• Grasslands form a variety of different ecosystems
located in different climatic conditions, ranging
from near-desert conditions to patches of Shola
Grasslands that occur on the hill-slopes along side
the extremely moist evergreen forests in South
India. In the Himalayas, there are the high cold
Pastures. There are tracks of tall elephant grass in
the low lying Terai belt south of the Himalayan
foothills there are also Semi-Arid Grasslands in
western India, parts of Central India and in the
• The Shola Grasslands consist of patches on hill-
slopes that occur alongside the Shola Forests on the
Western Ghats, the Nilgiri and Anamalai ranges.
These form patchwprks of grassland on the slopes
and forest habitats along the streams and low-lying
• The Himalayan Pasture belt extends upto the snowline the
grasslands at a lower level form patches along with coniferous or
broad level forests and grassland ecosystem as vital part of their
habitat. The animals migrate upto the high altitude grasslands and
move down to the forest in winterswhen snow covers the grassland.
These Himalayan pastures have large number of variety of grassses
and herbs. The Himalayan hill-slope are covered with thousands of
colourful flowering plants as well as large number of medicinal
• The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands is a narrow lowland
ecoregion at the base of the Himalayas, about 25 km wide, and a
continuation of the Gangetic Plain. The world's tallest grasslands
are found in this ecoregion, which are the most threatened and
• The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands are a mosaic of tall
riverside grasslands, savannas and evergreen and deciduous
forests, depending on soil quality and the amount of rain each
area receives. The grasslands of the Terai in Nepal are among the
tallest in the world. Important grasses include baruwa and kans
grass, which quickly establishes itself after the retreat of the
• The eco-region is habitat for a huge number of mammalian and
bird species. Notable are the large numbers of the endangered
greater one-horned rhinoceros and Bengal tigers as well as Asian
elephants, sloth bears, Indian leopards.Grazing animals of the
grasslands include five species of deer, barasingha, sambar,
chital, hog deer, muntjac, gaur and nilgai. Endangered mammals
found here include the wild water buffalo and the near-endemic
hispid hare.The grasslands are also home to a number of reptiles
including the gharial, mugger crocodile and soft-shelled turtles.
There are three near-endemic bird species including the
vulnerable Manipur bush quail The 44 threatened and declining
bird species of the grasslands include the Bengal florican , lesser
florican, sarus crane and rufous-rumped grassbird.
Bengal FloricanBengal Tiger One-horned Rhino Elephant
• The semiarid plains of western india, central india and the deccan
plateau are covered with grassland tracts with patches of thorn
forest. Severa mammals such as wolf, blackbuck, chinkara and birds
such as bustards and florican are adapted to these arid conditions.
The scrublands of the deccan plateau are convered with seasonal
grasses and herbs on which its fauna is dependent. It teams with
insects life on which the insectivorious birds feed.
Farmers who keep cattle or goat & sheperds who keep
sheep are highly dependent on grasslands to supply food
for their livestock.
They maintain biodiversity, provide for recreational
use and wildlife viewing.
Grass is also used to thatch houses & farm-sheds.
The thorny bushes and branches of the few trees seen
in grasslands are used as main source of fuelwood.
We will lose a highly specialized ecosystem to which
plants and animals adapted themselves millions of years
Local people would not be able to support their livestock
The genes of wild grasses are extremely useful for
developing new crop varieties which would then be lost.
New medicines which can be discovered from wild
grassland plants will then become impossible.
Hence it will be a great loss to humankind.
Temperate grasslands have a low diversity of
wildlife, but a high abundance of wildlife.
In North America the dominant grazing animals
are bison and pronghorn.
Rodents include POCKET GOPHERS AND PRAIRIE
Carnivores include WOLVES, SWIFT FOXES etc.
Birds include SPARROWS, HAWKS, & OWLS.
Grasslands have more than 10 names across the world.
Grasslands exist in each & every continent except
Only 2% prairies are remaining in USA
They are known as the true kingdoms of animals.
Bison were once rulers of Prairies.
BALD EAGLE is the most famous inhabitant of the
• Grasslands should not be grazed and some area
should be closed for grazing. It is better to collect
grass for stall feeding cattle.
• A part of area in a grassland should be closed every
year so that a rotational grazing pattern is
• Fires must be prevented and rapidly controlled.
• To protect natural undisturbed grassland
ecosystems, sanctuaries and national
parks must be created. They should be
focused on preserving species of plants
• Open grasslands should not be created
into plantations of trees as they are
habitat of its specialized fauna.
• In hilly areas, proper soil and water resource
management will help the grassland to return to
a natural, highly productive ecosystem.
• Animals such as wolfs, chinkara and birds such
as the bustard and florican have now become
rare. They must be carefully protected in
national parks and wildlife sanctuaries that
have natural grassland habitats.
• We need to create awareness among people
that grasslands are of great value. If we are
all concerned about our disappearing
grassland and their wonderful wildlife,
government will be forced to take actions.
• Keeping grasslands alive should be a national