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Economics Vestiges of Enslavement darc 2018


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Economics Vestiges of Enslavement darc 2018

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Economics Vestiges of Enslavement darc 2018

  1. 1. How African Economically and Intellectually Developed Europe and the Americas
  2. 2.  “We [therefore] weighing all and singular the premises with due meditation, and noting that since we had formerly by other letters of ours granted among other things free and ample faculty to the aforesaid King Alfonso --to invade, search out, capture, vanquish, and subdue all Sara- cens and pagans whatsoever, and other enemies of Christ wheresoever placed, and the kingdoms, dukedoms, principalities, dominions, possessions, and all movable and immovable goods whatsoever held and possessed by them and to reduce their persons to perpetual slavery, and to apply and appropriate to himself and his successors the kingdoms, dukedoms, counties, principalities, dominions, possessions, and goods, and to convert them to his and their use and profit...“  Pope NicholasV
  3. 3.  For well over 300 years Europeans, and European-Americans will legalize, practice and legitimize human trafficking – specifically the immoral removal of African people from their homeland, and hold them for six weeks in the hulls of ships, season them, separate them from their relations, sell them and force them to work in commodity production. No money was paid for this labor.
  4. 4.  The Euro African enslavement experience would move an estimated 40 million captive humans beings from their homeland to the Americas.  By 1850 1/3rd of allAfricans are living outside of Africa, usually in bondage existence.  Internal conservative estimates calculate 20 million people removed.
  5. 5.  “Europeans supplied guns selectively toAfrican states that became trading partners. The use of guns altered the patterns of rivalries between Africans and made warfare increasingly violent. Originating as prisoners of war,African slaves were sold to Europeans in exchange for guns and other manufactured goods.”  “To protect members of their linages,African required arms, and to pay for guns more Africans had to be captured for the slave trade. Thus the possession of guns produced increasing numbers of slaves while destabilizing traditionalAfrican societies.”  In the 18th century 60,000 guns were imported alongCentralAfrica’s Angolan coast, producing about half that may slaves for export”
  6. 6.  xgig
  7. 7.  “Torture [is] the most apt explanation for the new efficiencies of field labor. The violence of the lash in the field and at the weighing house, pushed workers to even-greater feats of picking.”
  8. 8.  “ Jennifer Morgan has recognized women’s reproductive labor as the fundamental mechanism of wealth creation for American slaveholders, who appropriate generations of black children for the perpetuation of generations of white wealth.”
  9. 9.  The Dutch, the English, the French and the Danish want in on the Spanish & Portuguese division of the NewWorld.  By the mid- 1500s the richest Dutch business men are deeply involved in trade with Asia and the building of forts of the West Coast of Africa.   W.I.C. –The DutchWest India Company
  10. 10.  TheVilieboot is a Dutch made ship which allows for greater storage space and needs a smaller crew.  “The [Carryers] of the world, the middle persons in the trade, the factors and brokers of Europe” Singer, p.38
  11. 11.  DuringThe “golden age of the Dutch” between 1601 and 1700, 1.6 million Africans across the Atlantic Ocean. Most of these Africans go to Trinidad, New Holland (Brazil), and the island of Curacao.  W.I.C. set up its first permanent settlement in what is today NewYork. To entice citizen to come to New Netherlands,W.I. C. promised that each “patroon” would be allotted 12 black men and women, and allowed to sell food to New Holland (Brazil). Singer (2008), p. 43
  12. 12.  “Between 1570 and 1647 the population of Amsterdam grew from 30,000 to 140,000.”  The Dutch were able to build 7o miles of canals enable them to drain a city that is mostly below sea level.  “the Dutch domination over the trade in this era provided capital for physically building a nation. Windmills, one of the biggest attraction today were built to drain and reclaim marginal land, transforming it into productive farmland.”
  13. 13.  In 1607, the first permanent group of English citizen settle in Jamestown,Virginia.  TheVirginia company is seeking for gold  They are described as being all together unfamiliar with the rigors of agriculture.
  14. 14.  George Percy, who had been president of Jamestown during the StarvingTime, wrote a letter describing the colonists’ diet during that terrible winter. “Haveinge fedd upon our horses and other beastes as longe as they Lasted, we weare gladd to make shifte with vermin as doggs Catts, Ratts and myce…as to eate Bootes shoes or any other leather,” he wrote. “And now famin beginneinge to Looke gastely and pale in every face, thatt notheinge was Spared to mainteyne Lyfe and to doe those things which seame incredible, as to digge upp deade corpes outt of graves and to eate them. And some have Licked upp the Bloode which hathe fallen from their weake fellowes.” Read more: Give the gift of Smithsonian magazine for only $12! Follow us: @SmithsonianMag on Twitter
  15. 15.  /northamerica/usa/10033166/Starving- Jamestown-settlers-turned-to- cannibalism.html
  16. 16.  The American experience almost did not happen.  Colonist adopted a new policy of no eating without working.
  17. 17.  Tobacco depletes the soil.  Tobacco requires specific skills.  Tobacco is back breaking labor.  More land and labor is needed.  First Africans arrive in 1619 aboard a Dutch vessel from the Caribbean.
  18. 18.  Tobacco wives/Brides, Jamestown Brides = 120 pounds of tobacco.  1624- 200,000 lbs grown / years  1664- 15 million lbs grown/ year  1680 – 30 million lbs grown/ year
  19. 19.  By 1776 when America declares itself independent.  1. She is strong enough to resist the British  2.Tobacco has severely depleted the soil.  The Cotton Gin, 1793 saves America
  20. 20.  Ethnic Cleansing of the lower Southern states  The internal trade of Africans, Breeding of Africans post 1807.  Sprawling American Plantation
  21. 21.  The 19th century is really America’s golden age.  2.5 million people enslaved in the United States.  African’s in America are producing 60% of the cotton that is used in the entire world.  85% of the cotton grown in the United States goes directly to England- which will spur on the industrial revolution there.
  22. 22.  Cotton also allowed for the industrial revolution- specifically in the textile industry in:  France  Netherlands  Switzerland  Germany  Austria  Russia  Italy  Spain  Belgium  & Boston
  23. 23. Banking  When a Southern plantation owner wanted to produce cotton, or expand his operation (obtain more enslaved Africans) he had to obtain loans from the large banks in NewYork or London.  This loans were paid back with considerable interest, making banking an extremely profitable business.  Banks such as Bank of America, Wachovia, Citibank, and JP Morgan Chase, and Barclays Bank (London) all have profited from human bondage in North America.
  24. 24. Banking II  Enslaved African persons were legally considered property in the United States so an enslaved person could be used as collateral to obtain the loans necessary for plantation life. “When calculating the value of the estates [plantation] the estimated value of each slave was included. This became a source of tax revenue for local and state governments.Taxes were also levied on slave transactions.”  Dodson H. “How Slavery Helped Build aWorld Economy” by, downloaded from, on 2/15/2014, page 3,
  25. 25. Insurance  Every portion of the slave economy was insured, making Insurance an enormously profitable business.  The ships that left America and various European ports to procure Africans were all insured.  Individual enslaved persons were insured, as were the crops being produced.  The value of each enslaved person was carefully calculated, in some cases even before they were born. Lloyds of London Aetna NewYork Life AIG
  26. 26.  “The Messy Link Between Slave Owners And Modern Management”  By Katie Johnston 1/16/2013
  27. 27. Railroads & Shipping  Cotton grown in the South was usually not directly exported. It was first shipped to NewYork; making NewYork the financial and shipping hub of the nation. Boston and Lowell (1835) Union Pacific Corp (1862) Norfolk Southern (Mobile & Girard and the Central of Georgia) CSX Canadian National Railroad Company
  28. 28. Newspapers  The life line of some of the early newspapers in the United States was the running ads for run away enslaved persons.
  29. 29. Ivy League Schools  An Ivy league school is defined as, “A group of long-established colleges in the Eastern U.S. having high academic and social prestige.” Examples of such schools are Harvard University, Princeton University, Columbia University and Dartmouth College. What can be added to the above definition is that all of those colleges were created during the era of African enslavement in the United States. Oxford Dictionary “Once conquest is achieved, schools become a maintenance system [for the power structure].” Dr. Kamau Rashid
  30. 30. University of Pennsylvania William and Mary College Brown University Rutgers University University of Delaware University of North Carolina University ofVirginia Georgetown University Emory University
  31. 31.  ard-law-to-abandon-crest-linked-to- slavery.html 
  32. 32. NewYork  It is estimated that 40 cents of every dollar made by Southern plantation owner was spent in the Northern states for goods. Northern firms seeking to get a portion of the overwhelming profits being made in the South.  NewYork soon became a shopper’s paradise. It was advertised as the place for Southerners to spend their summers away from the sweltering heat of the South.  Fancy hotels, restaurants, resorts, retailers of fine linen, perfumes, and precious stones all vied for their blood-soaked dollars made from human bondage.
  33. 33. The Largest African Burial Ground. Located in NewYork’s Financial District Five acre cemetery 10,000-20,000 buried African people built the wooden fortification for which Wall Street is named. Of the 400 bodies exhumed, 40% were children. The most common cause of death was malnutrition.
  34. 34.  “Slave auctions were held weekly, sometimes daily at theWall Street at theWall Street Slave Market established by the City Common Council, and on the wharves where ships were unloaded. Advertisements for the sale of human being regularly appeared in colonial newspapers.” – Alan Singer  Africans bought for $398.88 sold in NewYork for $1030.88 – circa early 1770’s
  35. 35.  NewYork was making so much money off of the legal and illegal trade of African people and captive created goods, that FernandoWood, mayor of NewYork City in 1861, called for New York to officially leave the United states and to join to Southern pro- slavery states that had seceded.
  36. 36.  Trading of African people is made illegal in the United States in 1807.  In 1820 slave trading becomes capital13 offense  Yet, as late as 1859, “NewYork is the chief port in the world for the slave trade… Ships that convey slaves to theWest Indies and South America are outfitted in NewYork.   In the 1850s a ship that cost $13,000 to outfit in NewYork, yielded $200,000 in sales in Cuba
  37. 37.  1844, Henry Lehman emigrates from Germany to Alabama to open a dry goods store.  Business is good and his younger brothers soon join him.  The brothers quickly see that money is to be made in buying captive- produced cotton.
  38. 38.  The Lehman Brothers invest in a store house and become cotton brokers or middle men. Buying cotton from the Southern planters and re-selling at a mark up to shippers in New York. By 1858, they open their own NewYork office, which establishes them as major players in the field.
  39. 39.  Even after the CivilWar, Cotton is still the U.S’s #1 exported good. Lehman Brothers open the NewYork Cotton Exchange.  They give financial advice to emerging industries and they underwrite loans for railroad Companies.  They began to sell stocks, bonds.
  40. 40.  This union is able to provide funding and underwrite securities for emerging retail giants:  Sears and Roebuck  F.W.Woolworth Co.  R.H. Macy & Co.
  41. 41.  Lehman Brothers invest in  Airline industry  Motion picture industry (Paramount Pictures and 20th Century Fox)  Oil Industry – Halliburton /Trans-Canadian pipeline.  1990’s they invest in digital markets  Negotiate cross border trading for Chrysler,American Motors, & Phillip Morris
  42. 42.  At the point of their crash, the company had 639 Billion dollars in assets worldwide.  A large portion of those assets were bought by Barclay’s Bank.
  43. 43.  “American slavery is necessarily imprinted on the DNA of American capitalism”
  44. 44. Racism
  45. 45.  Racism is defined as, “a system designed to achieve maximum exploitation of one race by another.”  Racism can be classified as part of the economic advantage gained by Europeans over Africans because:  1. It effectively eliminates the capacity of Africans to compete with Europeans.  2. It transfers all the is valuable from Africa and Africans to be used for the benefit of Europe and Europeans .  3. Racist systems uses military, governments, schools, religion, and media to impose its reality on all of humanity.  Dr. Kamau Rashid (2014)
  46. 46.  Samuel George Morton, 1830s  Measured over 140 skulls sent to him from around the world.  His skull experiments which found that the European skull was the largest, followed by Asian- Indian.  Having the smallest skull was the Ethiopian.
  47. 47.  Indigo dye making as African Intellectual Capital
  48. 48.  Eliza is credited as the female inventor who introduced the indigo plant and the indigo dye making technique in the United States.  She is glorified as a heroic woman of colonial times, who brings a precious commodity to the U.S. economy.
  49. 49.  The method of getting blue dye from this humble blue plant has been a heavily guarded secret in Africa and Asia for centuries.  Could Eliza really have discovered on her own the science of how this is done?
  50. 50.  Eliza’s father left her in charge of 3 plantations in South Carolina when he was called to be governor of Antigua.  Eliza was very anxious to make sure the plantations turned a profit.  The original indigo seeds were sent to her from her father in the Caribbean.
  51. 51.  The Complete Indigo Maker, Containing an Accurate Account of the Indigo Plant; Its Description , Culture, Preparation, and Manufacture with Economic Rules and Directions for a Planter How to Manage a Plantation, And Employ his Negroes to the Best Advantage by Elias Monnereau
  52. 52. Eliza’s father goes to Montserrat – A British owned Island where enslaved people are being held and are producing Indigo- there he pays to get information on how Indigo is made. George Lucas, Eliza’s father also writes in his diary that he while he is in Montserrat he is actively seeking a “Negro dye Maker.” Unable to find one he hires the Cromwell Brothers to help produce dye. The Cromwell are unable to produce a quality dye.
  53. 53.  Quashy, an enslaved person on the Lucas Plantation lets them know that Indigo needs to ferment in wooden vats and not in the brick vats that were used by the Cromwell brothers.  He is immediately put to work to create that.  One year later the Eliza has her first successful Indigo dye product.  “Quash carpenter skills made a key contribution to Lucas- Pinckney Indigo experiments.”  Andrea Fesser (2013)
  54. 54. Onesimus & Variolation  Onesimus even showed Cotton Mather a scar on his arm where the African surgery had been successfully performed on him. Cotton Mather would share this knowledge with Royal society of London.  in 1716 when the epidemic of small pox was sweeping through colonial Boston. Despite severe distrust and objection, Mather even had an explosive thrown into his house; Onesimus’ medical knowledge saved the lives of hundreds of Bostonians, as only 2% of people who used his method died, and 14% of those who did not succumbed to the disease.
  55. 55.  When planters wanted knowledgeable rice cultivators they specifically requested enslaved persons fromTemne, Sherbo, Mende, Goree, and Gola. Members of these ethnic families were renowned rice, corn, yam and millet cultivators.  Senegambians were sought out as medicine men, lumberjacks, leatherworkers, potters and weavers.
  56. 56.  House servants to be of Mandigo,Yoruba, Fon and Fanti origin. These men and women were recorded as being a domicile people. The women, because of their background asWest African homemakers, were beloved for their cooking skills, their capacity as midwives, wet nurses, and washer women.  In addition, the women of early America noted thatWest African women were in most cases world-class dressmakers and hair designers.They were also quite efficient in their management of household affairs.  For artisans, generally responsible as gardeners, carpenters, barbers, stablemen, wheelwrights, wagoners, blacksmiths and bricklayers, the preferred people were Asante,Whydah (Fon), Fante and Bambara.These ethnic groups were known to have excelled in West Africa in stone, bronze and iron work.
  57. 57.  “ Europe’s [America and Europe] control of the Atlantic world provided the means for its later world dominance.”
  58. 58.  1. Full FormalApology  2. Repatriation  3. Indigenous Peoples Development Program  4. Cultural Institutions  5. Public Health Crisis  6. Illiteracy Eradication  7. African Knowledge Program  8. Psychological Rehabilitation  9.TechnologyTransfer  10. Debt Cancellation