SlideShare a Scribd company logo
POX VIRUS
RATHEESH R.L
• THE MEDICALLY IMPORTANT SPECIES IS SMALL
POX OR VARIOLLA MAJOR
21. pox and herpes virus
MORPHOLOGY
• It is brick shaped
• Largest animal virus which is measuring 200-
250 X 250-300 nm in size
PATHOGENESIS
• The virus transmitted by the respiratory route
from the lesions in the respiratory tract of
patients in early stage of the disease.
• Incubation period is about 12 days
• The virus entering through the respiratory system
and accumulates in the lymph nodes and lead to
primary viraemia.
• Then the virus spreads through out the body and
accumulates in the reticuloendothelial cells and
further multiplication occurs leading to secondary
viraemia.
• The symptoms are fever, malaise, rashus,
vomiting and headache.
• The rashus will starts to appear on 3-5 days.
21. pox and herpes virus
DIAGNOSIS
• Mainly demonstration of the virus methods is used.
• Specimen is collected from the pustules.
• Viruses can be demonstrated under an electron
microscope
• CFT test, haemagglutination test and
immunofluorescence test also used.
HERPES VIRUSES
• Herpes viruses are double stranded DNA
viruses about 100 nm in diameter which
contains spherical capsules.
21. pox and herpes virus
• The medically important species are,
– Herpes simplex
– Varicella zoster
– Epstein-barr virus
HERPES SIMPLEX
• Man is the only natural host for herpes
simplex virus.
• There are two types HSV-1 and HSV-2
• HSV-1 is associated with occular and oral
lesions and HSV 2 is associated with genital
infections.
PATHOGENESIS
HSV included in variety of clinical manifestations which
include,
• Acute gingivostomatitis: it is a common manifestation
of primary herpes infection.
– The features are ulceration in the mouth, tongue, gum and
face.
– Neck glands will be enlarged with fever
– Other symptoms are sore throat and dysphagia.
• Herpes labialis: it is otherwise known as cold
sore.
• The most frequent site is at the vermilion border
of lips but sores can occur elsewhere like cheek,
chin, upper lip, nasal folds, inside nose etc.
• At first itching will occur then redness will
develop and leads the production of papules.
• Ocular herpes: it produce two types of symptoms
– Primary HSV keratitis: which is characterized by pain,
photophobia and excessive lacrimation
– Recurrent HSV keratitis: it is a severe ophthalmic
problem characterized by ulcers, conjunctivitis,
iridocyclitis (Iridocyclitis is an inflammation of the iris
and of the ciliary body), chorioretinitis and cataract.
• Herpes genitalis: the lesionwill be produced in
the genital area of the humans.
• The sites involved are prepuce ( foreskin in
males and skin surrounding the clitoris in
females), penis, scrotum, anus, vulva, vagina,
vagina and cervix
• Neonatal herpes: it is the infection that is very
much danger to the premature infants.
– The symptoms start to appear after 10days of
delivery characterized by poor feeding, weight
loss, loose stool and respiratory distress.
– Spleenomegaly, jaundice and liver failure will
develop in the latent stages.
• herpes simplex meningitis: it is usually a mild
form of meningitis.
• herpes simplex encephalitis: it is a severe disease
of the brain. In the early stages the patient will be
asymptomatic later symptoms will develop like
seizures, visual defects, speech defects,
behavioral changes and coma.
DIAGNOSIS
1. Smears are made from specimen collected from different
sites of HSV infection and stained by toludine blue.
– Cowdry type A or Lipchutz intranuclear inclusion bodies may
seen under the microscope.
• Cowdry bodies are eosinophilic nuclear inclusions
composed of nucleic acid and protein seen in cells infected
with Herpes simplex virus
• Lipchutz intranuclear Inclusion bodies, sometimes called
elementary bodies, are nuclear or cytoplasmic aggregates
of stainable substances, usually proteins
2. Virus can be isolated from infected material
by inoculating in the chick embryo and can be
isolate by mixing with rabbit kidney and human
amnion tissue culture.
3. Serological tests are used like ELISA and RIA
(Radioimmunoassay Test)
TREATMENT
• Antiviral therapy is prescribed, the main drug
of choices are
– Acyclovir
– Valvaciclovir
– vidarabine
VARICELLA ZOSTER
• Varicella ( chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles)
diseases are caused by a single virus, therefore it is
named as Varicella zoster virus.
21. pox and herpes virus
PATHOGENESIS
• The virus is entering to the body through the
respiratory system and accumulates in the
lymphatic system of the humans.
• The incubation period is 10-21 days and finally
reaches to the targetted organ which is the skin.
• It produces two types of disease like varicella/
chicken pox and herpes zoster/ shingles disease.
varicella/ chicken pox
• The disease usually affects the children.
• Incubation period is 7-23 days
• It is characterized by the formation of
vesicular rashus mostly over the trunk.
• When the vesicular rashus are breaking down
it leads to the formation of crust.
21. pox and herpes virus
COMPLICATIONS OF CHICKEN POX
• Secondary bacterial infection: it is the most
common complication of varicella.
• Hemorrhagic chicken pox: hemorrhagic
symptoms will occur after 2-3 days after the
onset of rashus. In this stage hemorrhage in
the skin, epistaxis, maleena and hematuria
will occur.
• Viral pneumonia: it is mainly occurs because
of the immuno-compromise state.
• Encephalitis: it is also occurs because of the
immuno-compromise state.
HERPES ZOSTER/SHINGLES
• It may occur at any age but it is usually a disease
of old age affecting to people with age more than
50 years.
The features are
– The first symptoms of shingles are usually pain and
burning. The pain is usually on one side of the body
and occurs in small patches. A red rash typically
follows.
Rash characteristics include:
• red patches
• fluid-filled blisters that break easily
• a rash that wraps around from the spine to the torso
• a rash on the face and ears
• itching
• Other symptoms are
– fever
– chills
– a headache
– fatigue
– muscle weakness
21. pox and herpes virus
complications
• Secondary bacterial infection:
As in the case of chicken pox , mild
secondary infection is common.
• Neuralgia:
post herpetic neuralgia is common
• Encephalitis
it is a very rare complication
• Dessiminated herpes zoster
it occurs in immunocompromised
patients
• Ocular zoster
infections in the eyes are common
after the infection.
DIAGNOSIS
Three methods are used
1. Direct method
2. Virus isolation method
3. Serological tests.
Direct method
• Smears of scrapings of the base of the lesions will
show the presence of multinucleate giant cells,
also known as tzanck cells.
• Electron microscopy: fluid taken the vesicles and
observed under the microscope will show the
presence of virus.
• Immuno-fluresence method
Virus isolation method
• Vesicle fluid and scrapings from the base of
fresh lesions are the most suitable specimens
for the isolation of virus by mixing with the
human serum.
Serological tests
• It includes
– CFT test
– Neutralization test
– Immuno fluorescence test
– RIA test
– ELISA
TREATMENT
• Vaccines are available
– Passive immunization: zoster immune globulin
– active immunization: live attenuated varicella
vaccine.
EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS
A virus in the herpes family
that is best known as the cause of infectious
mononucleosis.
• EBV infection is characterized by fatigue and
general malaise. Infection with EBV is common
and is normally temporary and minor.
21. pox and herpes virus
PATHOGENESIS
• It produces three types of diseases
– Infectious mononucleosis/ glandular fever
– Burkitt’s lymphoma
– Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Infectious mononucleosis/ glandular fever
• It is an acute self limiting lympho proliferative
disease of young adults and rarely in children
resulting from the infection with EBV.
• EBV is transmitted via intimate contact with body
secretions, primarily oropharyngeal secretions.
• The disease is probably transmitted by kissing,
hence it is known as kissing disease.
21. pox and herpes virus
• The symptoms may include:
– fever
– sore throat
– swollen lymph glands in the neck and armpits
– headache
– fatigue
– muscle weakness
– swollen tonsils
– night sweats
Burkitt’s lymphoma
• cancer of the lymphatic system, caused by the
Epstein–Barr virus, chiefly affecting children
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Nasopharyngeal cancer is a rare type of head
and neck cancer. It starts in the upper part of your
throat, behind the nose.
• The symptoms are
– A lump in your neck caused by a swollen lymph node.
– Blood in your saliva.
– Bloody discharge from your nose.
– Nasal congestion.
– Hearing loss.
– Frequent ear infections.
– Headaches.
DIAGNOSIS
• Hematological investigations:
• Shows decreased leukocytes count
• Abnormal lymphocyte count
• The virus can be observed under electron
microscope
• Serological studies include CFT test, GEL
diffusion test, immunoflurescence study.
TREATMENT
• Get adequate of rest.
• Drink a lot of water and other liquids to stay
hydrated.
• gargle with warm salt water, to make your sore
throat feel better.
• Take painkillers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen
21. pox and herpes virus

More Related Content

What's hot

Chlamydia
ChlamydiaChlamydia
Chlamydia
Shilpa k
 
Poliovirus
PoliovirusPoliovirus
paramyxovirus.ppt
paramyxovirus.pptparamyxovirus.ppt
paramyxovirus.ppt
NCRIMS, Meerut
 
Rhabdovirus
RhabdovirusRhabdovirus
Rhabdovirus
Noman-Hafeez khosa
 
Mycoplasma
MycoplasmaMycoplasma
Mycoplasma
Shilpa k
 
Rhabdovirus lecture
Rhabdovirus lectureRhabdovirus lecture
Rhabdovirus lecture
deepak deshkar
 
Mycobacteria
MycobacteriaMycobacteria
Mycobacteria
Ashish Jawarkar
 
Subcutaneous mycoses
Subcutaneous mycosesSubcutaneous mycoses
Subcutaneous mycoses
Dr.Dinesh Jain
 
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio choleraeVibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Yashwant Kumar
 
12. mycobacterium leprae
12. mycobacterium leprae12. mycobacterium leprae
12. mycobacterium leprae
Ratheeshkrishnakripa
 
Arboviruses
Arboviruses Arboviruses
Arboviruses
Awaaz Batazoo
 
Mycobacteria
Mycobacteria Mycobacteria
Mycobacteria
Mukhit Kazi
 
Adeno virus
Adeno virusAdeno virus
Adeno virus
AffrinNisha
 
Retrovirus
RetrovirusRetrovirus
Retrovirus
Noman-Hafeez khosa
 
Bordetella
BordetellaBordetella
Parvo virus
Parvo virusParvo virus
Subcutaneous mycoses.ppt
Subcutaneous mycoses.pptSubcutaneous mycoses.ppt
Subcutaneous mycoses.ppt
Sk. Mizanur Rahman
 
Genus Yersinia
Genus YersiniaGenus Yersinia
Genus Yersinia
Ravi Kant Agrawal
 
CULTIVATION OF VIRUS : Embryonated eggs
CULTIVATION OF VIRUS : Embryonated eggsCULTIVATION OF VIRUS : Embryonated eggs
CULTIVATION OF VIRUS : Embryonated eggs
Sunidhi Shreya
 
Orthomyxovirus
Orthomyxovirus Orthomyxovirus
Orthomyxovirus
AbilashSundar
 

What's hot (20)

Chlamydia
ChlamydiaChlamydia
Chlamydia
 
Poliovirus
PoliovirusPoliovirus
Poliovirus
 
paramyxovirus.ppt
paramyxovirus.pptparamyxovirus.ppt
paramyxovirus.ppt
 
Rhabdovirus
RhabdovirusRhabdovirus
Rhabdovirus
 
Mycoplasma
MycoplasmaMycoplasma
Mycoplasma
 
Rhabdovirus lecture
Rhabdovirus lectureRhabdovirus lecture
Rhabdovirus lecture
 
Mycobacteria
MycobacteriaMycobacteria
Mycobacteria
 
Subcutaneous mycoses
Subcutaneous mycosesSubcutaneous mycoses
Subcutaneous mycoses
 
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio choleraeVibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
 
12. mycobacterium leprae
12. mycobacterium leprae12. mycobacterium leprae
12. mycobacterium leprae
 
Arboviruses
Arboviruses Arboviruses
Arboviruses
 
Mycobacteria
Mycobacteria Mycobacteria
Mycobacteria
 
Adeno virus
Adeno virusAdeno virus
Adeno virus
 
Retrovirus
RetrovirusRetrovirus
Retrovirus
 
Bordetella
BordetellaBordetella
Bordetella
 
Parvo virus
Parvo virusParvo virus
Parvo virus
 
Subcutaneous mycoses.ppt
Subcutaneous mycoses.pptSubcutaneous mycoses.ppt
Subcutaneous mycoses.ppt
 
Genus Yersinia
Genus YersiniaGenus Yersinia
Genus Yersinia
 
CULTIVATION OF VIRUS : Embryonated eggs
CULTIVATION OF VIRUS : Embryonated eggsCULTIVATION OF VIRUS : Embryonated eggs
CULTIVATION OF VIRUS : Embryonated eggs
 
Orthomyxovirus
Orthomyxovirus Orthomyxovirus
Orthomyxovirus
 

Similar to 21. pox and herpes virus

24. mumps, measels, rubella
24. mumps, measels, rubella24. mumps, measels, rubella
24. mumps, measels, rubella
Ratheeshkrishnakripa
 
Viral infections in the oral cavity
Viral infections in the oral cavityViral infections in the oral cavity
Viral infections in the oral cavity
AyabellaEida
 
Viral infections in the oral cavity
Viral infections in the oral cavityViral infections in the oral cavity
Viral infections in the oral cavity
Aya Eida
 
Measles .pptx
Measles .pptxMeasles .pptx
Measles .pptx
Beema3
 
Measles .pptx
Measles .pptxMeasles .pptx
Measles .pptx
Beema3
 
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) by Dr. Himanshu K...
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) by Dr. Himanshu K...Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) by Dr. Himanshu K...
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) by Dr. Himanshu K...
DrHimanshuKhatri
 
Viral infections of the nervous system
Viral infections of the nervous systemViral infections of the nervous system
Viral infections of the nervous system
swamy15
 
Viral disease of Human
Viral disease of HumanViral disease of Human
Viral disease of Human
Numan Akhtar Kamboh
 
vaccine pre1.pptx
vaccine pre1.pptxvaccine pre1.pptx
vaccine pre1.pptx
WoinshetMelaku
 
Vesiculobullous
VesiculobullousVesiculobullous
Vesiculobullous
Nakulbista8
 
Measles, mumps, rubella
Measles, mumps, rubellaMeasles, mumps, rubella
Measles, mumps, rubella
Santosh University, Ghaziabad
 
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKEN POX
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKEN POXEPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKEN POX
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKEN POX
MAHESWARI JAIKUMAR
 
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKENPOX
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKENPOXEPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKENPOX
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKENPOX
MAHESWARI JAIKUMAR
 
Chicken pox (varicella)
Chicken pox  (varicella)Chicken pox  (varicella)
Chicken pox (varicella)
Cool-deep Vaishnav
 
New slide 13333.pptx
New slide 13333.pptxNew slide 13333.pptx
New slide 13333.pptx
Ahmedalmahdi16
 
Measals and there management
Measals and there managementMeasals and there management
Measals and there management
Irfan Ahmed
 
MEASLES.pptx4445544444444444444444444444
MEASLES.pptx4445544444444444444444444444MEASLES.pptx4445544444444444444444444444
MEASLES.pptx4445544444444444444444444444
samuellamaryk
 
Chickenpox
ChickenpoxChickenpox
Chickenpox
DrRajalekshmy Arun
 
Smallpox, chickenpox,Monkeypox.ppt
Smallpox, chickenpox,Monkeypox.pptSmallpox, chickenpox,Monkeypox.ppt
Smallpox, chickenpox,Monkeypox.ppt
PadmaBhatia1
 
Viral infections.pptx
Viral infections.pptxViral infections.pptx
Viral infections.pptx
Dr. Megha PU
 

Similar to 21. pox and herpes virus (20)

24. mumps, measels, rubella
24. mumps, measels, rubella24. mumps, measels, rubella
24. mumps, measels, rubella
 
Viral infections in the oral cavity
Viral infections in the oral cavityViral infections in the oral cavity
Viral infections in the oral cavity
 
Viral infections in the oral cavity
Viral infections in the oral cavityViral infections in the oral cavity
Viral infections in the oral cavity
 
Measles .pptx
Measles .pptxMeasles .pptx
Measles .pptx
 
Measles .pptx
Measles .pptxMeasles .pptx
Measles .pptx
 
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) by Dr. Himanshu K...
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) by Dr. Himanshu K...Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) by Dr. Himanshu K...
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) by Dr. Himanshu K...
 
Viral infections of the nervous system
Viral infections of the nervous systemViral infections of the nervous system
Viral infections of the nervous system
 
Viral disease of Human
Viral disease of HumanViral disease of Human
Viral disease of Human
 
vaccine pre1.pptx
vaccine pre1.pptxvaccine pre1.pptx
vaccine pre1.pptx
 
Vesiculobullous
VesiculobullousVesiculobullous
Vesiculobullous
 
Measles, mumps, rubella
Measles, mumps, rubellaMeasles, mumps, rubella
Measles, mumps, rubella
 
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKEN POX
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKEN POXEPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKEN POX
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKEN POX
 
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKENPOX
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKENPOXEPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKENPOX
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHICKENPOX
 
Chicken pox (varicella)
Chicken pox  (varicella)Chicken pox  (varicella)
Chicken pox (varicella)
 
New slide 13333.pptx
New slide 13333.pptxNew slide 13333.pptx
New slide 13333.pptx
 
Measals and there management
Measals and there managementMeasals and there management
Measals and there management
 
MEASLES.pptx4445544444444444444444444444
MEASLES.pptx4445544444444444444444444444MEASLES.pptx4445544444444444444444444444
MEASLES.pptx4445544444444444444444444444
 
Chickenpox
ChickenpoxChickenpox
Chickenpox
 
Smallpox, chickenpox,Monkeypox.ppt
Smallpox, chickenpox,Monkeypox.pptSmallpox, chickenpox,Monkeypox.ppt
Smallpox, chickenpox,Monkeypox.ppt
 
Viral infections.pptx
Viral infections.pptxViral infections.pptx
Viral infections.pptx
 

More from Ratheeshkrishnakripa

Theories
TheoriesTheories
Thalassemia
ThalassemiaThalassemia
Stroke
StrokeStroke
Spinal cord injury
Spinal cord injurySpinal cord injury
Spinal cord injury
Ratheeshkrishnakripa
 
Skin intro
Skin introSkin intro
Scabies
ScabiesScabies
Rhd
RhdRhd
Renal cancer
Renal cancerRenal cancer
Renal cancer
Ratheeshkrishnakripa
 
Raynauds disease
Raynauds diseaseRaynauds disease
Raynauds disease
Ratheeshkrishnakripa
 
Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edemaPulmonary edema
Pulmonary edema
Ratheeshkrishnakripa
 
Psoriasis
PsoriasisPsoriasis
Prostate cancer
Prostate cancerProstate cancer
Prostate cancer
Ratheeshkrishnakripa
 
Pressure ulcer
Pressure ulcerPressure ulcer
Pressure ulcer
Ratheeshkrishnakripa
 
Polycythemia
PolycythemiaPolycythemia
Polycythemia
Ratheeshkrishnakripa
 
Pneumonia
PneumoniaPneumonia
Pemphigus vulgaris
Pemphigus vulgarisPemphigus vulgaris
Pemphigus vulgaris
Ratheeshkrishnakripa
 
Pathogenic organisms
Pathogenic organismsPathogenic organisms
Pathogenic organisms
Ratheeshkrishnakripa
 
Pagets and potts
Pagets and pottsPagets and potts
Pagets and potts
Ratheeshkrishnakripa
 
Osteoporosis and osteomalacia
Osteoporosis and osteomalaciaOsteoporosis and osteomalacia
Osteoporosis and osteomalacia
Ratheeshkrishnakripa
 
Oral cancer
Oral cancerOral cancer

More from Ratheeshkrishnakripa (20)

Theories
TheoriesTheories
Theories
 
Thalassemia
ThalassemiaThalassemia
Thalassemia
 
Stroke
StrokeStroke
Stroke
 
Spinal cord injury
Spinal cord injurySpinal cord injury
Spinal cord injury
 
Skin intro
Skin introSkin intro
Skin intro
 
Scabies
ScabiesScabies
Scabies
 
Rhd
RhdRhd
Rhd
 
Renal cancer
Renal cancerRenal cancer
Renal cancer
 
Raynauds disease
Raynauds diseaseRaynauds disease
Raynauds disease
 
Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edemaPulmonary edema
Pulmonary edema
 
Psoriasis
PsoriasisPsoriasis
Psoriasis
 
Prostate cancer
Prostate cancerProstate cancer
Prostate cancer
 
Pressure ulcer
Pressure ulcerPressure ulcer
Pressure ulcer
 
Polycythemia
PolycythemiaPolycythemia
Polycythemia
 
Pneumonia
PneumoniaPneumonia
Pneumonia
 
Pemphigus vulgaris
Pemphigus vulgarisPemphigus vulgaris
Pemphigus vulgaris
 
Pathogenic organisms
Pathogenic organismsPathogenic organisms
Pathogenic organisms
 
Pagets and potts
Pagets and pottsPagets and potts
Pagets and potts
 
Osteoporosis and osteomalacia
Osteoporosis and osteomalaciaOsteoporosis and osteomalacia
Osteoporosis and osteomalacia
 
Oral cancer
Oral cancerOral cancer
Oral cancer
 

Recently uploaded

Operation Theatre Nursing -History of Surgery & Anesthesia.pptx
Operation Theatre Nursing -History of Surgery & Anesthesia.pptxOperation Theatre Nursing -History of Surgery & Anesthesia.pptx
Operation Theatre Nursing -History of Surgery & Anesthesia.pptx
RadhaThapaChhetry
 
How to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptx
How to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptxHow to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptx
How to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptx
AmandaChou9
 
How to build a successful medical tourism practice
How to build a successful medical tourism practiceHow to build a successful medical tourism practice
How to build a successful medical tourism practice
Arlen Meyers, MD, MBA
 
lessonplan JTR.pptx For medical education
lessonplan JTR.pptx For medical educationlessonplan JTR.pptx For medical education
lessonplan JTR.pptx For medical education
DrJALAGAMTHIRUPATHIR
 
Minimal Residual Disease (MRD)
Minimal Residual Disease           (MRD)Minimal Residual Disease           (MRD)
Minimal Residual Disease (MRD)
Reenaz Shaik
 
Pharmacological Management of Hypertension: New Drugs and Mechanisms
Pharmacological Management of Hypertension: New Drugs and MechanismsPharmacological Management of Hypertension: New Drugs and Mechanisms
Pharmacological Management of Hypertension: New Drugs and Mechanisms
Medwin Publishers
 
Why Does Seminal Vesiculitis Causes Jelly-like Sperm.pptx
Why Does Seminal Vesiculitis Causes Jelly-like Sperm.pptxWhy Does Seminal Vesiculitis Causes Jelly-like Sperm.pptx
Why Does Seminal Vesiculitis Causes Jelly-like Sperm.pptx
AmandaChou9
 
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)
HafsaAnwaar1
 
2nd week of Human development .embryology
2nd week of Human development .embryology2nd week of Human development .embryology
2nd week of Human development .embryology
Mithilesh Chaurasia
 
Giant Breast Lipoma Masquerading as Breast Enlargement ورم شحمي عملاق للثدي م...
Giant Breast Lipoma Masquerading as Breast Enlargement ورم شحمي عملاق للثدي م...Giant Breast Lipoma Masquerading as Breast Enlargement ورم شحمي عملاق للثدي م...
Giant Breast Lipoma Masquerading as Breast Enlargement ورم شحمي عملاق للثدي م...
Mohamad محمد Al-Gailani الكيلاني
 
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease( GTD)- Molar pregnancy, Gestational Trophob...
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease( GTD)- Molar pregnancy, Gestational Trophob...Gestational Trophoblastic Disease( GTD)- Molar pregnancy, Gestational Trophob...
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease( GTD)- Molar pregnancy, Gestational Trophob...
Dr.Nishant Janu
 
Exploring Alternatives- Why Laparoscopy Isn't Always Best for Hydrosalpinx.pptx
Exploring Alternatives- Why Laparoscopy Isn't Always Best for Hydrosalpinx.pptxExploring Alternatives- Why Laparoscopy Isn't Always Best for Hydrosalpinx.pptx
Exploring Alternatives- Why Laparoscopy Isn't Always Best for Hydrosalpinx.pptx
FFragrant
 
Abnormal CSF Diagnosis and Lumbar puncture
Abnormal CSF Diagnosis and Lumbar punctureAbnormal CSF Diagnosis and Lumbar puncture
Abnormal CSF Diagnosis and Lumbar puncture
Preet Mehta
 
Prodrug design for Sustained Drug action -.KB.pptx
Prodrug design for Sustained Drug action -.KB.pptxProdrug design for Sustained Drug action -.KB.pptx
Prodrug design for Sustained Drug action -.KB.pptx
ANAGHA K B
 
Perforation.pptx
Perforation.pptxPerforation.pptx
Perforation.pptx
Nandish Sannaiah
 
Mainstreaming #CleanLanguage in healthcare.pptx
Mainstreaming #CleanLanguage in healthcare.pptxMainstreaming #CleanLanguage in healthcare.pptx
Mainstreaming #CleanLanguage in healthcare.pptx
Judy Rees
 
PULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pptx
PULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pptxPULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pptx
PULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pptx
neeti70
 
APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER DISEASES.ppt
APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER DISEASES.pptAPPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER DISEASES.ppt
APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER DISEASES.ppt
KarthikeyanA87
 
PULMONARY DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM......pptx
PULMONARY DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM......pptxPULMONARY DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM......pptx
PULMONARY DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM......pptx
PRAMESHPANWAR1
 
Best All Range PCD Pharma Franchise in India
Best All Range PCD Pharma Franchise in IndiaBest All Range PCD Pharma Franchise in India
Best All Range PCD Pharma Franchise in India
See Ever Healthcare
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Operation Theatre Nursing -History of Surgery & Anesthesia.pptx
Operation Theatre Nursing -History of Surgery & Anesthesia.pptxOperation Theatre Nursing -History of Surgery & Anesthesia.pptx
Operation Theatre Nursing -History of Surgery & Anesthesia.pptx
 
How to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptx
How to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptxHow to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptx
How to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptx
 
How to build a successful medical tourism practice
How to build a successful medical tourism practiceHow to build a successful medical tourism practice
How to build a successful medical tourism practice
 
lessonplan JTR.pptx For medical education
lessonplan JTR.pptx For medical educationlessonplan JTR.pptx For medical education
lessonplan JTR.pptx For medical education
 
Minimal Residual Disease (MRD)
Minimal Residual Disease           (MRD)Minimal Residual Disease           (MRD)
Minimal Residual Disease (MRD)
 
Pharmacological Management of Hypertension: New Drugs and Mechanisms
Pharmacological Management of Hypertension: New Drugs and MechanismsPharmacological Management of Hypertension: New Drugs and Mechanisms
Pharmacological Management of Hypertension: New Drugs and Mechanisms
 
Why Does Seminal Vesiculitis Causes Jelly-like Sperm.pptx
Why Does Seminal Vesiculitis Causes Jelly-like Sperm.pptxWhy Does Seminal Vesiculitis Causes Jelly-like Sperm.pptx
Why Does Seminal Vesiculitis Causes Jelly-like Sperm.pptx
 
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)
 
2nd week of Human development .embryology
2nd week of Human development .embryology2nd week of Human development .embryology
2nd week of Human development .embryology
 
Giant Breast Lipoma Masquerading as Breast Enlargement ورم شحمي عملاق للثدي م...
Giant Breast Lipoma Masquerading as Breast Enlargement ورم شحمي عملاق للثدي م...Giant Breast Lipoma Masquerading as Breast Enlargement ورم شحمي عملاق للثدي م...
Giant Breast Lipoma Masquerading as Breast Enlargement ورم شحمي عملاق للثدي م...
 
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease( GTD)- Molar pregnancy, Gestational Trophob...
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease( GTD)- Molar pregnancy, Gestational Trophob...Gestational Trophoblastic Disease( GTD)- Molar pregnancy, Gestational Trophob...
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease( GTD)- Molar pregnancy, Gestational Trophob...
 
Exploring Alternatives- Why Laparoscopy Isn't Always Best for Hydrosalpinx.pptx
Exploring Alternatives- Why Laparoscopy Isn't Always Best for Hydrosalpinx.pptxExploring Alternatives- Why Laparoscopy Isn't Always Best for Hydrosalpinx.pptx
Exploring Alternatives- Why Laparoscopy Isn't Always Best for Hydrosalpinx.pptx
 
Abnormal CSF Diagnosis and Lumbar puncture
Abnormal CSF Diagnosis and Lumbar punctureAbnormal CSF Diagnosis and Lumbar puncture
Abnormal CSF Diagnosis and Lumbar puncture
 
Prodrug design for Sustained Drug action -.KB.pptx
Prodrug design for Sustained Drug action -.KB.pptxProdrug design for Sustained Drug action -.KB.pptx
Prodrug design for Sustained Drug action -.KB.pptx
 
Perforation.pptx
Perforation.pptxPerforation.pptx
Perforation.pptx
 
Mainstreaming #CleanLanguage in healthcare.pptx
Mainstreaming #CleanLanguage in healthcare.pptxMainstreaming #CleanLanguage in healthcare.pptx
Mainstreaming #CleanLanguage in healthcare.pptx
 
PULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pptx
PULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pptxPULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pptx
PULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pptx
 
APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER DISEASES.ppt
APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER DISEASES.pptAPPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER DISEASES.ppt
APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER DISEASES.ppt
 
PULMONARY DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM......pptx
PULMONARY DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM......pptxPULMONARY DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM......pptx
PULMONARY DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM......pptx
 
Best All Range PCD Pharma Franchise in India
Best All Range PCD Pharma Franchise in IndiaBest All Range PCD Pharma Franchise in India
Best All Range PCD Pharma Franchise in India
 

21. pox and herpes virus

  • 2. • THE MEDICALLY IMPORTANT SPECIES IS SMALL POX OR VARIOLLA MAJOR
  • 4. MORPHOLOGY • It is brick shaped • Largest animal virus which is measuring 200- 250 X 250-300 nm in size
  • 5. PATHOGENESIS • The virus transmitted by the respiratory route from the lesions in the respiratory tract of patients in early stage of the disease. • Incubation period is about 12 days • The virus entering through the respiratory system and accumulates in the lymph nodes and lead to primary viraemia.
  • 6. • Then the virus spreads through out the body and accumulates in the reticuloendothelial cells and further multiplication occurs leading to secondary viraemia. • The symptoms are fever, malaise, rashus, vomiting and headache. • The rashus will starts to appear on 3-5 days.
  • 8. DIAGNOSIS • Mainly demonstration of the virus methods is used. • Specimen is collected from the pustules. • Viruses can be demonstrated under an electron microscope • CFT test, haemagglutination test and immunofluorescence test also used.
  • 10. • Herpes viruses are double stranded DNA viruses about 100 nm in diameter which contains spherical capsules.
  • 12. • The medically important species are, – Herpes simplex – Varicella zoster – Epstein-barr virus
  • 13. HERPES SIMPLEX • Man is the only natural host for herpes simplex virus. • There are two types HSV-1 and HSV-2 • HSV-1 is associated with occular and oral lesions and HSV 2 is associated with genital infections.
  • 14. PATHOGENESIS HSV included in variety of clinical manifestations which include, • Acute gingivostomatitis: it is a common manifestation of primary herpes infection. – The features are ulceration in the mouth, tongue, gum and face. – Neck glands will be enlarged with fever – Other symptoms are sore throat and dysphagia.
  • 15. • Herpes labialis: it is otherwise known as cold sore. • The most frequent site is at the vermilion border of lips but sores can occur elsewhere like cheek, chin, upper lip, nasal folds, inside nose etc. • At first itching will occur then redness will develop and leads the production of papules.
  • 16. • Ocular herpes: it produce two types of symptoms – Primary HSV keratitis: which is characterized by pain, photophobia and excessive lacrimation – Recurrent HSV keratitis: it is a severe ophthalmic problem characterized by ulcers, conjunctivitis, iridocyclitis (Iridocyclitis is an inflammation of the iris and of the ciliary body), chorioretinitis and cataract.
  • 17. • Herpes genitalis: the lesionwill be produced in the genital area of the humans. • The sites involved are prepuce ( foreskin in males and skin surrounding the clitoris in females), penis, scrotum, anus, vulva, vagina, vagina and cervix
  • 18. • Neonatal herpes: it is the infection that is very much danger to the premature infants. – The symptoms start to appear after 10days of delivery characterized by poor feeding, weight loss, loose stool and respiratory distress. – Spleenomegaly, jaundice and liver failure will develop in the latent stages.
  • 19. • herpes simplex meningitis: it is usually a mild form of meningitis. • herpes simplex encephalitis: it is a severe disease of the brain. In the early stages the patient will be asymptomatic later symptoms will develop like seizures, visual defects, speech defects, behavioral changes and coma.
  • 20. DIAGNOSIS 1. Smears are made from specimen collected from different sites of HSV infection and stained by toludine blue. – Cowdry type A or Lipchutz intranuclear inclusion bodies may seen under the microscope. • Cowdry bodies are eosinophilic nuclear inclusions composed of nucleic acid and protein seen in cells infected with Herpes simplex virus • Lipchutz intranuclear Inclusion bodies, sometimes called elementary bodies, are nuclear or cytoplasmic aggregates of stainable substances, usually proteins
  • 21. 2. Virus can be isolated from infected material by inoculating in the chick embryo and can be isolate by mixing with rabbit kidney and human amnion tissue culture. 3. Serological tests are used like ELISA and RIA (Radioimmunoassay Test)
  • 22. TREATMENT • Antiviral therapy is prescribed, the main drug of choices are – Acyclovir – Valvaciclovir – vidarabine
  • 23. VARICELLA ZOSTER • Varicella ( chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles) diseases are caused by a single virus, therefore it is named as Varicella zoster virus.
  • 25. PATHOGENESIS • The virus is entering to the body through the respiratory system and accumulates in the lymphatic system of the humans. • The incubation period is 10-21 days and finally reaches to the targetted organ which is the skin. • It produces two types of disease like varicella/ chicken pox and herpes zoster/ shingles disease.
  • 26. varicella/ chicken pox • The disease usually affects the children. • Incubation period is 7-23 days • It is characterized by the formation of vesicular rashus mostly over the trunk. • When the vesicular rashus are breaking down it leads to the formation of crust.
  • 28. COMPLICATIONS OF CHICKEN POX • Secondary bacterial infection: it is the most common complication of varicella. • Hemorrhagic chicken pox: hemorrhagic symptoms will occur after 2-3 days after the onset of rashus. In this stage hemorrhage in the skin, epistaxis, maleena and hematuria will occur.
  • 29. • Viral pneumonia: it is mainly occurs because of the immuno-compromise state. • Encephalitis: it is also occurs because of the immuno-compromise state.
  • 30. HERPES ZOSTER/SHINGLES • It may occur at any age but it is usually a disease of old age affecting to people with age more than 50 years. The features are – The first symptoms of shingles are usually pain and burning. The pain is usually on one side of the body and occurs in small patches. A red rash typically follows.
  • 31. Rash characteristics include: • red patches • fluid-filled blisters that break easily • a rash that wraps around from the spine to the torso • a rash on the face and ears • itching
  • 32. • Other symptoms are – fever – chills – a headache – fatigue – muscle weakness
  • 34. complications • Secondary bacterial infection: As in the case of chicken pox , mild secondary infection is common. • Neuralgia: post herpetic neuralgia is common • Encephalitis it is a very rare complication
  • 35. • Dessiminated herpes zoster it occurs in immunocompromised patients • Ocular zoster infections in the eyes are common after the infection.
  • 36. DIAGNOSIS Three methods are used 1. Direct method 2. Virus isolation method 3. Serological tests.
  • 37. Direct method • Smears of scrapings of the base of the lesions will show the presence of multinucleate giant cells, also known as tzanck cells. • Electron microscopy: fluid taken the vesicles and observed under the microscope will show the presence of virus. • Immuno-fluresence method
  • 38. Virus isolation method • Vesicle fluid and scrapings from the base of fresh lesions are the most suitable specimens for the isolation of virus by mixing with the human serum.
  • 39. Serological tests • It includes – CFT test – Neutralization test – Immuno fluorescence test – RIA test – ELISA
  • 40. TREATMENT • Vaccines are available – Passive immunization: zoster immune globulin – active immunization: live attenuated varicella vaccine.
  • 41. EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS A virus in the herpes family that is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis. • EBV infection is characterized by fatigue and general malaise. Infection with EBV is common and is normally temporary and minor.
  • 43. PATHOGENESIS • It produces three types of diseases – Infectious mononucleosis/ glandular fever – Burkitt’s lymphoma – Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
  • 44. Infectious mononucleosis/ glandular fever • It is an acute self limiting lympho proliferative disease of young adults and rarely in children resulting from the infection with EBV. • EBV is transmitted via intimate contact with body secretions, primarily oropharyngeal secretions. • The disease is probably transmitted by kissing, hence it is known as kissing disease.
  • 46. • The symptoms may include: – fever – sore throat – swollen lymph glands in the neck and armpits – headache – fatigue – muscle weakness – swollen tonsils – night sweats
  • 47. Burkitt’s lymphoma • cancer of the lymphatic system, caused by the Epstein–Barr virus, chiefly affecting children
  • 48. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma Nasopharyngeal cancer is a rare type of head and neck cancer. It starts in the upper part of your throat, behind the nose. • The symptoms are – A lump in your neck caused by a swollen lymph node. – Blood in your saliva. – Bloody discharge from your nose. – Nasal congestion. – Hearing loss. – Frequent ear infections. – Headaches.
  • 49. DIAGNOSIS • Hematological investigations: • Shows decreased leukocytes count • Abnormal lymphocyte count • The virus can be observed under electron microscope • Serological studies include CFT test, GEL diffusion test, immunoflurescence study.
  • 50. TREATMENT • Get adequate of rest. • Drink a lot of water and other liquids to stay hydrated. • gargle with warm salt water, to make your sore throat feel better. • Take painkillers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen