Inequality: the enemy between us          Richard Wilkinson     Emeritus Professor of Social Epidemiology             Univ...
Income per head and life-expectancy: rich & poor countriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)     www.equ...
Health is related to income differences within rich societies                            but not to those between them    ...
How much richer are the richest           20% than the poorest 20%?Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)   ...
Health and Social Problems are Worse in More Unequal                                         Countries  Index of:  • Life ...
Health and Social Problems are not Related to Average                                Income in Rich Countries  Index of:  ...
Child Well-being is Better in More Equal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)   www.equality...
Child-Wellbeing is Unrelated to Average Incomes in Rich                                     CountriesSource: Wilkinson & P...
Levels of Trust are Higher in More Equal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
The Prevalence of Mental Illness is Higher in More                                Unequal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson ...
Drug Use is More Common in More Unequal Countries                   Index of use of: opiates, cocaine, cannabis, ecstasy, ...
Infant Mortality Rates are Higher in More Unequal CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)      www.e...
More Adults are Obese in More Unequal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)    www.equalitytr...
Teenage Birth Rates are Higher in More Unequal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)   www.eq...
Homicide and income inequality:                                      US States and Canadian Provinces                     ...
Rates of Imprisonment are Higher in More Unequal CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)     www.equ...
Almost everyone benefits fromgreater equality.Usually the benefits are greatestamong the poor but extend to themajority of...
Infant Mortality by Social Class:                                                Sweden and England & Wales               ...
Literacy Scores of 16-25 year olds by                              1                   Parents Education                  ...
Health and Social Problems are Worse in More Unequal                                         Countries  Index of:  • Life ...
Why are we so sensitive to inequality?
Psychosocial risk factors for ill health Low social status Weak social affiliations Stress in early life (pre- and post...
What kind of stress most reliably raises cortisol levels?A meta-analysis of 208 laboratory studies of cortisol responses t...
Gilligan J. Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes.                        (G .P. Putnam 1996)" ...the prison inmate...
Stereotype Threat              The effect of caste on childrens performance                                               ...
Inequality affects us in two stages   1. Adult experience of inequality   2. Passed on to children (epigenetics?)
Working hours are longer in more unequal countriesSource: Bowles S, Park Y. Economic Journal 2005; 115 (507): F397–F412. 2...
Overdeveloped countries?High life expectancy can be achieved with low CO2 emissions                                       ...
“Growth is a substitute for equality ofincome. So long as there is growth,(people feel) there is hope, and thatmakes large...
In more equal countries business leaders give a higher priority   to complying with international environmental agreements...
More equal countries recycle a higher   proportion of waste materials
More equal societies are more innovative                              www.equalitytrust.org.uk
Trends in income inequality 1979-2005/6     (Gini coefficient, Great Britain.)   Brewer M, Goodman A, Muriel A, Sibieta L....
For more information:  a book …             … and a websitehttp://www.equalitytrust.org.uk
How does your pay compare with an MP?
The L-Curve: A graph of US        income distribution by David                 Chandlerhttp://www.lcurve.org
The L-Curve: A graph of US        income distribution by David                 Chandlerhttp://www.lcurve.org
The L-Curve: A graph of US        income distribution by David                 Chandlerhttp://www.lcurve.org
The L-Curve: A graph of US        income distribution by David                 Chandlerhttp://www.lcurve.org
The L-Curve: A graph of US        income distribution by David                 Chandlerhttp://www.lcurve.org
Sources of data for the Index of Health and Social problemsComponent            International data                        ...
Institutional change?• Transforming the social environment – people  feeling valued• Economic democracy – from companies a...
Health and social problems whichare substantially worse in more unequal societies      Data available for countries and fo...
Living conditions & Poverty: USA 2005  The poorest 12.6% (below Federal poverty line):-            •80% have air condition...
More equal countries are more generous foreign aid donors
Correlations & p-values: Index of Health & Social Problems Indicator            International data           US data      ...
Additional Correlations Coefficients & p-valuesIndicator                        International data            US data     ...
Robert Sapolsky, A primate’s memoir.                 Fights (trials of strength?                 social comparisons?)     ...
Causality?• Problems move          • Reverse causality?  together - a common  cause?                   political ideology ...
Review of 168 analyses of the relation          between income inequality and health.      100                            ...
Improvements in health and reductions in social problems if the UK were as equal as    Japan, Sweden, Finland and NorwayHe...
Life Expectancy is Longer in More Equal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)       www.equal...
Social Mobility is Higher in More Equal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)          www.eq...
More Equal Countries Rank Better (1 is best) on RecyclingSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)       www.eq...
Levels of Trust are Higher in More Equal US StatesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)          www.equali...
More Children Drop Out of High School in More Unequal US StatesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)   www....
Teen Pregnancy Rates are Higher in More Unequal US StatesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)    www.equal...
Children Experience More Conflict in More Unequal Societies                      11, 13 & 15 yr olds fighting, bullying, a...
Rate of Imprisonment are Higher in More Unequal US States                            Death Penalty:                       ...
Rising gap between rich and poor, relative to 1975                                                                      0....
Rising gap between rich and poor, relative to 1975                                                                    0.8 ...
Health and Social Problems are Worse in More Unequal US                                     StatesSource: Wilkinson & Pick...
Health & Social Problems are Only Weakly Related to                              Average Income in US StatesSource: Wilkin...
Child wellbeing and income inequality in US States       Kids Count 10 Item Index of Child Wellbeing
Male mortality (25-64 yrs) and income inequality in US          states and Canadian provinces.Source: Ross NA, Wolfson MC,...
Dropping out of high school & inequalitySource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
Educational Scores are Higher in More Equal Rich                                     CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett,...
Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
Self-reported prevalence of illness by education50 %40                                                England USA302010 0 ...
Distribution of household income (US 1990) and         Relative risk of dying at each level of incomeWolfson M, Kaplan G, ...
Social status affect brain chemistry and behaviour in monkeys                                                             ...
Recycling and InequalitySource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
Index of Health and Social Problems and inequality among                                    US statesSource: Wilkinson & P...
Index of Health & Social Problems and average income                                      in US statesSource: Wilkinson & ...
What kind of stress most reliably raises cortisol levels?                                                                 ...
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  • The public and policy response? more:- Police Doctors Social Workers Drug rehabilitation units Educational Psychologists But…services are expensive and only partially effective.
  • Most important sources of chronic stress – relative risks and population attributable risk Pointer – underlying source of stress: Social anxiety Eyes of others Social Gateway
  • A meta-analysis of 208 laboratory studies of cortisol responses to acute stressors found that “Tasks that included social-evaluative threat (such as threats to self-esteem or social status), in which others could negatively judge performance, particularly when the outcome of the performance was uncontrollable, provoked larger and more reliable cortisol changes than stressors without these particular threats.” (p.377) "Humans are driven to preserve the social self and are vigilant to threats that may jeopardize their social esteem or status.” (p.357)
  • Inst ph ireland short

    1. 1. Inequality: the enemy between us Richard Wilkinson Emeritus Professor of Social Epidemiology University of Nottingham & Kate Pickett Senior Lecturer in Epidemiology University of York http://www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    2. 2. Income per head and life-expectancy: rich & poor countriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    3. 3. Health is related to income differences within rich societies but not to those between them Between (rich) societies Within societies 80 79 78 77 Life expectancy (years) 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 ed riv ep Most td as deprived Le Electoral wards in England & Wales ranked by deprivation scoreSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    4. 4. How much richer are the richest 20% than the poorest 20%?Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    5. 5. Health and Social Problems are Worse in More Unequal Countries Index of: • Life expectancy • Math & Literacy • Infant mortality • Homicides • Imprisonment • Teenage births • Trust • Obesity • Mental illness – incl. drug & alcohol addiction • Social mobilitySource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    6. 6. Health and Social Problems are not Related to Average Income in Rich Countries Index of: • Life expectancy • Math & Literacy • Infant mortality • Homicides • Imprisonment • Teenage births • Trust • Obesity • Mental illness – incl. drug & alcohol addiction • Social mobilitySource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    7. 7. Child Well-being is Better in More Equal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    8. 8. Child-Wellbeing is Unrelated to Average Incomes in Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    9. 9. Levels of Trust are Higher in More Equal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
    10. 10. The Prevalence of Mental Illness is Higher in More Unequal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    11. 11. Drug Use is More Common in More Unequal Countries Index of use of: opiates, cocaine, cannabis, ecstasy, amphetaminesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    12. 12. Infant Mortality Rates are Higher in More Unequal CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    13. 13. More Adults are Obese in More Unequal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    14. 14. Teenage Birth Rates are Higher in More Unequal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    15. 15. Homicide and income inequality: US States and Canadian Provinces 180 150Homicides per million people 120 90 60 30 0 0.35 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.47 More equal Income Inequality (Gini) More unequal Source: Daly M, Wilson M, Vasdev S. Income inequality and homicide rates in Canada and the United States. Canadian Journal of Criminology 2001; 43: 219-36.
    16. 16. Rates of Imprisonment are Higher in More Unequal CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    17. 17. Almost everyone benefits fromgreater equality.Usually the benefits are greatestamong the poor but extend to themajority of the population
    18. 18. Infant Mortality by Social Class: Sweden and England & Wales 18 E& W 16 Sweden Infant Mortality rate 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 I II IIIN IIIM IV V Single Unclass. PrntSource: Leon DA, Vagero D, Olausson PO. BMJ 1992; 305; 687-91
    19. 19. Literacy Scores of 16-25 year olds by 1 Parents Education 0.5 Sweden Literacy score 0 Canada -0.5 -1 United States -1.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Parents Education (years)Source: Willms JD. 1997. Data from OECD Programme for International Student Assessment.
    20. 20. Health and Social Problems are Worse in More Unequal Countries Index of: • Life expectancy • Math & Literacy • Infant mortality • Homicides • Imprisonment • Teenage births • Trust • Obesity • Mental illness – incl. drug & alcohol addiction • Social mobilitySource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    21. 21. Why are we so sensitive to inequality?
    22. 22. Psychosocial risk factors for ill health Low social status Weak social affiliations Stress in early life (pre- and postnatally)
    23. 23. What kind of stress most reliably raises cortisol levels?A meta-analysis of 208 laboratory studies of cortisol responses toacute stressors found that “Tasks that included social-evaluativethreat (such as threats to self-esteem or social status), in whichothers could negatively judge performance, particularly when theoutcome of the performance was uncontrollable, provoked largerand more reliable cortisol changes than stressors without theseparticular threats.” (p.377)"Humans are driven to preserve the social self and are vigilant tothreats that may jeopardize their social esteem or status.” (p.357)Source: Dickerson SS, Kemeny ME. Acute stressors and cortisolresponses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research.Psychological Bulletin 2004; 130(3): 355-91
    24. 24. Gilligan J. Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes. (G .P. Putnam 1996)" ...the prison inmates I work with have told me repeatedly,when I asked them why they had assaulted someone, that itwas because he disrespected me, or he disrespected myvisit (meaning visitor). The word disrespect is central in thevocabulary, moral value system, and psychodynamics ofthese chronically violent men that they have abbreviated itinto the slang term, he dised me." p.106A few pages further on Gilligan continues:-"I have yet to see a serious act of violence that was notprovoked by the experience of feeling shamed andhumiliated, disrespected and ridiculed, and that did notrepresent the attempt to prevent or undo this "loss of face " -no matter how severe the punishment, even if it includesdeath." p.110
    25. 25. Stereotype Threat The effect of caste on childrens performance 6 High Caste 5 Number of mazes solved Low Caste 4 3 2 1 0 Caste Caste Unannounced AnnouncedSource: Hoff K, Pandey P, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3351, June 2004
    26. 26. Inequality affects us in two stages 1. Adult experience of inequality 2. Passed on to children (epigenetics?)
    27. 27. Working hours are longer in more unequal countriesSource: Bowles S, Park Y. Economic Journal 2005; 115 (507): F397–F412. 2005.
    28. 28. Overdeveloped countries?High life expectancy can be achieved with low CO2 emissions www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    29. 29. “Growth is a substitute for equality ofincome. So long as there is growth,(people feel) there is hope, and thatmakes large income differencestolerable.”Henry Wallich, a former governor of America’sFederal Reserve Bank and later professor ofeconomics at Yale.
    30. 30. In more equal countries business leaders give a higher priority to complying with international environmental agreements With permission from R De Vogli & D Gimeno
    31. 31. More equal countries recycle a higher proportion of waste materials
    32. 32. More equal societies are more innovative www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    33. 33. Trends in income inequality 1979-2005/6 (Gini coefficient, Great Britain.) Brewer M, Goodman A, Muriel A, Sibieta L. Poverty andInequality in the UK: 2007. Institute of Fiscal Studies, London.
    34. 34. For more information: a book … … and a websitehttp://www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    35. 35. How does your pay compare with an MP?
    36. 36. The L-Curve: A graph of US income distribution by David Chandlerhttp://www.lcurve.org
    37. 37. The L-Curve: A graph of US income distribution by David Chandlerhttp://www.lcurve.org
    38. 38. The L-Curve: A graph of US income distribution by David Chandlerhttp://www.lcurve.org
    39. 39. The L-Curve: A graph of US income distribution by David Chandlerhttp://www.lcurve.org
    40. 40. The L-Curve: A graph of US income distribution by David Chandlerhttp://www.lcurve.org
    41. 41. Sources of data for the Index of Health and Social problemsComponent International data US state dataTrust Percent of people who respond positively to the statement Percent of people who respond positively to the statement “most “most people can be trusted” people can be trusted” 1999-2001 1999 World Values Survey Reverse-coded General Social Survey Reverse-codedLife expectancy Life expectancy at birth for men and women Life expectancy at birth for men and women 2004 2000 United Nations Human Development Report Reverse-coded US Census Bureau, Population Division Reverse-codedInfant mortality Deaths in the first year of life per 1000 live births Deaths in the first year of life per 1000 live births 2000 2002 World Bank US National Center for Health StatisticsObesity Percentage of the population with BMI > 30, averaged for men Percentage of the population with BMI > 30, averaged for men and and women women, 1999-2002 2002 Estimates from Prof Ezzati, Harvard University, based on NHANES International Obesity TaskForce and BRFSS surveysMental health Prevalence of mental illness Average number of days in past month when mental health was not 2001-2003 good WHO 1993-2001, BRFSSEducation Combined average of maths literacy and reading literacy Combined average of maths and reading scores for 8 graders th scores of 15-year olds 2003 2000 US Department of Education, National Center for Education OECD PISA Reverse-coded Statistics Reverse codedTeenage birth rate Births per 1000 women aged 15-19 years Births per 1000 women aged 15-19 years 1998 2000 UNICEF US National Vital StatisticsHomicides Homicide rate per 100,000 Homicide rate per 100,000 Period average for 1990-2000 1999 United Nations FBIImprisonment Log of prisoners per 100,000 Prisoners per 100,000 United Nations 1997-8, US Department of JusticeSocial mobility Correlation between father and son’s income N/A 30-year period data from 8 cohort studies London School of Economics
    42. 42. Institutional change?• Transforming the social environment – people feeling valued• Economic democracy – from companies as pieces of property to communities• Other successful institutional structures• An ethical consumer movement - supporting other forms of ownership & control
    43. 43. Health and social problems whichare substantially worse in more unequal societies Data available for countries and for states of the USA:- • Low birth weight • Mental illness • Infant mortality • Imprisonment rates • Life expectancy • Teenage birth rates • Obesity • Maths & literacy scores • Homicides • Trust • Drug abuse • Social capital International data: • Social Mobility US states data: • High school drop-out rate • Hours worked • Child conflict • UNICEF Child well-being Index[Smoking and suicide are the only counter examples we have found]
    44. 44. Living conditions & Poverty: USA 2005 The poorest 12.6% (below Federal poverty line):- •80% have air conditioning •78% have a VCR or DVD player •73% own a car or truck •31% own more than one car •55% have two or more TVs •36% have a dishwasher •36% have a computer •43% own their homes •10% in mobile homes • 6% over-crowded (>1 per room)• Children’s protein intake: 100% above recommended• Most vitamins & minerals: well over recommended
    45. 45. More equal countries are more generous foreign aid donors
    46. 46. Correlations & p-values: Index of Health & Social Problems Indicator International data US data r p-value r p-value Trust -0.66 <0.01 -0.70 <0.01 Life expectancy -0.44 0.04 -0.45 <0.01 Infant mortality 0.42 0.04 0.43 <0.01 Obesity 0.57 <0.01 0.47 <0.01 Mental illness 0.73 <0.01 0.18 0.12 Education score -0.45 0.04 -0.47 .01 Teen birth rate 0.73 <0.01 0.46 <0.01 Homicides 0.47 0.02 0.42 <0.01 Imprisonment 0.75 <0.01 0.48 <0.01 Social mobility 0.93 <0.01 - - Index 0.87 <0.01 0.59 <0.01
    47. 47. Additional Correlations Coefficients & p-valuesIndicator International data US data r p-value r p-valueDrugs index 0.63 <0.01Pugnacity 0.47 <0.01Recycling -0.82 <0.01Spending on foreign aid -0.61 <0.01Peace index -0.51 0.01Women’s status -0.44 0.04 -0.30 0.03Child well-being -0.71 <0.01 -0.51 <0.01Overweight children 0.59 0.01 0.57 <0.01Child mental illlness 0.36 0.01Juvenile homicides 0.29 <0.05Child conflict 0.62 <0.01High school drop-outs 0.79 <0.01Public expend. health care -0.54 0.01Social expenditure -0.45 0.04Police 0.52 0.04
    48. 48. Robert Sapolsky, A primate’s memoir. Fights (trials of strength? social comparisons?) tend to be between near neighbours in the ranking system, so number 7 will tend to conflict with 6 and 8 – not with numbers 1 or 20.
    49. 49. Causality?• Problems move • Reverse causality? together - a common cause? political ideology affects inequality, but social problems are unintended• Bigger status consequences differences increase problems related to social status? • Many of the causal pathways are known
    50. 50. Review of 168 analyses of the relation between income inequality and health. 100 Wholly Supportive 90 Unsupportive 80Percent 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Nations States, Small areas Regions, CitiesWilkinson RG, Pickett KE. Income inequality and health: a reviewand explanation of the evidence. Social Science and Medicine2006; 62: 1768-84.
    51. 51. Improvements in health and reductions in social problems if the UK were as equal as Japan, Sweden, Finland and NorwayHealth or Social Current data for If inequality wereIndicator London halved…Life expectancy (years) 80.1 80.9 +Infant mortality per 1000 4.9 4.0Obesity (%) 18.3 9.0Mental illness (%) 17.9 5.6Teenage births per 1000 27.8 7.5Homicides per million 22.4 11.5Trust (% who trust 23.0 42.6 +others)
    52. 52. Life Expectancy is Longer in More Equal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    53. 53. Social Mobility is Higher in More Equal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    54. 54. More Equal Countries Rank Better (1 is best) on RecyclingSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    55. 55. Levels of Trust are Higher in More Equal US StatesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    56. 56. More Children Drop Out of High School in More Unequal US StatesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    57. 57. Teen Pregnancy Rates are Higher in More Unequal US StatesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    58. 58. Children Experience More Conflict in More Unequal Societies 11, 13 & 15 yr olds fighting, bullying, and finding peers not kind & helpfulSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    59. 59. Rate of Imprisonment are Higher in More Unequal US States Death Penalty: Red = retained Blue = abolishedSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    60. 60. Rising gap between rich and poor, relative to 1975 0.8 1.2 1.4 1.6 1 19 75 19 76 19 77 19 78 19 79 19 80 19 81 19 82 19 83 Thatcher 19 84 19 85 19 86 Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) 19 87 19 88 19 89 19 90 19 91 19 9 19 2 93 -4 19 Major 94 -5 19 95 - 19 6 96 -7 19 97 -8 19 98 - 19 9 99 -0 20 00 -1 20 01 - 20 2 02 Blair -3 20 03 -4 20 04 -www.equalitytrust.org.uk 20 5 05 Trends in UK income inequality 1979-2005/6 -6
    61. 61. Rising gap between rich and poor, relative to 1975 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 19 75 19 76 Ford 19 77 19 78 19 79 19 Carter 80 19 81 19 82 19 83 19 84 19 85 19 Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) 86 Reagan 19 87 19 88 19 89 19 90 19 91 Bush 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 Clinton 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 Trends in US income inequality 1975-2005 Bushwww.equalitytrust.org.uk 20 04
    62. 62. Health and Social Problems are Worse in More Unequal US StatesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    63. 63. Health & Social Problems are Only Weakly Related to Average Income in US StatesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    64. 64. Child wellbeing and income inequality in US States Kids Count 10 Item Index of Child Wellbeing
    65. 65. Male mortality (25-64 yrs) and income inequality in US states and Canadian provinces.Source: Ross NA, Wolfson MC, Dunn JR, Berthelot JM, Kaplan GA,Lynch JW. British Medical Journal 2000;320:898-902
    66. 66. Dropping out of high school & inequalitySource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
    67. 67. Educational Scores are Higher in More Equal Rich CountriesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www.equalitytrust.org.uk
    68. 68. Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
    69. 69. Self-reported prevalence of illness by education50 %40 England USA302010 0 Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High England Diabetes Hypertension Cancer Lung disease Heart disease Source: Banks et al. JAMA 2006; 295: 2037-2045
    70. 70. Distribution of household income (US 1990) and Relative risk of dying at each level of incomeWolfson M, Kaplan G, Lynch J, Ross N, Backlund E. BMJ; 1999. 319:953-955
    71. 71. Social status affect brain chemistry and behaviour in monkeys • Living in social groups increased “happy” brain chemicals in dominant monkeys but produced no change in subordinate monkeys. • These neurobiological changes had an important behavioural influence • When given access to cocaine, dominant monkeys took less than subordinatesSource: Morgan, D et al. Nature Neuroscience 2002; 5(2), 169-174.
    72. 72. Recycling and InequalitySource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
    73. 73. Index of Health and Social Problems and inequality among US statesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
    74. 74. Index of Health & Social Problems and average income in US statesSource: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
    75. 75. What kind of stress most reliably raises cortisol levels? ACTH Cortisol Effect size Tasks with both Other tasks social-evaluative threat and uncontrollabilitySource: Dickerson SS & Kemeny ME. Psychological Bulletin 2004; 130(3): 355-91

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