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22. adeno virus and hepatitis

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22. adeno virus and hepatitis

  2. 2. • Adenoviruses are medium-sized, nonenveloped viruses which containing a double stranded DNA genome. • Their name derives from their initial isolation from human adenoids in 1953
  3. 3. PATHOGENESIS • It mainly cause infection of the respiratory system, gastro intestinal system and in the eye. • Virus may be spreaded by contact, respiratory droplets or through ingestion of contaminated materials.
  4. 4. The various clinical features include, 1. Respiratory disease in children 2. Pharyngoconjunctival fever; this disease is characterized by conjunctivitis, fever, pharyngitis and adenoid enlargement. 3. Infections of the eye: conjunctivitis will be occur which is characterized by pain and photophobia. 4. Acute hemorrhagic cystitis: Hemorrhagic cystitis is the sudden onset of hematuria combined with bladder pain and irritative bladder symptoms.. 5. Infection of the gut 6. meningitis
  5. 5. DIAGNOSIS • Isolation of the virus can be isolated from most body fluids and secretions mainly from eye swabs. Throat swabs, urine, feces, CSF etc. the most reliable source is urine and feces. • Detection of viral antigen mainly using immunoflurescent techniques. • Serological tests it include ELISA, CFT and HAI
  6. 6. TREATMENT • No specific treatment or vaccines are still not invented against the micro organism.
  8. 8. HEPATITIS • The infection of the liver is known as hepatitis. • There are five types of hepatitis – Hepatitis A ( having RNA) – Hepatitis B ( having DNA) – Hepatitis C ( having RNA) – Hepatitis D ( having RNA) – Hepatitis E ( having RNA)
  9. 9. HEPATITIS A/ INFECTIOUS HEPATITIS • It is a sub acute disease caused by eating food and drinking water infected with virus HAV.
  10. 10. • It is a picorna virus, now classified as hepto virus, formerly known as entero virus 72. • It is un enveloped 27 nm in diameter. • It consist of a single stranded linear RNA.
  11. 11. CLINICAL FEATURES • The incubation period is 2-6 weeks. • Symptoms are fever, chills, head ache, fatigue, malaise, nausea, anorexia and liver tenderness. • Later jaundice, pale stool and dark urine will develop
  12. 12. DIAGNOSIS • Detection of HAV antigen: the virus can be detected in the feces upto 2 weeks before the apperance of jaundice and upto 2 weeks afterwards. the virus also can detected from the saliva, urine and semen.
  13. 13. • Detection of HAV antibody: this is the method of choice for diagnosing acute hepatitis A. The detection of specific IgM is diagnostic of recent infection.
  14. 14. • Biochemical test – Alanine aminotransferase test – Aspartate aminotransferase test
  15. 15. TREATMENT • Passive immunization with normal human immunoglobin.
  16. 16. HEPATITIS B / SERUM HEPATITIS • Hepatitis b / serum hepatitis is caused by Hepatitis B virus. • Spread is by the contact with the infected persons blood stream, semen or other body fluids and it is a sexually transmitted disease.
  17. 17. • Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV, is a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, which is likewise a part of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. • This virus causes the disease hepatitis B
  18. 18. CLINICAL FEATURES • The incubation period is 40-180 days and the clinical picture of acute infection is almost similar to that of hepatitis A. • The course of infection is divided into three phases
  19. 19. • PRODROMAL PHASE: – Fever – Fatigue – Malaise – Nausea – Diarrhea – Anorexia – Chills – Pain in the upper abdomen
  20. 20. • ICTERIC PHASE – Its because of the patient is developing jaundice – Dark urine – Pale stools
  21. 21. • CONVALESCENT PHASE • The phase last for a long time with malaise and fatigue • Duration of this phase is more than 8-10 weeks.
  22. 22. DIAGNOSIS • ANTIGEN DETECTION: – HBsAg: The antigen is detectable in the blood about a month after exposureand reaches to peak in prodromal phase. – HBcAg: the antigen will be present in the liver cells and can be detected by immunofluorescence. – HBeAg: this antigen appears in blood at the same time that the HBsAg appears.
  23. 23. • BIOCHEMICAL TEST – Serum bilirubin – Alanine Aminotransferase test
  25. 25. HEPATITIS C / TRANSFUSION HEPATITIS • It is caused by hepatitis C virus. • Spread in the same way that of hepatitis B virus spreads through infected persons body fluids, semen or blood
  26. 26. CLINICAL FEATURES • The incubation period is 6-8 weeks • Features are – developing a fever – feeling tired – having a poor appetite – nausea or vomiting – pain in your stomach – joint or muscle pain – abnormalities in urine or bowel movements – a yellowing in your eyes or skin
  27. 27. DIAGNOSIS • Serological test • Detection of HCV antibody • Detection of HCV antigen
  28. 28. TREATMENT • Combination of interferon and ribavirin is useful against HCV.
  29. 29. HEPATITIS D/ DELTA HEPATITIS • It is caused by the HDV in the presence of hepatitis B virus only. • It spreads through contact with infected blood, dirty needles and unprotected sex.
  30. 30. CLINICAL FEATURES • Hepatitis D doesn’t always cause symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they often include: – yellowing of the skin and eyes, which is called jaundice – joint pain – abdominal pain – vomiting – loss of appetite – dark urine – fatigue
  31. 31. DIAGNOSIS • Detection of delta Ag in the liver: • Immunofluorescence techniques are used. • Serological tests: • Mainly radio immuno assay techniques.
  32. 32. TREATMENT • INTERFERONE THERAPY (a protein released by animal cells, usually in response to the entry of a virus, which has the property of inhibiting virus replication)
  33. 33. HEPATITIS E • It is caused by the HEV. • It causes swelling of the liver for a short period of time. • Mainly transmitted through feco-oral route during oral sex.
  34. 34. CLINICAL FEATURES • It has slightly high incubation period that is 2- 9 weeks. • Mainly affecting the age group of 15-40 years.
  35. 35. Common symptoms are: – Feeling very tired. – Losing weight without trying. – Nausea and loss of appetite. – Pain on the right side of the belly, under the rib cage – Yellow skin (jaundice), dark urine, and clay- colored stool. – Sore muscles. – Fever.
  36. 36. DIAGNOSIS • Immuno electron microscopy • Serological test like ELISA and WESTERN BLOT ASSAY.