SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 24
Download to read offline
HYPERTENSION
Ratheesh R L
Lecturer
Murlidhar college of nursing
Rajkot
DEFINITION
 Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood
pressure (HBP), is a long term medical condition in
which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently
elevated.
 The SBP will be more than or equal of 140 mmHg and
DBP will be more than or equal of 90 mmHg
TYPES
 Pre hypertension: SBP: 120-139 mmHg
DBP: 80-89 mmHg
 Hypertension stage I: SBP: 140-159 mmHg
DBP: 90-99 mmHg
 Hypertension stage II: SBP: More or equal to 160 mmHg
DBP: More or equal to 100 mmHg
 Pregnancy induced HTN: because of increased production of
hormones and enzymes during pregnancy.
ETIOLOGY
 Primary HTN: it is the elevation in BP without an
identified cause.
 Secondary HTN: it is the elevation in BP with an
exact cause. This type is account for 5-10% of total
cases.
 The causes of Secondary HTN includes
 Congenital narrowing of aorta
 Renal disease
 Endocrine disorders like cushing’s syndrome
 Neurological disorders like brain tumors and
head injury
 Sleep apnea
 Medications like oral contraceptive pills,
NSAID, and coccaine
 Cirrhosis of liver
RISK FACTORS
 Age: chance of CAD after 50 yrs of age
 Alcohol, smoking and DM
 Excessive dietary intake of sodium
 Gender
 Family history
 Obesity
 Sedentary life style
 stress
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
 The normal blood pressure is maintained by four
mechanisms
 Sympathetic nervous system activities
 Activities of vascular endothelium
 Activities of renal system
 Activities of endocrine system
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ACTIVITIES
 When the BP is decreasing the activation of SNS will occur. The
increased SNS activity increases the heart rate and cardiac
contraction.
 The increased the heart rate and cardiac contraction produce
vasoconstriction in the peripheral arterioles and promotes the
release of renin from kidney.
 The net effect of SNS activation is to increase the arterial blood
pressure by increasing cardiac output and systemic vascular
resistance.
BP=CO X SVR
ACTIVITIES OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM
 The vascular endothelium is a single cell layer that lines
the blood vessal.
 It will produce vasoactive substances and growth factors
like nitric acid, endothelin etc..
 These substances are potent vasoconstrictors and causes
increases blood pressure level.
ACTIVITIES OF RENAL SYSTEM
ACTIVITIES OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
 When the angiotensin-II is stimulated in the adrenal cortex, it
will secrete aldosterone.
 The aldosterone will stimulate the kidneys to retain sodium
and water. Thus the BP and cardiac output will get increased.
CLINICAL FEATURES
 Some times the high blood pressure does not causes any
symptoms, so that it is known as silent killer disease.
 In some patients the symptoms will develop like,
 Severe head ache
 Blurred vision
 Dizziness
 Nausea
 Vomiting
 Fatigue
 Confusion epistaxis
 Chest pain
 Shortness of breath
 Irregular heart beat
 papilledema
DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATIONS
 History collection and physical examination
 Medical history of diabetes mellitus
 Complete blood count
 Chest x-ray
 ECG
MANAGEMENT
 Mainly the management of hypertension is possible
by two ways, which include
 Life style modification
 Pharmacological therapy
LIFE STYLE MODIFICATION
The life style modification measures mainly includes,
 Weight reduction
 DASH Diet (Dietary approaches to stop hypertension)
 Dietary sodium reduction
 Reduce alcohol
 Exercise
 Stress management
PHARMACOLOGICAL THERAPY
Various groups of drugs are used for the
treatment of hypertension, collectively these drugs are called as
anti-hypertensive drugs, which includes,
 Diuretics: it helps the kidneys to inhibit the sodium
reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubules, ascending limb
and loop of henle.
Eg: chlorothiazide, furosemide
 Beta blockers: These medications reduces the workload of the
heart and blood vessal and causing the heart to beat slowly and
with less force.
Eg: Atenolol, propanolol
 Alpha blockers: These medications causes the peripheral
vasodilation of blood vessals.
Eg: Prazosin
 Vasodilators: These medications acting directly on the
muscles in the wall of arteries and preventing the
muscles from tightening and arteries from narrowing.
Eg: Nitroglycerin, Sodium nitro prusside
 ACE Inhibitors: This group of medication will reduce
the conversion of A-I to A-II and prevents
vasoconstriction.
Eg: Captopril, Ramipril
 Calcium channel blockers: These medicines will block the
movement of extra cellular calcium into the cells and causing
vasodilation and decreased heart rate.
Eg: Amlodipine, Verapamil
 Alternative therapies which are helpful to regulate blood
pressure includes acupuncture, relaxation techniques and
diversional therapies.
NURSING MANAGEMENT
 Proper history collection should be done which includes
family history also.
 Dietary habits should be assessed
 Identify the medical history such as diabetes, CAD, renal
disease etc…
 Instruct the patient to avoid smoking and alcoholism
 Auscultate heart rate and palpate peripheral pulses.
 Identify the use of medications such as contraceptives,
steroids, NSAID etc…
 Monitor vital signs frequently
 Provide diet which is low in sodium and rich with fruits
and vegetables.
 Monitor the blood cholesterol level frequently
Hypertension

More Related Content

What's hot

What's hot (20)

Congestive cardiac failure
Congestive cardiac failureCongestive cardiac failure
Congestive cardiac failure
 
Diabetes mellitus , Risk Factors, Classification, Treatment.
Diabetes mellitus , Risk Factors, Classification, Treatment.Diabetes mellitus , Risk Factors, Classification, Treatment.
Diabetes mellitus , Risk Factors, Classification, Treatment.
 
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders COPD
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders COPDChronic obstructive pulmonary disorders COPD
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders COPD
 
COPD (Chronic obstructive Pulmonary Disease) PowerPoint Presentation -aslam
COPD  (Chronic obstructive Pulmonary Disease) PowerPoint Presentation -aslamCOPD  (Chronic obstructive Pulmonary Disease) PowerPoint Presentation -aslam
COPD (Chronic obstructive Pulmonary Disease) PowerPoint Presentation -aslam
 
Hypertension
HypertensionHypertension
Hypertension
 
Chronic renal failure
Chronic renal failureChronic renal failure
Chronic renal failure
 
Pneumonia
PneumoniaPneumonia
Pneumonia
 
Jaundice
JaundiceJaundice
Jaundice
 
Heart failure ppt
Heart failure pptHeart failure ppt
Heart failure ppt
 
Angina pectoris
Angina pectorisAngina pectoris
Angina pectoris
 
HYPERTENSION
HYPERTENSIONHYPERTENSION
HYPERTENSION
 
Rheumatic Heart Disease
 Rheumatic Heart Disease Rheumatic Heart Disease
Rheumatic Heart Disease
 
Bronchial asthma
Bronchial asthmaBronchial asthma
Bronchial asthma
 
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTIONMYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
 
CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASECHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
 
Heart failure / cardiac failure
Heart failure / cardiac failureHeart failure / cardiac failure
Heart failure / cardiac failure
 
Asthma ppt
Asthma pptAsthma ppt
Asthma ppt
 
Pathophysiology of congestive heart failure
Pathophysiology of congestive heart failurePathophysiology of congestive heart failure
Pathophysiology of congestive heart failure
 
Pleural effusion
Pleural effusionPleural effusion
Pleural effusion
 
Diabetes mellitus -INTRODUCTION,TYPES OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Diabetes mellitus -INTRODUCTION,TYPES OF DIABETES MELLITUSDiabetes mellitus -INTRODUCTION,TYPES OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Diabetes mellitus -INTRODUCTION,TYPES OF DIABETES MELLITUS
 

Viewers also liked

Nusing Management of CHF (English) Symposia
Nusing Management of CHF (English) SymposiaNusing Management of CHF (English) Symposia
Nusing Management of CHF (English) SymposiaThe CRUDEM Foundation
 
Hypertension - Nursing Practise
Hypertension - Nursing PractiseHypertension - Nursing Practise
Hypertension - Nursing PractiseMónica Roque
 
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Idiopathic intracranial hypertensionIdiopathic intracranial hypertension
Idiopathic intracranial hypertensionRashed-Ul-Hasan Rasu
 
The Vascular Endothelium, Nutrients, and Diseases
The Vascular Endothelium, Nutrients, and DiseasesThe Vascular Endothelium, Nutrients, and Diseases
The Vascular Endothelium, Nutrients, and DiseasesSuthipong Pongworn
 
Power against hypertension
Power against hypertensionPower against hypertension
Power against hypertensionDash Diet
 
Pulmonary hypertension and the Intensivist
Pulmonary hypertension and the IntensivistPulmonary hypertension and the Intensivist
Pulmonary hypertension and the IntensivistAndrew Ferguson
 
Hypertension by Dr. Mohib Ali
Hypertension by Dr. Mohib AliHypertension by Dr. Mohib Ali
Hypertension by Dr. Mohib AliMohib Ali
 
Hypertension- Classics Trobaugh
Hypertension- Classics TrobaughHypertension- Classics Trobaugh
Hypertension- Classics Trobaughpkhohl
 
The key role of nursing.
The key role of nursing.The key role of nursing.
The key role of nursing.drucsamal
 
Ht emergency 2011 v2003
Ht emergency 2011 v2003Ht emergency 2011 v2003
Ht emergency 2011 v2003taem
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Nusing Management of CHF (English) Symposia
Nusing Management of CHF (English) SymposiaNusing Management of CHF (English) Symposia
Nusing Management of CHF (English) Symposia
 
Hypertension - Nursing Practise
Hypertension - Nursing PractiseHypertension - Nursing Practise
Hypertension - Nursing Practise
 
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Idiopathic intracranial hypertensionIdiopathic intracranial hypertension
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
 
The Vascular Endothelium, Nutrients, and Diseases
The Vascular Endothelium, Nutrients, and DiseasesThe Vascular Endothelium, Nutrients, and Diseases
The Vascular Endothelium, Nutrients, and Diseases
 
Power against hypertension
Power against hypertensionPower against hypertension
Power against hypertension
 
Pulmonary hypertension and the Intensivist
Pulmonary hypertension and the IntensivistPulmonary hypertension and the Intensivist
Pulmonary hypertension and the Intensivist
 
Hypertension by Dr. Mohib Ali
Hypertension by Dr. Mohib AliHypertension by Dr. Mohib Ali
Hypertension by Dr. Mohib Ali
 
Hypertension- Classics Trobaugh
Hypertension- Classics TrobaughHypertension- Classics Trobaugh
Hypertension- Classics Trobaugh
 
The key role of nursing.
The key role of nursing.The key role of nursing.
The key role of nursing.
 
Typhoid disease
Typhoid diseaseTyphoid disease
Typhoid disease
 
Hypertension
HypertensionHypertension
Hypertension
 
Ht emergency 2011 v2003
Ht emergency 2011 v2003Ht emergency 2011 v2003
Ht emergency 2011 v2003
 
Pharmacotherapy for hypertension
Pharmacotherapy for hypertension Pharmacotherapy for hypertension
Pharmacotherapy for hypertension
 
Vascular Endothelium in Health and Disease
Vascular Endothelium in Health and DiseaseVascular Endothelium in Health and Disease
Vascular Endothelium in Health and Disease
 
Hypertension - Approach & Management
Hypertension - Approach & ManagementHypertension - Approach & Management
Hypertension - Approach & Management
 
Cardiac tamponade
Cardiac tamponadeCardiac tamponade
Cardiac tamponade
 
Hypertension
HypertensionHypertension
Hypertension
 
The DASH diet
The DASH dietThe DASH diet
The DASH diet
 
DASH Diet
DASH DietDASH Diet
DASH Diet
 
Typhoid Fever
Typhoid FeverTyphoid Fever
Typhoid Fever
 

Similar to Hypertension

Similar to Hypertension (20)

Hypertension and hypotension nature.pptx
Hypertension and hypotension nature.pptxHypertension and hypotension nature.pptx
Hypertension and hypotension nature.pptx
 
Hypertension (HTN)
Hypertension (HTN)Hypertension (HTN)
Hypertension (HTN)
 
Hypertension llb explains by harrionsion book
Hypertension llb explains by harrionsion bookHypertension llb explains by harrionsion book
Hypertension llb explains by harrionsion book
 
hypertension-161006095542.pptx
hypertension-161006095542.pptxhypertension-161006095542.pptx
hypertension-161006095542.pptx
 
HYPERTENSION.pptx
HYPERTENSION.pptxHYPERTENSION.pptx
HYPERTENSION.pptx
 
Hypertension
HypertensionHypertension
Hypertension
 
hypertension.pptx
hypertension.pptxhypertension.pptx
hypertension.pptx
 
Hypertension
HypertensionHypertension
Hypertension
 
hypertension.docx
hypertension.docxhypertension.docx
hypertension.docx
 
Blood pressure regulation
Blood pressure regulationBlood pressure regulation
Blood pressure regulation
 
hypertension.pptx
hypertension.pptxhypertension.pptx
hypertension.pptx
 
Anti hypertensive drugs
Anti hypertensive drugsAnti hypertensive drugs
Anti hypertensive drugs
 
cardiac medicine
cardiac medicinecardiac medicine
cardiac medicine
 
Hypertension
HypertensionHypertension
Hypertension
 
hypertension
hypertension hypertension
hypertension
 
UNIT - II.pptx
UNIT - II.pptxUNIT - II.pptx
UNIT - II.pptx
 
1. Anti hypertensive drugs.pptx what's hypertension
1. Anti hypertensive drugs.pptx what's hypertension1. Anti hypertensive drugs.pptx what's hypertension
1. Anti hypertensive drugs.pptx what's hypertension
 
symptomatic hypertension
symptomatic hypertensionsymptomatic hypertension
symptomatic hypertension
 
Hypertension
HypertensionHypertension
Hypertension
 
Hypertension
HypertensionHypertension
Hypertension
 

More from Ratheeshkrishnakripa (20)

Theories
TheoriesTheories
Theories
 
Thalassemia
ThalassemiaThalassemia
Thalassemia
 
Stroke
StrokeStroke
Stroke
 
Spinal cord injury
Spinal cord injurySpinal cord injury
Spinal cord injury
 
Skin intro
Skin introSkin intro
Skin intro
 
Scabies
ScabiesScabies
Scabies
 
Rhd
RhdRhd
Rhd
 
Renal cancer
Renal cancerRenal cancer
Renal cancer
 
Raynauds disease
Raynauds diseaseRaynauds disease
Raynauds disease
 
Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edemaPulmonary edema
Pulmonary edema
 
Psoriasis
PsoriasisPsoriasis
Psoriasis
 
Prostate cancer
Prostate cancerProstate cancer
Prostate cancer
 
Pressure ulcer
Pressure ulcerPressure ulcer
Pressure ulcer
 
Polycythemia
PolycythemiaPolycythemia
Polycythemia
 
Pemphigus vulgaris
Pemphigus vulgarisPemphigus vulgaris
Pemphigus vulgaris
 
Pathogenic organisms
Pathogenic organismsPathogenic organisms
Pathogenic organisms
 
Pagets and potts
Pagets and pottsPagets and potts
Pagets and potts
 
Osteoporosis and osteomalacia
Osteoporosis and osteomalaciaOsteoporosis and osteomalacia
Osteoporosis and osteomalacia
 
Oral cancer
Oral cancerOral cancer
Oral cancer
 
Opthalmic emergencies
Opthalmic emergenciesOpthalmic emergencies
Opthalmic emergencies
 

Recently uploaded

Weighing the Risks and Benefits: Angioplasty at Gokuldas Hospitals
Weighing the Risks and Benefits: Angioplasty at Gokuldas HospitalsWeighing the Risks and Benefits: Angioplasty at Gokuldas Hospitals
Weighing the Risks and Benefits: Angioplasty at Gokuldas HospitalsGokuldas Hospital
 
Sustainable Living Practices For Better Health.pptx
Sustainable Living Practices For Better Health.pptxSustainable Living Practices For Better Health.pptx
Sustainable Living Practices For Better Health.pptxHealth 2Conf
 
AMIKINHAL Presentation Journal Club (3).pptx
AMIKINHAL Presentation Journal Club (3).pptxAMIKINHAL Presentation Journal Club (3).pptx
AMIKINHAL Presentation Journal Club (3).pptxDileepRedemption
 
Professional Ear Wax Cleaning Services for Your Home
Professional Ear Wax Cleaning Services for Your HomeProfessional Ear Wax Cleaning Services for Your Home
Professional Ear Wax Cleaning Services for Your HomeEarwax Doctor
 
What are weight loss medication services?
What are weight loss medication services?What are weight loss medication services?
What are weight loss medication services?Optimal Healing 4u
 
Subconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptx
Subconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptxSubconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptx
Subconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptxvideosfildr
 
Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...
Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...
Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...Oleg Kshivets
 
Immediate care of newborn, midwifery and obstetrical nursing
Immediate care of newborn, midwifery and obstetrical nursingImmediate care of newborn, midwifery and obstetrical nursing
Immediate care of newborn, midwifery and obstetrical nursingNursing education
 
Medisep insurance policy , new kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...
Medisep insurance policy , new  kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...Medisep insurance policy , new  kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...
Medisep insurance policy , new kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...LinshaLichu1
 
CASE STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptx
CASE  STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptxCASE  STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptx
CASE STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptxdrsriram2001
 
20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health Support
20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health Support20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health Support
20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health SupportSayhey
 
Lipid Profile test & Cardiac Markers for MBBS, Lab. Med. and Nursing.pptx
Lipid Profile test & Cardiac Markers for MBBS, Lab. Med. and Nursing.pptxLipid Profile test & Cardiac Markers for MBBS, Lab. Med. and Nursing.pptx
Lipid Profile test & Cardiac Markers for MBBS, Lab. Med. and Nursing.pptxRajendra Dev Bhatt
 
Discover the Art Deco Style at Spa Dental
Discover the Art Deco Style at Spa DentalDiscover the Art Deco Style at Spa Dental
Discover the Art Deco Style at Spa DentalA-dec Australia
 
2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...
2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...
2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...Compliatric Where Compliance Happens
 
FAMILY in sociology for physiotherapists.pptx
FAMILY in sociology for physiotherapists.pptxFAMILY in sociology for physiotherapists.pptx
FAMILY in sociology for physiotherapists.pptxMumux Mirani
 
Preventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdf
Preventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdfPreventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdf
Preventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdfAditiAlishetty
 
Back care and back massage. powerpoint presentation
Back care and back massage. powerpoint presentationBack care and back massage. powerpoint presentation
Back care and back massage. powerpoint presentationpratiksha ghimire
 
EHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper Colin
EHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper ColinEHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper Colin
EHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper ColinJasper Colin
 
Advance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are Heard
Advance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are HeardAdvance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are Heard
Advance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are HeardVITASAuthor
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Weighing the Risks and Benefits: Angioplasty at Gokuldas Hospitals
Weighing the Risks and Benefits: Angioplasty at Gokuldas HospitalsWeighing the Risks and Benefits: Angioplasty at Gokuldas Hospitals
Weighing the Risks and Benefits: Angioplasty at Gokuldas Hospitals
 
Sustainable Living Practices For Better Health.pptx
Sustainable Living Practices For Better Health.pptxSustainable Living Practices For Better Health.pptx
Sustainable Living Practices For Better Health.pptx
 
AMIKINHAL Presentation Journal Club (3).pptx
AMIKINHAL Presentation Journal Club (3).pptxAMIKINHAL Presentation Journal Club (3).pptx
AMIKINHAL Presentation Journal Club (3).pptx
 
Professional Ear Wax Cleaning Services for Your Home
Professional Ear Wax Cleaning Services for Your HomeProfessional Ear Wax Cleaning Services for Your Home
Professional Ear Wax Cleaning Services for Your Home
 
What are weight loss medication services?
What are weight loss medication services?What are weight loss medication services?
What are weight loss medication services?
 
DELIRIUM psychiatric delirium is a organic mental disorder
DELIRIUM  psychiatric  delirium is a organic mental disorderDELIRIUM  psychiatric  delirium is a organic mental disorder
DELIRIUM psychiatric delirium is a organic mental disorder
 
Subconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptx
Subconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptxSubconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptx
Subconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptx
 
Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...
Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...
Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...
 
Immediate care of newborn, midwifery and obstetrical nursing
Immediate care of newborn, midwifery and obstetrical nursingImmediate care of newborn, midwifery and obstetrical nursing
Immediate care of newborn, midwifery and obstetrical nursing
 
Medisep insurance policy , new kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...
Medisep insurance policy , new  kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...Medisep insurance policy , new  kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...
Medisep insurance policy , new kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...
 
CASE STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptx
CASE  STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptxCASE  STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptx
CASE STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptx
 
20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health Support
20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health Support20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health Support
20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health Support
 
Lipid Profile test & Cardiac Markers for MBBS, Lab. Med. and Nursing.pptx
Lipid Profile test & Cardiac Markers for MBBS, Lab. Med. and Nursing.pptxLipid Profile test & Cardiac Markers for MBBS, Lab. Med. and Nursing.pptx
Lipid Profile test & Cardiac Markers for MBBS, Lab. Med. and Nursing.pptx
 
Discover the Art Deco Style at Spa Dental
Discover the Art Deco Style at Spa DentalDiscover the Art Deco Style at Spa Dental
Discover the Art Deco Style at Spa Dental
 
2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...
2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...
2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...
 
FAMILY in sociology for physiotherapists.pptx
FAMILY in sociology for physiotherapists.pptxFAMILY in sociology for physiotherapists.pptx
FAMILY in sociology for physiotherapists.pptx
 
Preventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdf
Preventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdfPreventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdf
Preventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdf
 
Back care and back massage. powerpoint presentation
Back care and back massage. powerpoint presentationBack care and back massage. powerpoint presentation
Back care and back massage. powerpoint presentation
 
EHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper Colin
EHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper ColinEHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper Colin
EHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper Colin
 
Advance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are Heard
Advance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are HeardAdvance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are Heard
Advance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are Heard
 

Hypertension

  • 2. DEFINITION  Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.  The SBP will be more than or equal of 140 mmHg and DBP will be more than or equal of 90 mmHg
  • 3. TYPES  Pre hypertension: SBP: 120-139 mmHg DBP: 80-89 mmHg  Hypertension stage I: SBP: 140-159 mmHg DBP: 90-99 mmHg  Hypertension stage II: SBP: More or equal to 160 mmHg DBP: More or equal to 100 mmHg  Pregnancy induced HTN: because of increased production of hormones and enzymes during pregnancy.
  • 4. ETIOLOGY  Primary HTN: it is the elevation in BP without an identified cause.  Secondary HTN: it is the elevation in BP with an exact cause. This type is account for 5-10% of total cases.  The causes of Secondary HTN includes  Congenital narrowing of aorta
  • 5.  Renal disease  Endocrine disorders like cushing’s syndrome  Neurological disorders like brain tumors and head injury  Sleep apnea  Medications like oral contraceptive pills, NSAID, and coccaine  Cirrhosis of liver
  • 6. RISK FACTORS  Age: chance of CAD after 50 yrs of age  Alcohol, smoking and DM  Excessive dietary intake of sodium  Gender  Family history  Obesity  Sedentary life style  stress
  • 7. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY  The normal blood pressure is maintained by four mechanisms  Sympathetic nervous system activities  Activities of vascular endothelium  Activities of renal system  Activities of endocrine system
  • 8. SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ACTIVITIES  When the BP is decreasing the activation of SNS will occur. The increased SNS activity increases the heart rate and cardiac contraction.  The increased the heart rate and cardiac contraction produce vasoconstriction in the peripheral arterioles and promotes the release of renin from kidney.  The net effect of SNS activation is to increase the arterial blood pressure by increasing cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance. BP=CO X SVR
  • 9. ACTIVITIES OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM  The vascular endothelium is a single cell layer that lines the blood vessal.  It will produce vasoactive substances and growth factors like nitric acid, endothelin etc..  These substances are potent vasoconstrictors and causes increases blood pressure level.
  • 11. ACTIVITIES OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM  When the angiotensin-II is stimulated in the adrenal cortex, it will secrete aldosterone.  The aldosterone will stimulate the kidneys to retain sodium and water. Thus the BP and cardiac output will get increased.
  • 12. CLINICAL FEATURES  Some times the high blood pressure does not causes any symptoms, so that it is known as silent killer disease.  In some patients the symptoms will develop like,
  • 13.  Severe head ache  Blurred vision  Dizziness  Nausea  Vomiting  Fatigue  Confusion epistaxis  Chest pain  Shortness of breath  Irregular heart beat  papilledema
  • 14. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATIONS  History collection and physical examination  Medical history of diabetes mellitus  Complete blood count  Chest x-ray  ECG
  • 15. MANAGEMENT  Mainly the management of hypertension is possible by two ways, which include  Life style modification  Pharmacological therapy
  • 16. LIFE STYLE MODIFICATION The life style modification measures mainly includes,  Weight reduction  DASH Diet (Dietary approaches to stop hypertension)  Dietary sodium reduction  Reduce alcohol  Exercise  Stress management
  • 17. PHARMACOLOGICAL THERAPY Various groups of drugs are used for the treatment of hypertension, collectively these drugs are called as anti-hypertensive drugs, which includes,  Diuretics: it helps the kidneys to inhibit the sodium reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubules, ascending limb and loop of henle. Eg: chlorothiazide, furosemide
  • 18.  Beta blockers: These medications reduces the workload of the heart and blood vessal and causing the heart to beat slowly and with less force. Eg: Atenolol, propanolol  Alpha blockers: These medications causes the peripheral vasodilation of blood vessals. Eg: Prazosin
  • 19.  Vasodilators: These medications acting directly on the muscles in the wall of arteries and preventing the muscles from tightening and arteries from narrowing. Eg: Nitroglycerin, Sodium nitro prusside  ACE Inhibitors: This group of medication will reduce the conversion of A-I to A-II and prevents vasoconstriction. Eg: Captopril, Ramipril
  • 20.  Calcium channel blockers: These medicines will block the movement of extra cellular calcium into the cells and causing vasodilation and decreased heart rate. Eg: Amlodipine, Verapamil
  • 21.  Alternative therapies which are helpful to regulate blood pressure includes acupuncture, relaxation techniques and diversional therapies.
  • 22. NURSING MANAGEMENT  Proper history collection should be done which includes family history also.  Dietary habits should be assessed  Identify the medical history such as diabetes, CAD, renal disease etc…  Instruct the patient to avoid smoking and alcoholism  Auscultate heart rate and palpate peripheral pulses.
  • 23.  Identify the use of medications such as contraceptives, steroids, NSAID etc…  Monitor vital signs frequently  Provide diet which is low in sodium and rich with fruits and vegetables.  Monitor the blood cholesterol level frequently