2.5 to 5 hours) 92-95 dB Violin (1.25 hours) 84-102 dB Cello (5 hours) 82-92 dB Oboe (2.5 to 5 hours) 90-94 dB Flute (1.25 hours) 85-111 dB Piccolo (5 minutes to 1.25 hrs) 95-112 dB
    13. 13. Musical Levels (cont)Musical Levels (cont) Music Levels dB Clarinet (1.25 hours) 92-103 French Horn (5 min to 1.25 hrs) 90-106 dB Trombone (5 min to 1.25 hrs) 85-114 dB Ensemble (average) (1.25 to 2.5 hours) 97 dB Timpani and Bass Drum Rolls (5 min) 106 dB Orchestra Peaks (2.5 minutes) 120-137 dB Band at a Sporting Event (2.5 min) Marching Band (4 seconds) 100-120 dB 125 dB
    14. 14. Take a look at the graph in yourTake a look at the graph in your handouthandout Maximum Weekly Noise Exposure (NIOSH, 1998) 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 40 20 10 5 3 1 38 19 9 5 2 1 35 18 9 4 2 1 Hours Minutes Seconds dB(A) MajorMajor SportingSporting eventevent DrumlineDrumline rehearsalrehearsal Marching BandMarching Band HoursHours MinutesMinutes SecondsSeconds
    15. 15. Take home messageTake home message  Once instrumentalists play in a group, they are in danger of permanent noise induced hearing loss within minutes  Drummers are always in danger of hearing loss (practicing alone or in a group)  You have to consider the total daily dose  The impact of hearing loss may not be noticed for years  These times are based on adult data and there are some animal studies that suggest that children are more susceptible
    16. 16. What can instrumental instructorsWhat can instrumental instructors (and parents) do?(and parents) do? Protect yourself Protect your students (children) Educate your students (children) – Hearing health care should be part of every music program and part of health class
    17. 17. Hearing ProtectionHearing Protection “Who wants earplugs that won’t let you hear?” Mead Killion
    18. 18. Description of School ProgramsDescription of School Programs A recent national study estimated that approximately 12% of all children ages 6 to 19 years have noise-induced hearing loss. Children are the fastest growing population of individuals with noise-induced hearing loss.
    19. 19. Goals of the ProgramGoals of the Program  Provide instrumental music instructors with education related to hearing loss and hearing protection and music  Provide instrumental music instructors with non- custom Musicians’ Earplugs or custom Musicians’ Earplugs at a reasonable cost  Provide non-custom Musicians’ Earplugs to instrumental music students through the instructors  Provide education to instrumental music students through the instrumental music teachers
    20. 20. Putting Hearing Protection inPutting Hearing Protection in ContextContext  We would not consider sending students to chemistry class or shop class without protective goggles.  We would not consider allowing students to play football without a helmet.  We may know that a football player rides his bike with no helmet, but that would not make us decide not to bother with a helmet during football just because he has increased his chance of having a head injury anyway.  Parents have the right to assume that schools make school activities as safe as possible using current information and technology.
    21. 21. It actually would be much simpler if noise induced hearing loss caused pain or bleeding – then you can be sure hearing protection would be required. The damage is invisible…finally there is functional impact but it can be years after the damage
    22. 22. Are we saying that music isAre we saying that music is dangerous?dangerous? No, but we are saying like many things we engage in, you need to use the appropriate equipment to make it safe and to be able to enjoy it over a long period of time.
    23. 23. Successful Programs So FarSuccessful Programs So Far  What message is the teacher sending if he/she wears hearing protection in front of students? Good health habits  Mandatory – when you come into the band room, the first thing you do is get your hearing protection.  No hearing protection – you don’t participate in class. (keep lots of extras)
    24. 24. We are trying to make this veryWe are trying to make this very easy…easy…  The plugs come with cords so the students can have them in and out if needed and drape them over their necks  The plugs come in a case that can be hooked to a back pack or instrument case  Students are welcome to use these earplugs throughout their days, weekends, etc. or the teacher may want to keep them in the band room
    25. 25. If the schools you work with haveIf the schools you work with have a school color that is:a school color that is: Purple Blue Red You can match the school color for the students (this may be most appealing for the band kids) You may want to take an assortment and let the students choose
    26. 26. Goals of the Program (cont)Goals of the Program (cont) Provide college music programs with a foundation to understand: – The ear – Hearing – Noise induced hearing loss – Hearing protection
    27. 27. Who should absolutely be usingWho should absolutely be using hearing protection?hearing protection? Instructors Band students Orchestra students Steel Band students All drumming groups Most other group-type musical students Professional Musicians All ages
    28. 28. What about IPods?What about IPods?  They are not inherently dangerous.  It’s the level and amount of time.  Custom earplugs can reduce the volume used, but then you can’t hear the sounds around you.  I’m only talking about hearing safety, there are other concerns with being “plugged” in for hours and not interacting with your environment.  Remember, it’s all about total dose.
    29. 29. Arms-Length RuleArms-Length Rule If you have to shout to be heard from 3 feet away, then the noise (music) is too loud. Turn down the volume or wear hearing protection.
    30. 30. E Earplugs/earmuffs A Avoid loud sounds R Reduce the volume S Shorten the time in noise
    31. 31. FactsFacts  Any type of music can cause permanent hearing loss and ringing in the ears.  It is intensity level and length of exposure that matters.  The type of hearing loss people get from sound exposure is permanent.  The loss starts in the high frequencies and progresses. It causes difficulty communicating in noisy situations and impacts how music is perceived.  Sound exposure also may cause ringing in the ears (tinnitus).  Some musicians need to wear hearing protection when they are practicing alone.  All musicians need to wear hearing protection when they are playing in a group (band, orchestra) if they want to avoid hearing loss.

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