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international business, 5th editioninternationalcooperationamongnations
Chapter Objectives       • Explain the importance of the GATT and         the WTO to international business       • Contra...
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade        • Developed as part of the Havana,          Cuba, conference in 1947        ...
The Role of the GATT       The GATT’s goal was to promote a        free and competitive international          trading env...
Table 10.1 GATT Negotiating Rounds10-5
Most Favored Nation (MFN) Principle          The most favored nation principle        requires that any preferential treat...
Exceptions to the MFN Principle       • Members permitted to lower tariffs to         developing countries without lowerin...
Goals of the            World Trade Organization (WTO)       • Promote trade flows by encouraging         nations to adopt...
Differences between WTO and GATT       • GATT focused on promoting trade in         goods; WTO’s mandate includes         ...
Figure 10.1 The WTO’s Principles of the                   Trading System10-10
WTO Challenges        • The Cairns Group        • Multifibre Agreement        • General Agreement on Trade in Services    ...
Enforcement of WTO Decisions        • Country failing to live up to the          agreement may have a complaint filed     ...
Rice producers        would likely benefit if trade barriers          were eliminated in this market.         The world ma...
Forms of Economic Integration          Free Trade Area             Customs Union               Common Market              ...
Figure 10.2 Forms of        Economic Integration10-15
European Union (EU)        • Most important regional trading bloc        • 25 member countries        • 455.3 million popu...
Map 10.1 The European Union10-17
Governing Organizations                  of the EU        • The Council of the European Union        • The European Commis...
The first meeting of the European    Commission after the enlargement of the              EU to 25 members.10-19
Figure 10.3 The Co-Decision                 Procedure10-20
Three Pillars of the Maastricht Treaty        • A new agreement to create common foreign and          defense policies amo...
Components of the Treaty for Europe             (Treaty of Amsterdam)        • A strong commitment to attack the EU’s     ...
Treaty of Nice        • Sought to reduce the risk of political          gridlock as the number of members          increas...
Major Regional Trade Associations        • AFTA          • ECOWAS        • ANCOM         • EU        • APEC          • EFT...
Map 10.2 Free Trade Agreements in           Central and South America                and the Caribbean10-25
Map 10.3 The ASEAN Members10-26
Map 10.4 Asia-Pacific Economic         Cooperation Initiative (APEC)10-27
Map 10.5 Free Trade Agreements                    in Africa10-28
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презентация. международные стратегические альянсы

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презентация. международные стратегические альянсы

  1. 1. international business, 5th editioninternationalcooperationamongnations
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives • Explain the importance of the GATT and the WTO to international business • Contrast the different forms of economic integration among cooperating countries • Analyze the opportunities for international businesses created by completion of the EU’s internal market • Describe the other major trading blocs in today’s world economy10-2
  3. 3. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade • Developed as part of the Havana, Cuba, conference in 1947 • Provided forum for trade ministers to discuss barriers to international trade10-3
  4. 4. The Role of the GATT The GATT’s goal was to promote a free and competitive international trading environment benefiting efficient producers by sponsoring multilateral negotiations to reduce tariffs, quotas, and other nontariff barriers10-4
  5. 5. Table 10.1 GATT Negotiating Rounds10-5
  6. 6. Most Favored Nation (MFN) Principle The most favored nation principle requires that any preferential treatment granted to one country must be extended to all countries.10-6
  7. 7. Exceptions to the MFN Principle • Members permitted to lower tariffs to developing countries without lowering them for more developed countries • Regional arrangements promote economic integration (e.g., EU and NAFTA)10-7
  8. 8. Goals of the World Trade Organization (WTO) • Promote trade flows by encouraging nations to adopt nondiscriminatory, predictable trade policies • Reduce remaining trade barriers through multilateral negotiations • Establish impartial procedures for resolving trade disputes among members10-8
  9. 9. Differences between WTO and GATT • GATT focused on promoting trade in goods; WTO’s mandate includes – trade in goods – trade in services – international intellectual property protection – trade-related investment • WTO’s enforcement powers are stronger10-9
  10. 10. Figure 10.1 The WTO’s Principles of the Trading System10-10
  11. 11. WTO Challenges • The Cairns Group • Multifibre Agreement • General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) • Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) • Trade-Related Investment Measures Agreement (TRIMS)10-11
  12. 12. Enforcement of WTO Decisions • Country failing to live up to the agreement may have a complaint filed against it • WTO panel evaluates complaint • If found in violation, the country may be asked to eliminate the trade barrier10-12
  13. 13. Rice producers would likely benefit if trade barriers were eliminated in this market. The world market for rice is distorted by high tariffs, ranging from 20- 43 percent.10-13
  14. 14. Forms of Economic Integration Free Trade Area Customs Union Common Market Economic Union Political Union10-14
  15. 15. Figure 10.2 Forms of Economic Integration10-15
  16. 16. European Union (EU) • Most important regional trading bloc • 25 member countries • 455.3 million population • Combined GDP of $12.7 trillion10-16
  17. 17. Map 10.1 The European Union10-17
  18. 18. Governing Organizations of the EU • The Council of the European Union • The European Commission • The European Parliament • The European Court of Justice10-18
  19. 19. The first meeting of the European Commission after the enlargement of the EU to 25 members.10-19
  20. 20. Figure 10.3 The Co-Decision Procedure10-20
  21. 21. Three Pillars of the Maastricht Treaty • A new agreement to create common foreign and defense policies among members • A new agreement to cooperate on police, judicial, and public safety matters • The old familiar European Community, with new provisions to create an economic and monetary union among member states10-21
  22. 22. Components of the Treaty for Europe (Treaty of Amsterdam) • A strong commitment to attack the EU’s chronic high levels of unemployment • A plan to strengthen the role of the European Parliament by expanding the number of areas that require use of the co-decision procedure • Establishment of a two-track system10-22
  23. 23. Treaty of Nice • Sought to reduce the risk of political gridlock as the number of members increase – reduced number of areas where unanimity is required for Council approval – adjusted number of votes assigned to each Council member10-23
  24. 24. Major Regional Trade Associations • AFTA • ECOWAS • ANCOM • EU • APEC • EFTA • CACM • GCC • CARICOM • MERCOSUR • CEMAC • NAFTA • CER • SADC10-24
  25. 25. Map 10.2 Free Trade Agreements in Central and South America and the Caribbean10-25
  26. 26. Map 10.3 The ASEAN Members10-26
  27. 27. Map 10.4 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Initiative (APEC)10-27
  28. 28. Map 10.5 Free Trade Agreements in Africa10-28

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