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Disease: a major constraints in the flourishing aqua farm in Bangladesh


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Aquaculture has become one of the most productive sector in Bangladesh. It not only provides the production of fish for local demand but also contributing in the export market to earn foreign money. But recent years the field of aquaculture in Bangladesh has faced great production loss due to disease. So disease has become one of most talked of topics of that field.

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Disease: a major constraints in the flourishing aqua farm in Bangladesh

  1. 1. Welcome to the PresentationNoakhali Science & Technology UniversitySonapur, Noakhali-3814
  2. 2. The Topic of the PresentationDisease: The major constraints in the flourishing aqua farm inBangladesh
  3. 3. IntroductionBangladesh is an agro based country where fisheries contribute as asubstantial sector in its economy. Both fisheries and aquaculture play a majorrole in alleviating protein deficiency and malnutrition, in generatingemployment and foreign exchange earnings in Bangladesh (DOF, 2003).Aquaculture accounted for about 43.5% of the total fish production during2003-04, with inland open water fisheries contributed 34.8% (DOF, 2005).FAO ranked Bangladesh as sixth largest aquaculture producing country of theworld (DOF, 2005).The major fish species cultured in inland water bodies are Indian major carps(Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala), Chinese carps (Ctenopharyngodon idella), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Thai catfish(Pangasius sutchi). Recently, culture of koi (Anabas testudineus) also has gotpopularity in Bangladesh. Due to the rapid expansion of aquaculture, fishdisease has become one of the crucial factors in fish production (Rahman andChowdhury, 1996).
  4. 4. DiseaseA disease is an abnormal condition that affects the body of anorganism. It is often considered as a medical condition associated withspecific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by factors originallyfrom an external source, such as infectious disease, or it may be causedby internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases.
  5. 5. Common Fish diseases in BangladeshThe major fish diseases occurred in Bangladesh are EpizooticUlcerative Syndrome (EUS), Aeromonad septicemia, different types offungal and parasitic diseases etc. (Chowdhury et al., 2003).Moreover, tail and fin rot disease is also found in different fish farmsand the rate of incidence of this type of disease is assumed to beincreased in the recent years (Faruk et al., 2004).White spot viral disease is also considered to be the most common anddangerous viral disease attacking tiger shrimp and causing rapid death.
  6. 6. Effect of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome(EUS)on Fish Production in BangladeshEUS was a very new phenomenon at the time of the first outbreaks inBangladesh, and it caused great concern because of the perceiveddangers to both staple food crops and to human life.The economic loss due to EUS was estimated at 118.3 million Taka(US$3.4 million; 1 US$=35 Taka) during 1988-89. In the second yearthe disease occurred with lower severity, and the economic loss wasestimated at 88.2 million Taka (US$2.2 million). Fish price dropped to25-40% of the pre-disease level during the first outbreak (Barua 1994).
  7. 7. Chart Show0204060801001201401988-89 1989-90Million Taka
  8. 8. The destructive effect of disease inshrimp farming of BangladeshThe success of shrimp farming is measured by its rate of return oninvestment, which mainly depends on the yield, capitalinvestment, international demand and market price, and the productioncost. This, in turn, is affected by a number of factors, the most importantof which are farm operation and management. Disease is one of the majorfactors affecting productivity.Damage caused by disease was estimated to affect 50-60% of the semi-intensive shrimp farms in Coxs Bazar in 1994, and monetary losses wereestimated to be Tk 50 crore (US$10 million) (M.S. Islam, unpublisheddata). According to the Department of Fisheries (DOF), Bangladeshsuffered a 44.3% production loss in 1996, leading to a reduction in foreignincome of 42.3% from shrimp exports (Siriwardena 1997).
  9. 9. ContinuedDisease is a major concern, and was reported in 13% of extensiveshrimp farms and 74% of semi-extensive farms. In another report, theestimated average financial loss per affected farm was estimated to beas high as US$832/yr for extensive and US$3,928/yr for semi-intensivefarms (Chowdhury 1997). Illiterate, and even literate, shrimp farmersare unable to point out the real cause of shrimp diseases.However, nowadays, they are more aware of shrimp diseases and takeprecautionary measures whenever possible.
  10. 10. Effect of White Spot Syndrome Viral diseaseon fish production in Bangladesh0500010000150002000025000300001997-98 2000-01Metric Ton
  11. 11. Effect of tail rot disease on fish farms inBangladeshTail and fin rot disease occurred in Indian major carp, catla (Gibelioncatla) and climbing perch- koi (Anabas testudineus) in fish farmslocated at two districts of Bangladesh. The affected fish showed lesionand erosion on the tail and fins. Approximately, 40% mortality wasrecorded in those farms.
  12. 12. Prevalence of Fish DiseaseThe average prevalence of fish disease in farmers pond was noticedhighest (18.2%) in Jessore district followed by Comilla(13.4%), Mymensingh (11.4%) and Dinajpur (10.4%). Natore districthad the minimum prevalence of disease (5.6%). Average prevalence ofdisease in small farmers ponds was highest (13.8%) followed bymedium (12.3%) and large farmers ponds (9.3%). About 37% farmersconsidered fish disease as a major problem, while 38% thought thatdisease as a moderate problem and 24.2% farmers considered it as aminor problem.
  13. 13. Gross Economic loss due to fish diseaseThere were average economic loss of Tk.20,615/ha/year (US$344) tofarmers from fish diseases which was equivalent to approximately 15%of the actual production. These losses varied among different districtsand with different size of farms. The average loss as high asTk.26,817/ha/year (US$447) was observed in Comilla district followedby Dinajpur Tk.23,412 (US$390), Mymensingh Tk.19,685(US$328), Jessore Tk.18,177 (US$303) and Natore Tk.15,037(US$251). Fish production also varied among different districts. Theaverage highest (19.2%) loss of actual production was seen in Comilladistrict while the lowest (7.9%) were observed with farmers fromNatore district. In general, small size farms suffered from highestaverage loss (19.6%) than the bigger size farms (14% for medium and11.2% for large farm).
  14. 14. Conclusion And RecommendationThe socio-economic circumstances of small-scale aquaculture holders are poor.Moreover, they have no chance to set up farms, especially shrimp farms, as richand influential local person(s) control the industry in their locality. Disease is oneof the major constraints of fish and shrimp farming in the country. Consideringthe above, the following recommendations are made:Awareness of disease problems of small-scale aquaculture needs to be raised.Reports of any kind of mass mortality should reach the nearby Thana Fisheriesofficer (TFO)/Farm manager or Fisheries Research Institute as soon as possible.TFO/Farm managers must be vigilant and give periodic service to small-scaleaquaculture holders in order to mitigate fish and shrimp disease problems.A line of communication between small-scale aquaculture holders, theDepartment of Fisheries (DOF) and the Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute(BFRI) needs to be established.
  15. 15. Referenceswww.wikipedia.org, M.A.R, M.M.R Sarker, M.J. Alam and M.B. Kabir, Economic Loss from FishDiseases on Rural Freshwater Aquaculture of Bangladesh, Pakistan Journal ofBiological Sciences 7 (12), 2004
  16. 16. Thanks For Patience…………..