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Chronology of Education
Rith Quotable Quotes
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Individual Initiative
WW04
Change Agents
Cooperative Learnin
Dennis Lawrence Cuddy, Ph.D.
A
CHRONOLOGY
OF EDUCATION
WITH QUOTABLE QUOTES
By
Dennis Laurence Cuddy, Ph .D .
First Printing (tabloid), 1993
Second Printing (updated tabloid), 1993
Third Printing (updated, bound volume), 1994
Published in the United States by
Pro Family Forum, Inc .
P . 0 . Box 1059
Highland City, Florida 33846
Copyright ® 1994 by Dennis Laurence Cuddy, Ph .D .
V3.1
Dedicated
to
the Memory of
JO-ANN K . ABRIGG who was the founder
of the Committee For Positive
Education in 1972 with the Purpose
of "promoting education which will
teach basic skills, instill our
heritage and once again promote the
virtues of achievement, competition
and individuality,"
and
FRANCES J . REILLY who had a faithful
devotion to her family and friends,
and was always willing to help
others, especially those who cared
about and tried to protect the minds
and souls of children by alerting
parents about the increasing
undermining of our educational
system .
CONTENTS
Introduction	 Page 1
Concluding Remarks	 Page 113
Index	 Page 115
1750 - 1800 	 Page 3
1801 - 1850 	 Page 5
1851 - 1900 	 Page 7
1901 - 1950 	 Page 11
1951 - 2000 	 Page 28
A CHRONOLOGY OF EDUCATION
WITH QUOTABLE QUOTESm
If someone told the American people today that he
or she and those with the same philosophy or ideology were
going to destroy the values parents were instilling in their
children, and that these same people were going to take
control of the country there would be a tremendous and
swift reaction by the American public . However, when
almost the same things were said by Humanists Sidney
Hook and H. J. Blackham, the public hardly reacted at all.
In the January/February, 1977 issue of The Humanist,
Hook (signer of the 1973 Humanist Manifesto) wrote that
"human beings can be influenced to examine critically their
religious beliefs only by indirection, (by which) I mean the
development of a critical attitude in all our educational
institutions that will aim to make students less credulous to
claims that transcend their reflective experience ." And in
the September/October 1981 issue of The Humanist,
Blackham (a founder of the 4 million member International
Humanist and Ethical Union) proclaimed that if schools
teach dependence on one's self, "they are more
revolutionary than any conspiracy to overthrow the
government. " These are not isolated quotations, and the
following chronology concerning what has happened in the
area of education from the 18th century to the present will
begin with a historical perspective .
In 1762, Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote Emile
concerning his philosophy of "permissive education ." He
followed this with his Social Contract, which gave impetus
to the French Revolution, from which sprang the idea that
"philosopher kings" or elitists should rule the masses
through social engineering and a Socialist form of
government. Education would be non-sectarian, and in the
United States, Horace Mann (father of public education in
the U. S .) and later John Dewey (father of "progressive
education" in the U . S.) would adopt this same non-
sectarian philosophy. In the early part of the current
century, Dewey and his "progressive" disciples published
many works furthering their cause, and were given a great
By
Dennis Laurence Cuddy, Ph .D.
Introduction
deal of financial support from various tax-exempt
foundations.
After the Second World War, UNESCO added an
international dimension to the picture. And by the early
1950s "progressive educators" (largely from Teachers
College, Columbia University) had obtained key positions
in Colleges of Education and as school superintendents and
principals around the nation, from which they could appoint
teachers to their liking . By the early 1960s, sufficient
"progressive" teachers were in place throughout the land,
so that education in general shifted from an emphasis on the
cognitive academic basics to the affective domain of
feelings and relationships . The monumental Elementary
and Secondary Education Act became law in 1965 with a
tremendous amount of federal dollars for "innovative"
programs. With all of this "innovation," school discipline
became lax, and grade inflation along with social
promotions soon followed in a major way .
By the early 1970s, National Education Association
presidents such as Catherine Barrett were so emboldened
that they began to talk of de-emphasizing academic basics
in favor of teachers becoming philosophical "change
agents." Comprehensive sex education was brought into
schools more and more at this time, and because teachers
had bought a "don't impose morality" approach to
education, it was non-morally-based sex education . No one
seemed to ask why, if school prayer had to be discontinued
because that was government promoting religion, shouldn't
non-morally-based sex education also be prohibited because
it promoted immoral sexual activities .
Toward the end of the decade of the 1970s, NEA
presidents were talking even more openly about their
political power, and resolutions were passed at their annual
conventions which went far beyond the realm of education
(e.g., resolutions supporting abortion rights) . For many
years, spokespersons for the NEA had been promoting the
2
teaching of world citizenship, and by the beginning of the
1990s, the New World Order was on its way.
More and more citizens are speaking out against
the disastrous trend in American education, but when they
express their concerns, they are usually met by "progressive
educators" with comments like "your problem is just an
isolated example ." In order to demonstrate that the
problems with American education have not only been
going on for many years, but are also by no means just
isolated examples, the following chronology is offered . It
contains many quotations by the "progressives" themselves
as well as others who clearly show what in reality has
transpired.
1762
Emile by Jean Jacques Rousseau (whose Social
Contract influenced the French Revolution) is published
promoting permissive education that is child-centered, and
in which a teacher "should avoid strict discipline and
tiresome lessons" (Encyclopaedia Britannica). Rousseau
(1712-1788) and Pestalozzi (1746-1827) believe the "whole
child" should be educated by "doing," and that religion
should not be a guiding principle in education. Rousseau
feels that the educational ideal is one teacher to one child,
but he also believes in benefits from "group" education for
which he refers people to Plato's Republic.
1776
- May 1: The Illuminati is founded by Adam
Weishaupt, who will state as part of his conspiratorial plan:
"We must win the common people in every comer . This
will be obtained chiefly by means of the schools, and by
open, hearty behavior. Show condescension, popularity,
and toleration of their prejudices, which we at leisure shall
root out and dispel ."
1783
- Noah Webster's "Blue-backed Speller" is written,
teaching principles of religion and morality in addition to
the English language. It will sell over 100 million copies
in a century, and during that time will often be
accompanied by The New England Primer (first printed in
Boston in 1690, the first textbook ever printed in America),
used by the Founding Fathers to teach reading and Bible
lessons in schools.
1787
Congress passes the Northwest Ordinance, Article
3 of which reads: "Religion, morality, and knowledge,
being necessary to good government and the happiness of
mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever
be encouraged."
1750 -1800
1796
-- September: President George Washington
delivers his "Farewell Address" before Congress, and
states: "Let us with caution indulge the supposition that
morality can be maintained without religion . Whatever
may be conceded to the influence of refined education on
minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both
forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in
exclusion of religious principle." This statement by
President Washington is extremely important, since in
the future the public schools of the nation will
increasingly teach humanistic morality rather than the
principles of the Judeo or Christian religion upon which
education during the early years of the nation had been
based.
1798
- Proofs of a Conspiracy by University of Edinburgh
Professor John Robison is printed describing Weishaupt's
Order of the Illuminati, which Professor Robison says still
subsists. From German documents regarding the IIluminati,
Robison writes: ". ..the discernment of the pupils in matters
is learned by questions which are given to them from time
to time to discuss. These are managed with delicacy and
circumspection, that the timid may not be alarmed . In like
manner, the political doctrines of the Order are inculcated
with the utmost caution. After the mind of the pupil has
been warmed by the pictures of universal happiness, and
convinced that it is a possible thing to unite all the
inhabitants of the earth in one great society, and after it has
been made out, in some measure to the satisfaction of the
pupil, that a great addition of happiness is gained by the
abolition of national distinctions and animosities, it may
frequently be no hard task to make him think that patriotism
is a narrow-minded monopolising sentiment .. . .The Order
was to govern the world. . . (saying) 'We must acquire the
direction of education.' The pupils are convinced that the
Order will rule the world. . . .And, as necessary preparations
for all this, they intended to root out all religion and
ordinary morality, and even to break the bonds of domestic
life, by destroying the veneration of marriage-vows, and by
taking the education of children out of the hands of the
parents. This was all that the Illuminati could teach."
3
4
1800
National Education in the United States of America
by Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours is written at the
request of Vice-President Thomas Jefferson after the author
had surveyed education in the United States, about which he
wrote: "The United States are more advanced in their
educational facilities than most countries. They have a
large number of primary schools ; and as their paternal
affection protects young children from working in the
fields, it is possible to send them to the school-master---a
condition which does not prevail in Europe . Most young
Americans, therefore, can read, write and
cipher. . . .England, Holland, the Protestant Cantons of
Switzerland, more nearly approach the standard of the
United States, because in those countries the Bible is read ;
and in that form of religion the sermons and liturgy in the
language of the people tend to increase and formulate ideas
of responsibility.. .. In America, a great number of people
read the Bible.. . ."
Du Pont was arrested by Robespierre in 1794 and
almost executed. He opposed the Jacobin Party of the
French Revolution, and arrived in New York in January
1800. He dates the completion of this book done at
Jefferson's request as June 15, 1800, and the first edition is
printed in French at Paris.
His son, Victor Marie Du Pont will become
director of the Bank of the United States . Gustavus Myer
in History of the Great American Fortunes (1936) remarks
that "under the surface, the Rothschilds long had a powerful
influence in dictating American financial laws . The law
records show that they were the power in the old Bank of
the United States." This bank, which will exist from 1816
to 1836, will be abolished by President Andrew Jackson,
who will warn: "The bold effort the present bank had
made to control the government, the distress it had
wantonly produced. ..are but premonitions of the fate that
awaits the American people should they be deluded into a
perpetuation of this institution or the establishment of
another like it."
Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours' other son,
Eleuthere Irenee, will found E. I. Du Pont de Nemours &
Co. gunpowder firm. And almost 200 years later, in the
early 1990s, Edgar Miles Bronfman (chairman and CEO of
Seagram Co. Ltd., and Council on Foreign Relations
member) will be Director of E . I. Du Pont de Nemours and
his brother, Charles Rosner Bronfman (co-chairman of
Seagram Co. Ltd.), will be on the Board of Directors of E.
I. Du Ppnt de Nemours, while on page 8A of The New
York Times, March 22, 1993, there will be a photograph
of "President Clinton speaking with Sheila Bronfman, a
family friend." When in high school, Bill Clinton will
readily participate in the DeMolays, and in 1988, he will be
inducted into the DeMolay International Hall of Fame.
According to a Masonic publication, "more than 3,000,000
young men have knelt at the altars of DeMolay around the
world" since its founding in 1919 . The organization will be
named for Jacques DeMolay, Grand Master of the Knights
Templar, which was a powerful military and religious
organization established around 900 years ago, and which
was accused of plotting to control the existing civilized
Western world. After Jacques DeMolay and many other
Knights Templar were executed, it is possible that many of
the remaining Templars merged with the Knights of St .
John of Jerusalem, according to historical research . The
father of Charles and Edgar Bronfman, whose name will be
Samuel Bronfman, will be a Mason and member of the
Order St. John of Jerusalem ( comdr. br.).
1806
Pestalozzi's educational ideas begin to be printed
in journals and textbooks in the U . S., and begin to be used
in some school programs, especially in New England where
they will be viewed favorably by the intelligentsia of
Horace Mann's day . (See History of the Pestalozzian
Movement in the United States by Will Monroe, 1907 .)
1823
- Thomas H. Gallaudet begins teaching his children
with the "look-say" or "whole word" method, and will later
found a college for the deaf. This method of reading
instruction developed by Gallaudet will increasingly replace
the highly successful intensive phonics method .
1829
- The Working-Men's Party is founded in New
York by Orestes Brownson, Robert Dale Owen, and
Frances Wright who joined Owen at his New Harmony,
Indiana, commune in 1828. After Brownson converted
to Christianity, he revealed (in The Works of Orestes
Brownson their plan in establishing the Working-Men's
Party: "The great object was to get rid of Christianity,
and to convert our churches into halls of science . The
plan was not to make open attacks upon religion,
although we might belabor the clergy and bring them
into contempt where we could ; but to establish a system
of state-we said national---schools, from which all
religion was to be excluded, in which nothing was to be
taught but such knowledge as is verifiable by the senses,
and to which all parents were to be compelled by law to
send their children . Our complete plan was to take the
children from their parents at the age of twelve or
eighteen months, and to have them nursed, fed, clothed,
and trained in these schools at the public expense ; but at
any rate, we were to have godless schools for all the
children of the country ....The plan has been successfully
pursued. .. and the whole action of the country on the
subject has taken the direction we sought to give
it... .One of the principal movers of the scheme had no
mean share in organizing the Smithsonian Institute ."
The connection between The Working-Men's
Party, Robert Owen (founder of the New Harmony
commune, and father of Robert Dale Owen), Pestalozzi
1801 -1850
5
and Horace Mann ("Father of American public
education") is very important. In Horace Mann:
Educational Statesman (1937), Heidelberg College (Ohio)
Professor of Education, E.I.F. Williams will write : "The
'workingmen's movement' was an organization of the
liberals in opposition to the conservative order. ...Its
members were the radical wing of the Jacksonian
democracy....In 1831 a large convention (of the
Working-Men's Party) made up of farmers and
workmen was held in Boston. ...Leaders such as Horace
Mann (in Massachusetts) .. .urged their cause.
Education was advanced as the surest and best method
of advancing their aspirations .. ..Labor leaders were
enthusiastic about education in tax-supported
schools.. ..Education soon took first place among the
reforms they demanded. They urged the necessity of an
'equal, universal, republican system of education .'
. ..Reform was the watchword of the day... .More than
two hundred communists' Utopias were
established... .For two or three decades they centered the
attention of the country on socialistic and communistic
schemes for human betterment . One of the most famous
of the communities was established at New Harmony,
Indiana, by Robert Owen, the Scotch reformer. In his
opening address at New Harmony in 1825, he had
stated, `I am come to this country to introduce an entire
new order of society; to change it from the ignorant
selfish system, to an enlightened social system, which
shall gradually unite all interests into one and remove all
cause for contest between individuals .' Owen brought
William McClure, 'father of American geology,' to
organize his school. He first introduced the Pestalozzian
system into the United States.. ..Later the Pestalozzian
movement spread to other sections (of the country), and
among its enthusiastic champions were Horace
Mann.. .. Very soon (after New Harmony) another society
based on Owen's principles was begun at Yellow
Springs, Ohio, where Antioch College was to be
founded." Horace Mann would be president of Antioch
College from 1853 to his death on August 2, 1859.
E.I.F. Williams will continue to write : "The French
slogans of Eaalitd and Fraternitd had intrenched
themselves in the thinking of western Europeans who
transferred them to America ."
- Frances Wright (after joining Robert Dale Owen at
the New Harmony, Indiana, commune) becomes, according
to Samuel Morison's, Henry Steele Commager's and
6
William Leuchtenburg's college textbook A Concise History
of the American Republic, vol. 1, "a lecture-platform
apostle of woman's rights, free inquiry in religion, free
marital union, birth control, and a system which she called
'National, Rational, Republican Education, Free for All at
the Expense of All, Conducted under the Guardianship of
the State,' apart from the contaminating influence of
parents. "
1836
-- The complete set of McGuffey Readers first begins
to be printed. Developed by William H . McGuffey, and
based upon a direct, intensive and systematic phonics
approach to reading instruction, these Readers emphasize
Biblical principles such as "Trust in the Lord, and do good"
(Psalm 37:3). In the next 75 years, 122 million copies will
be sold.
1837
-- Horace Mann ("Father of American public
education" who was greatly influenced by Rousseau and
Pestalozzi) establishes the first "normal" (public) school in
the U. S., as part of his effort to promote non-sectarian
education. He believes in character education without
creeds. Lawrence Cremin in Transformation of the School
(1961) says: "For Mann the essence of the moral act was
free self-choice." Like Rousseau, Mann believes that
education in groups can have a beneficial socialization
effect.
1840
The first American edition of the second volume of
Alexis De Tocqueville's Democracy in America is
published. In a later translation by George Lawrence,
Tocqueville remarks concerning potential despotisms that
democracies might face: "I do not expect their leaders to
be tyrants, but rather schoolmasters." In the original Henry
Reeve translation, Tocqueville further stated regarding such
a despotism: "it would degrade men without tormenting
them.. . .As for the rest of (one's) fellow citizens, he is close
to them, but he does not see them ; he touches them, but he
does not feel them; he exists only in himself and for himself
alone. . . . Above this race of men stands an immense and
tutelary power, which takes upon itself alone to secure their
gratifications and to watch over their fate. That power is
absolute, minute, regular, provident, and mild. It would be
like the authority of a parent . . . .It provides for their
security, foresees and supplies their necessities, facilitates
their pleasures, manages their principal concerns, directs
their industry. . ..After having thus successively taken each
member of the community in its powerful grasp and
fashioned him at will, the supreme power then extends its
arm over the whole community . It covers the surface of
society with a network of small complicated rules, minute
and uniform. .. .The will of man is not shattered, but
softened, bent, and guided. . . .It does not tyrannize, but it
compresses, enervates, extinguishes, and stupefies a people,
till each nation is reduced to nothing better than a flock of
timid and industrious animals, of which the government is
the shepherd. . . .It is vain to summon a people who have
been rendered so dependent on the central power to choose
from time to time the representatives of that power; this
rare and brief exercise of their free choice . .. .will not
prevent them from gradually losing the faculties of thinking,
feeling, and acting for themselves, and thus gradually
falling below the level of humanity." Doesn't this sound
like late 20th century America?
1844
-- The U.S. Supreme Court announces its decision in
Vidal v. Girard's Executors. In this case, a Philadelphia
school had taken the position that it would teach students
morality, but not Christianity . However, the High Court
ruled against the school, saying : "Why may not the Bible,
and especially the New Testament. . .be read and taught as
a divine revelation in the (schools)-its general precepts
expounded. ..and its glorious principles of morality
inculcated? Where can the purest principles of morality be
learned so clearly or so perfectly as from the New
Testament?"
1857
Kindergartens begin in the U . S. in Watertown,
NY, and spread rapidly. They were developed in Europe
by Friedrich Froebel (Universal German Education
Institution, 1816) and are based upon the principle of
learning through play (doing), which will be supported by
John Dewey. (See The Kindergarten in American
Education by Nina Vandewalker, 1923 .)
The National Education Association (NEA) is
founded, but until 1870 it is called the National Teachers
Association. In the 20th century, it will become officially
a "labor union."
1860
Education: Intellectual. Moral, and Physical by
Herbert Spencer is published expressing his belief that the
ideal education is complete preparation for living, including
the maintenance of proper social and political relations . In
this regard, he believes science is most important, and
almost 9 years before Darwin's The Origin of Species
(1859), Spencer wrote Social Statics (1851) giving an
evolutionary thesis of human development that would later
be called "Social Darwinism ."
1864
- John Swett, California State Superintendent of
Public Instruction, declares: "The vulgar impression
that parents have a legal right to dictate to teachers is
entirely erroneous ....The only persons who have a legal
right to give orders to the teacher are his employers,
namely the committee in some states and in others the
directors or trustees....If his conduct is approved of by
his employers, the parents have no remedy against him
or them." (Quoted in Z. Montgomery's 1886 Poison
Drops)
1865
- American Association of School Administrators
is founded as a professional organization for leaders of
U.S. education systems and those in other parts of the
world.
1851 -1900
1869
Charles Eliot is appointed president of Harvard
University and delivers his inaugural address, in which he
remarks: "The very word `education' is a standing protest
against dogmatic teaching . The notion that education
consists in the authoritative inculcation of what the teacher
deems true may be logical and appropriate in a convent or
a seminary for priests, but it is intolerable in universities
and public schools, from primary to professional ." Eliot
will this year have the results of his 2-year study of
education in Europe published as "The New Education: Its
Organization" in The Atlantic Monthly. He will remain
president of Harvard until 1909, and in 1912 he will be a
vice-president of the First International Congress on
Eugenics.
In Volume 23 of The Atlantic Monthly is printed
"The New Education" by Charles Eliot, who stresses the
pure and applied sciences, modem European languages, and
mathematics. He is influenced by Herbert Spencer in this
regard, and further explains his ideas in Educational
Reform (1898).
1879
-- Wilhelm Wundt establishes the first laboratory in
experimental psychology at the University of Leipzig
(Pavlov will study there in 1884). The first of his
American students is G . Stanley Hall, who will be John
Dewey's mentor at Johns Hopkins University (where
Dewey receives his doctorate in 1884). Educational
experimentalists James McKeen Cattell, Charles Judd and
James Earl Russell will also receive their doctorates from
Wundt. At Columbia University, Russell (Dean of
Teachers College) will hire Edward Lee Thorndike, who
will have studied under Judd and psychologist William
James, the latter of whom also influenced John Dewey and
supervised the completion of G . Stanley Hall's doctorate at
Harvard University before Hall went to Leipzig .
1883
- G. Stanley Hall (influenced by Wilhelm Preyer;
see Die Seele des Kindes, Leipzig 1882) establishes his
laboratory at Johns Hopkins University, and the next year
his monograph "The Contents of Children's Minds" will be
7
8
published based upon questionnaire data. He believes
curriculum should be determined by such data .
- Talks on Teaching by Francis Parker is printed .
Parker (whom John Dewey would call "the father of
Progressive Education") had studied in Europe the ideas of
Pestalozzi, Froebel and Herbart (Pestalozzi concerning
method, Froebel pertaining to views of the child, and
Herbart regarding the doctrine of concentration),
synthesizing them into a scientific pedagogy .
1884
-- The Fabian Society is founded at the beginning of
the year, not long after the death of Karl Marx . Unlike the
openly revolutionary Socialistic or Communistic goals of
Marxism, Fabians plan to achieve Socialist governments
more gradually. To accomplish their aims, they produce a
number of tracts, research pamphlets, books and other
publications. A few of these will be listed here, and when
reading them, one should reflect upon their similarity to
what is happening in the United States today (e.g., school-
based clinics, Hillary Clinton's national health plan, etc .):
Tracts
The Workers' Political Programme (1890)
State Education at Home and Abroad (1894)
The Workers' School Board Programme (1894)
The Secret of Rural Depopulation (1904)
Public Service Versus Private Expenditure (1905)
Socialism and the Churches (1908)
The Case for School Nurseries (1909)
What a Health Committee Can Do (1910)
The Case for School Clinics (1911)
A National Medical Service (1911)
Robert Owen, Idealist (1917), refer to Owen
earlier in this chronology .
The Teacher in Politics (1918)
International Co-operative Trade (1922)
Co-operative Education (1923)
Nursery Education (1941)
Disarmament-the Way Ahead (1957)
Research Pamphlets
An International Monetary Agreement (1933)
Nurseries and Nursery Schools (1944)
Books and Other Publications
A Public Medical Service (1919)
The Decay of Capitalist Civilisation (1923)
1885
-- June: The examination for admission to Jersey
City High School is given (printed in the Hudson Dispatch
of Union City, NJ, and reprinted in Phyllis Schlafly's
Education Reporter, September 1993) and contains items
such as the following : "Define Algebra, an algebraic
expression, a polynomial . Make a literal trinomial."
"Write a sentence containing a noun used as an attribute, a
verb in the perfect tense potential mood, and a proper
adjective." And "What caused the War of 1812? Who
was president during that war? What was the result of it?"
(Note that in a 1986 assessment of 17-year-old juniors by
the National Assessment of Educational Progress, over 40 %
did not know that World War I occurred sometime between
1900 and 1950. And in a 1992 assessment, NAEP found
that only 6 % of American high school graduates are ready
for college math.)
1886
Poison Drops in the Federal Senate : The School
Question from a Parental and Non-Sectarian Standpoint by
Zachary Montgomery (nominated for U. S. Attorney-
General) is published. He informs that after about two
hundred years of public education in Massachusetts, the
1860 census figures showed that state to have one native
white criminal to every 649 people, while Virginia, which
always left the educational control of children to their
parents, had only one criminal to every 6,566 inhabitants .
Moreover, the aggregate figure for suicides in six
northeastern states where the states controlled education was
one to every 13,285, but in six mid-Atlantic and southern
coastal states where parents controlled education, the
aggregate for suicides was one to every 56,584. Why?
Montgomery found that there were two causes--first, the
loss of parental authority and home influence over children,
through and by means of a state-controlled system of
education; and second, a neglect of moral and religious
education and training . After reading Montgomery's
analysis, letters of support were sent to him by such
individuals as John LeConte (president of the California
State University) and George Washington (grand-nephew
and nearest living relative to President Washington) .
1889
G. Stanley Hall becomes president of Clark
University, which becomes a center for research and
writing on child development. Two years later, he will
The Nationalisation of Banking (1934)
Regionalism (1949)
establish the journal Peda¢oeical Seminary (a fitting title,
since the "progressive educators" seemed to be establishing
a "religion" of education). He will further describe his
theories in Adolescence (1904) and Educational Problems
(1911).
1890
- Mrs. Emmons Blaine gives Francis Parker $1
million to endow a private teacher-training school that
would be called the Chicago Institute (which would become
part of the new School of Education at the University of
Chicago).
1892
The Elements of General Method by Charles
McMurry is published describing how the American
"progressive educator" followers of German philosopher
and educator Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) want to
develop a scientific approach to pedagogy and psychologize
the teaching of subject matter . (See also Charles De
Garmo's Herbart and the Herbartians, 1896.)
The New York College for the Training of
Teachers receives its permanent charter as Columbia
University's Teachers College, where John Dewey will
have a tremendous influence (as well as at the University of
Chicago).
1894
- Talks on Pedaaogics by Francis Parker is
published, in which he paraphrases Froebel: "The
spontaneous tendencies of the child are the records of
inborn divinity. .. . We are here, my fellow-teachers, for one
purpose, and that purpose is to understand these tendencies
and continue them in all directions, following nature ." His
educational philosophy seems to be most like that of
Rousseau.
- The Deweys move to Chicago and enroll John
Dewey's son, Fred, in Miss Flora Cooke's first grade class
at Cook County Normal School run by Francis Parker (G .
Stanley Hall once wrote to Parker that he visited Cook
County annually "to set my educational watch"). The next
year, Dewey's daughter, Evelyn, will do likewise .
1895
- The Fabian Socialists establish the London
School of Economics (which Mick Jagger of the Rolling
Stones would later attend) as part of their plan to
further Socialism . Beatrice Webb was a founder of the
Fabians and in Beatrice Webb:ALife 1858-1943, she
is quoted as saying : "We can now feel assured that with
the London School of Economics as a teaching body, the
Fabian Society as a propagandist organisation, the
London City Council Progressives as an object lesson in
(our) electoral success, our books as the only elaborate
and original work in economic fact and theory, no young
man or woman who is anxious to study or to work in
public affairs can fail to come under our influence."
Addresses and Proceedings is published by the
NEA, in which its Committee of Fifteen declares:
"Modern education emphasizes the opinion that the child,
not the subject of study, is the guide to the teacher's
efforts. "
1896
- January: The Dewey School, an educational
laboratory, opens at the University of Chicago (behavioral
psychologist John Watson will receive his doctorate under
Dewey at the University of Chicago in 1903) . Dewey
begins his experimental "Laboratory School," beginning
with 16 pupils (including his 2 children) and 2 teachers .
(By 1902 the school would grow to 140 students, 23
instructors and 10 assistants .) Dewey is the school's
director, his wife is its principal, and Ella Flagg Young
(later to become Chicago's first woman Superintendent of
Schools) is supervisor of instruction. Mrs. Young had
suggested the name "Laboratory School" to Dewey, who
referred to her as "the wisest person in school matters with
whom he has come in contact in any way ."
1897
My Pedaaoaic Creed by John Dewey ("Father of
Progressive Education," honorary president of the National
Education Association in 1932, and co-author of the 1933
Humanist Manifesto) is published, in which he states: "I
believe the true center of correlation on the school subjects
is not science, nor literature, nor history, nor geography,
but the child's social activities . . . .! believe that the school is
primarily a social institution .. . .The teacher's business is
simply to determine, on the basis of larger experience and
riper wisdom, how the discipline of life shall come to the
child.. . .All the questions of the grading of the child and his
promotion should be determined by reference to the same
standard. Examinations are of use only so far as they test
the child's fitness for social life. .. ."
- The National Congress of Mothers is founded .
The name will be changed in 1908 to National Congress of
Mothers and Parent-Teachers Associations, and again in
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1925 to National Congress of Parents and Teachers .
Finally in 1976 it becomes known as National PTA-
National Congress of Parents and Teachers .
1898
John Dewey writes an essay titled "The Primary
Education Fetish," in which he attacks the teaching of
reading in the primary grades, saying "It does not follow
that because this course was once wise it is so any
longer. . ..The plea for the predominance of learning to read
in early school life because of the great importance
attaching to literature seems to be a perversion ." Similarly,
Dewey's psychology mentor at Johns Hopkins University,
G. Stanley Hall, proclaimed elsewhere the benefits of
illiteracy, stating that "illiterates. . .escape much eye strain
and mental excitement.. .and certain temptations ."
1899
The School and Society by John Dewey is
published with him revealing that "The relegation of the
merely symbolic and formal to a secondary position ; the
change in the moral school atmosphere. ..are not mere
accidents, they are necessities of the larger social
evolution." He approvingly quotes Friedrich Froebel that
"the primary root of all educative activity is in the
instinctive, impulsive attitudes of children, and not in the
presentation and application of external material, whether
through the ideas of others or through the senses ."
Dewey, a number of years later, also will help to
found the Intercollegiate Socialist Society .
Dunbar High School (in Washington, DC, and
attended by blacks) students score highest in city-wide tests
given both black and white schools. This is despite the fact
that Dunbar does not have very good physical facilities or
financial support; its class sizes are large ; and most of the
parents of Dunbar students are unskilled or semi-skilled .
However, Dunbar students have parental support and
encouragement.
-- July 1 : Cecil Rhodes signs his last Will including
"Rhodes scholarships" as part of his plan for world
domination. The plan was first described in his
"Confession of Faith" on June 2, 1877, and began with "On
the present day I become a member in the Masonic Order ."
According to John Flint in Cecil Rhodes (1974), "then
follows the elaboration of the plan for a secret society,
composed, like the Jesuit order" (the Illuminati founder
Weishaupt did likewise, and Karl Marx also mentioned
learning from them in terms of organization) "of dedicated
fanatics, supported by men of wealth, attracting and even
educating men of talent without means, placing its members
in all the colonial legislatures, feeding and acquiring
ownership of newspapers (`for the press rules the mind of
the people')." In 1993, Rhodes scholar Bill Clinton (who
along with wife, Hillary, will serve on a Rhodes
Scholarship Selection Committee) will become President of
the United States. In that regard, Christopher Hitchens will
write in The Nation (December 14, 1992) about how
Clinton has surrounded himself with other Rhodes scholars,
and "a Rhodesian formation imparts a definite sense of
knowing what is best. ..for others. It has helped bestow a
patina of refinement on the raw exercise of power, and has
shaped the contours of the permanent party of government
as it exists in law, lobbying, business, intelligence,
diplomacy and the military. . ..In (George Bush's)
establishment heart, he must have realized that nothing is
more calculated than a Rhodes background to assure a
smooth and equable transition ."
1901
Nicholas Murray Butler becomes president of
Columbia University. He had helped organize Teachers
College there, and would be a major figure in organizing
the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace .
1902
The General Education Board, established by
John D. Rockefeller, Sr., is chartered. In Raymond
Fosdick's memorial history of the Board, he indicates
that it will be part of John D . Rockefeller, Jr.'s effort
toward "this goal of social control ."
1904
John Dewey leaves the University of Chicago and
joins the Department of Philosophy at Columbia University.
He begins to lead the "Progressive Education" movement .
In Dr. Milo McDonald's American Education-The Old,
The Modern and The "New" (1952), one reads: "Dewey
favored and taught the desirability of extending the
kindergarten (Froebelian) idea to the elementary school and
to the high school as well . He advocated the theory of the
freedom of untrammeled self-expression to be granted the
learner; he favored the dominance of the 'whole child' in
the classroom. Dewey conceived of education as an
informal process of learning from which all restraint was to
disappear, and not as a formal process directed by a trained
teacher leading the learner toward good personal
character; . . . according to Dewey the teacher was to follow
the child who, by reason of his natural inclination, would
be directed toward the personal goals he should achieve by
co-operation with others in the efforts of humanity to
achieve an ideal social democracy .. . .The work that has
been done in this, the first half of the twentieth century, in
the name of education and the relationship of that work to
the attempt to build in this country a new social order of
socialistic design is the work of those who have been
closely associated with Dr. Dewey at Teachers
College.. ..The degeneration of the schools of the United
States throughout the past fifteen years is directly related to
his instrumentalistic philosophy, to his theories of the
relativity of ideas, to his exaggerated pragmatism and to his
influence and that of his associates at Teachers College in
1901 -1950
directing American education toward the values which
atheistic socialism approves ."
1905
- September 12: The Intercollegiate Socialist Society
is organized by Upton Sinclair, Jack London, Clarence
Darrow and others. It will establish its permanent
headquarters at the Rand School of Social Science in 1908,
and its name will later be changed to the League for
Industrial Democracy . (John Dewey will be the LID's
president in 1935 .)
--
	
The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of
Teaching is founded .
1906
-- June 30: The National Education Association
(NEA) becomes federally chartered or incorporated (H.R.
10501), (Public, No . 398) .
1908
-- July: The Hibbert Journal, includes an article,
"Religion and Our Schools," by John Dewey, which
reveals: "Our schools...are performing an infinitely
significant religious work . They are promoting the
social unity out of which in the end genuine religious
unity must grow....Religion. ..associated with .. . dogmatic
beliefs.. .we see.. .disappearing ... .It is increased
knowledge of nature which has made supra-nature
incredible, or at least difficult of belief... .We take note
of the decay of cohesion and influence among the
religiously organised bodies of the familiar historic
type....It may be that the symptoms of religious ebb as
conventionally interpreted are symptoms of the coming
of a fuller and deeper religion . .. .It is the part of men to
labour persistently and patiently for the clarification and
development of the positive creed of life implicit in
democracy and in science, and to work for the
transformation of all practical instrumentalities of
education till they are in harmony with these ideas."
The article is also reprinted in Dewey's Education Todav
(1940).
11
12
- Eleven-year-old Avis Carlson passes a test in a
one-room schoolhouse in Kansas, which she recalls in her
book Small World. Long Gone: A Family Record of an
Era (1977): "The orthography quiz asked us to spell twenty
words, including elucidation and animosity . . . . An arithmetic
question asked us to find the interest on an eight percent
note for nine hundred dollars running two years, two
months, six days. .. .In reading, we were required to tell
what we knew of the writings of Thomas Jefferson . . .and
give the meanings of words such as panegyric and
eyrie. . ..Among geography's ten questions was, `Name two
countries producing large quantities of wheat, two of
cotton, two of coal .' . . .In history, we were to `name the
principle political questions which have been advocated
since the Civil War and the party which advocated each .'"
There is simply no comparison between this test
and the relatively easy multiple choice nationally
standardized tests American students will take years later .
- Italian educator Maria Montessori develops the
"Montessori method" of teaching relying upon guidance and
training of senses rather than rigid control of students'
activities. This is supposed to encourage self-education .
Her work will be carried by the Theosophical Publishing
House. And in Education for a New World, she will write
that "The world was not created for us to enjoy, but we are
created to evolve the cosmos . .. . Even if two children want
the same material, they should be left to settle the problem
for themselves unless they call for the teacher's aid." Thus
one can see elements of "permissive education" and the
"new age" in Montessori . In fact, she will indicate that her
"new education" would result in a "new age," to use her
words. And she believes that forcibly removing a
misbehaving child from a group would be violating his or
her "individual liberty."
1910
- The U. S. Census Bureau reports that illiteracy
among those 10 to 20 years of age is down to 4 .7 % from
7.6 % in 1900. The nation is well on its way to wiping out
illiteracy, until the "progressive educators" succeed in
establishing the "look-say" or "whole word" method of
reading instruction in most schools, replacing the previously
successful intensive phonics method .
- Educational publisher Edwin Ginn founds the
World Peace Foundation (formerly the International School
of Peace). One of the first books published by the
foundation will be The First Book of World Law (1911)
with chapters on "The World Judiciary," "The World
Executive," and "The Universal Postal Union."
1912
-- The National Education Association (NEA) begins
to promote the training of teachers in sex education and sex
hygiene.
1913
- The National Education Association (NEA)
establishes the Commission on the Reorganization of
Secondary Education, which has a membership including
several "young rebels" of the era. The Commission will
produce a report in 1918 containing seven cardinal
principles or objectives for the education of every American
boy and girl, including "ethical character."
- Occasional Letter, No. 1 is published by the
General Education Board (founded 1902). It is by
Frederick Gates (appointed by John D . Rockefeller as
chairman of the Board), who remarks that "In our
dream, we have limitless resources, and the people yield
themselves with perfect docility to our molding hand.
The present educational conventions fade from our
minds; and, unhampered by tradition, we work our own
good will upon a grateful and responsive rural folk ."
1914
- Walter Scott, the secretary of the New England
Education League, succeeds in having a bill introduced in
Congress (H.R. 12247) "to create an international board of
education and a fund for international or world education ."
1915
- Rockefeller's General Education Board (GEB)
meets with Charles Eliot and Abraham Flexner present.
Flexner claims that Eliot initiates a conversation about a
possible "model school," and that therefore Eliot is the real
founder of the Lincoln School . In Flexner's autobiography,
I Remember (1940), though, it seems clear that the idea for
such a school originated in his own experience when he
organized a school as a young man in Louisville, Kentucky .
At the GEB meeting, Eliot states: "I have long wanted
some such experiment; now I should regard it as a calamity
if we, having in our service the one man best fitted to
organize such a school, should fail to give him and the
country a chance." The "one man," Flexner, developed his
essay "A Modem School" (see American Review of
Reviews, vol. 53, 1916), influenced by Dewey and Eliot .
His utilitarian school would be organized around science,
industry, aesthetics and civics . Modem European
languages would be in, and much of conventional math
would be out. On January 1, 1917, the GEB agreed to
meet the costs of the school, and on September 24, 1917,
the school will come into existence as the Lincoln School of
Teachers College. Harold Rugg would be one of the
teachers in the secondary division, and in his Foundations
for American Education (1947), he would say their motto
was "Try anything once and see if it works ." The Lincoln
School would be similar in many ways to Dewey's
"Laboratory School . " By 1916, Dewey would become the
recognized leader of the "progressive educators, " otherwise
known as "Frontier Thinkers."
The National Association of Directors of
Educational Research is formed, and leading "progressive
educator" Harold Rugg will become its president in 1921 .
The organization's name will change in 1930 to the
American Educational Research Association (AERA) .
The "Educational Trust" known as the
Cleveland Group (because its first meeting is in
Cleveland) meets for the first time. Among the
members of the Group are: George Strayer (professor
at Teachers College and NEA president 1918-1919),
Elwood Cubberly (dean of Stanford University's School
of Education), Walter Jessup (president of the Carnegie
Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching), William
H. Kilpatrick (professor at Teachers College), James
Angell (colleague of John Dewey and trustee of the
Rockefeller Foundation), Leonard Ayers (director of the
Russell Sage Foundation), Abraham Flexner (director of
the Rockefeller Institute), Paul Hanus (established
Harvard University's Graduate School of Education with
the help of Rockefeller's General Education Board),
Frank Spaulding (received his Ph.D. from Leipzig and
became a member of Rockefeller's General Education
Board), Paul Monroe (founded the World Federation of
Education Associations), Edward Thorndike (colleague
of John Dewey), and leader of the "Educational Trust"
Charles Judd (colleague of John Dewey) who received
his Ph.D. from Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig in 18% . In
David Tyack's and Elisabeth Hansot's Managers of
Virtue (1982), Judd is quoted as urging the Cleveland
Conference to attempt "the positive and aggressive task
of. ..a detailed reorganization of the materials of
instruction in schools of all grades. ..." Tyack and
Hansot will also write: "There were `placement barons,'
usually professors of educational administration in
universities such as Teachers College, Harvard,
University of Chicago, or Stanford who had an inside
track in placing their graduates in important positions .
One educator commented after spending a weekend with
Cubberly in Palo Alto that 'Cubberly had an educational
Tammany Hall that made the Strayer-Engelhardt
Tammany Hall in New York look very weak'....[And]
one principal recalled 'Strayer's Law' for dealing with
disloyal subordinates was `Give 'em the ax . 1"
This is the beginning of a plan to use the
"credentialing process" to control education . Around
the turn of the century, the molders of society
established tax-exempt foundations to which they would
donate large sums of money, thus avoiding the payment
of taxes on those funds . These foundations, in turn,
would promote the world view or ideology of their
benefactor by providing scholarships or grants to
individuals who were "politically correct" in their
thinking. Through this funding, these scholars would be
able to have their works published and thereby establish
credentials enabling them to receive appointments to the
government or as university departmental chairmen
(who could appoint faculty members, who in turn could
select graduate students, who would become school
superintendents and principals, who would hire school
faculty, who would teach students the "politically
correct" way of thinking).
1916
- Democracy and Education by John Dewey is
printed, in which he writes: "From a social standpoint,
dependence denotes a power rather than a weakness; it
involves interdependence. There is always a danger that
increased personal independence will decrease the social
capacity of an individual. In making him more self-reliant,
it may make him more self-sufficient .. . . It often makes an
individual so insensitive in his relations to others as to
develop an illusion of being really able to stand and .act
alone-an unnamed form of insanity which is responsible
for a large part of the remedial suffering of the world ."
1917
Columbia University's Lincoln School is
established at the urging of Abraham Flexner (who wanted
to call it "The Modern School") of Teachers College, and
it is funded by Rockefeller's General Education Board
(GEB). The New York Times calls the School a "radical
and dangerous" experiment, and the Congressional Record
includes the concerns of several Congressmen that the GEB
might come to control education in the U. S.
Regarding Flexner, years later (1966) Professor
Carroll Quigley's Trazedv and Hope will be published
while Bill Clinton (future U. S. president who considered
Quigley his hero) is at Georgetown University where
Quigley is a professor. In the book, Quigley not only
describes how the Rhodes scholarships (Clinton will become
a Rhodes scholar) were part of Cecil Rhodes secret plan for
world dominion, but he also will write: ". ..there grew up
in the 20th century a power structure between London and
1 3
1 4
New York which penetrated deeply into university life, the
press, and the practice of foreign policy . . . . For example, it
set up in Princeton a reasonable copy of the Round Table
Group's chief Oxford headquarters. The copy was called
the Institute for Advanced Study and was organized by
Abraham Flexner of the Carnegie Foundation and
Rockefeller's General Education Board."
1918
The Science of Power by Benjamin Kidd is
printed, in which the author declares : "The main cause of
those deep dividing differences which separate peoples and
nationalities and classes from each other and which prevent
or stultify collective effort in all its most powerful
forms. . .could all be swept away if civilization put before
itself the will to impose on the young the ideal of
subordination to the common aims of organized
humanity. . ..It can only be imposed in all its strength
through the young. So to impose it has become the chief
end of education in the future . Oh, you blind leaders who
seek to convert the world by laboured disputations! Step
out of the way or the world must fling you aside. Give us
the Young. Give us the Young and we will create a new
mind and new earth in a single generation ." Kidd quotes
Masonic Carbonari leader Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) in
this regard: "Your task is to form the universal
family. . ..Education, this is the great word which sums up
our whole doctrine ." (From Mazzini's On the Duties of
Man.) Kidd refers to Mazzini's distinction that "education
is addressed through emotion to the moral faculties in the
young and instruction to the intellectual (faculties)," and
Kidd claims "Power centres in emotion ."
1919
- The Progressive Education Association is founded
and organized by John Dewey (though he will not become
a member in its early years).
The New School for Social Research is founded in
New York City. Among its co-founders are John Dewey
and economist Charles Beard. Professors will include W.
E. B. DuBois, ACLU founder Roger Baldwin, and
humanist Corliss Lamont (1977 Humanist of the Year) .
Lecturers will include Erich Fromm (1966 Humanist of the
Year) and Margaret Mead . Norman Cousins will be a
sponsor of the Norman Thomas Endowment at the School,
and the Endowment's members will include Supreme Court
Justice William O. Douglas, John Kenneth Galbraith, Julian
Huxley, Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, Gunnar Myrdal and
several members of Congress.
-- The third volume of Arthur Calhoun's A Social
History of the American Family is published. Calhoun's
volumes serve for a number of years as prominent social
service textbooks, and in the 3rd volume one finds :
"The new view is that the higher and more obligatory
relation is to society rather than to the family ; the
family goes back to the age of savagery while the state
belongs to the age of civilization . The modern individual
is a world citizen, served by the world, and home
interests can no longer be supreme . .. .As soon as the new
family, consisting of only the parents and the children,
stood forth, society saw how many were unfit for
parenthood and began to realize the need of community
care."
As one continues to read Calhoun's third
volume, one is amazed at the accuracy of his projections
into the future. He projects that ". ..as familism
weakens, society has to assume a larger parenthood .
The school begins to assume responsibility for the
functions thrust upon it.. ..The juvenile court is
developed as a protection to the young, and parents are
called to account for disregard of juvenile
delinquency.. ..The kindergarten grows downward
toward the cradle and there arises talk of neighborhood
nurseries... .Social centers replace the old time home
chimney....The child passes more and more into the
custody of community experts .. ..In the new social order,
extreme emphasis is sure to be placed upon eugenic
procreation....It seems dear that at least in its early
stages, socialism will mean an increased amount of social
control. ...There will be an increase of legislation
designed to check the mating of the unfit and the
procreation of undesirable citizens.. ..We may expect in
the socialist commonwealth a system of public
educational agencies that will begin with the nursery and
follow the individual through life ... .Those persons that
experience alarm at the thought of intrinsic changes in
family institutions should remember that in the light of
social evolution, nothing is right or valuable in itself ."
1920
- The Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite of
Freemasons holds a special session at Colorado Springs,
Colorado, and draws up a comprehensive plan for education
in the U. S. It recommends the careful selection of school
personnel, trustees, and those supervising textbooks and
libraries in order to exclude "sectarian propaganda," and
the plan urges the establishment of "a national department
of public education headed by a secretary appointed as a
member of the president's cabinet ."
The recently founded Lincoln School (funded by
the General Education Board) moves to its new site near its
parent institution, Teachers College. Four of John D.
Rockefeller, Jr.'s five sons attend school there, but in Jules
Abels' The Rockefeller Billions (1965), one reads :
" .. .Laurance (Rockefeller) gives startling confirmation as to
`Why Johnnie (sic) Can't Read .' He says that the Lincoln
School did not teach him to read and write as he wishes he
now could. Nelson (Rockefeller), today, admits that
reading for him is a `slow and tortuous process' that he
does not enjoy doing but compels himself to do . This is
significant evidence in the debate that has raged about
modem educational techniques ."
1921
The Psychological Corporation is founded with
"progressive educators" G . Stanley Hall, Charles Judd,
Edward Thorndike and other "Deweyites" as Directors . In
the November 1923 edition of The Annals of the American
Academy of Political and Social Science, the Corporation's
president, James McKeen Cattell (another "progressive
educator" Deweyite) wrote "The Psychological
Corporation" in which he revealed that "the Corporation is
not so much concerned with arranging specific contracts for
work by it or under its auspices, as in promoting the
extension of applied psychology . . ..To get the best kind of
people and to put them in the situations in which they will
behave in the way best for themselves and for others, is
more fundamental than any other enterprise of society . It
is necessary to organize means by which this work can be
accomplished.. ..Psychology is concerned with the causes of
conduct and its control."
The Intercollegiate Socialist Society changes its
name to the League for Industrial Democracy, and its first
president is Robert Morss Lovett (signer of the first
Humanist Manifesto), editor of The New Republic. Its
field secretary is Paul Blanshard (a leading humanist), and
in 1926 one of its directors will be Louis Budenz (editor of
The Daily Worker). John Dewey will become its president
in 1941, and Reinhold Niebuhr its treasurer.
1922
March 27: The New York Times quotes New
York City Mayor John Hylan speaking in Chicago on
March 26: "The warning of Theodore Roosevelt has
much timeliness today, for the real menace of our
republic is this invisible government which like a giant
octopus sprawls its slimy length over city, State and
nation. Like the octopus of real life, it operates under
cover of a self-created screen . It seizes in its long and
powerful tentacles our executive officers, our legislative
bodies, our schools, our courts, our newspapers and
every agency created for the public protection ."
(emphasis added)
--
	
Propaganda Through the Schools is published by
the International Federation of League of Nations Societies .
1925
-- The International Bureau of Education (formerly
the Institut Jean-Jacques Rousseau) begins with a grant from
the Rockefeller Foundation. It will be part of UNESCO .
-- July 10-21: The Scopes "monkey trial" takes place
regarding the teaching of the theory of evolution in public
schools in Tennessee. The defense for the teaching of this
theory is largely conducted by famed attorney Clarence
Darrow, who was a founder of the Intercollegiate Socialist
Society. The evolutionists' argument is basically that this
theory should not be censored from the public schools.
Fabian Socialist and first head of UNESCO Sir Julian
Huxley will later claim that humanism's "keynote, the
central concept to which all its details are related, is
evolution." Huxley will be 1962 Humanist of the Year, at
a time when the theory of evolution will be taught as "fact"
in many schools around the nation . Interestingly, in a role
reversal of 1925, most evolutionists years later will censor
the scientific evidence against evolution from textbooks and
school classes.
1926
The National Association for Nursery Education is
founded. After 1964, its name will be changed to National
Association for the Education of Young Children
(NAEYC), and in 1993 the organization will have a budget
of $5,000,000. The NAEYC will state that it is "open to
all individuals interested in serving and acting on behalf of
the needs and rights of young children ."
1927
The National Congress of Parents and Teachers
incorporates the NEA's seven cardinal principles in its
permanent platform, stating that it has "become increasingly
apparent that these (cardinal principles) are the objectives
not only of high school, but of all education ."
The American School Health Association is
founded and in 1930 will begin publishing the Journal of
School Health. The ASHA will later promote sexuality
education within comprehensive school health education .
For example, in the May 1992 issue of the Journalof
School Health, Melinda Ribar will describe a teaching
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technique where students act out the parts of ovum, sperm,
etc. in the fertilization and implantation process.
1928
Because "progressive educators" are embracing
Socialism, it is relevant to note that in this year, Fabian
Socialist George Bernard Shaw's The Intelligent
Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism is
published, in which he reveals that " .. .under Socialism
you would not be allowed to be poor. You would be
forcibly fed, clothed, lodged, taught, and employed
whether you liked it or not. If it were discovered that
you had not character and industry enough to be worth
all this trouble, you might possibly be executed in a
kindly manner. .. ." In Shaw's words, the Fabian
Socialists set out to "Educate, Agitate, Organize." This
expression is almost identical to the words "Advocate,
Organize, Agitate" used in The Change Agent's Guide
to Innovation in Education (look under 1973 in this
chronology) .
A Sociological Philosophy of Education by Ross
Finney is published, in which the author explains : "The
young mind is as absorbent as blotting paper . The ideas of
other people exert an insistent pressure even upon adults
unless we are already possessed of ideas with which they
seem to conflict. As a young child's mind is so meagerly
equipped as yet with knowledge, it can offer no such
resistance. Accordingly, it absorbs whatever cognitive
material happens to be extant in its social environment . .. .It
is the business of teachers to run not merely the school, but
the world.. . ."
1929
Elementary Principles of Education by Edward
Thorndike and Arthur Gates is published in which one
reads: "Traditionally the elementary school has been
primarily devoted to teaching the fundamental subjects,
the three R's, and closely related disciplines.... Artificial
exercises, like drills on phonetics, multiplication tables,
and formal writing movements, are used to a wasteful
degree. Subjects such as arithmetic, language, and
history include content that is intrinsically of little
value. ..." Pursuing "progressive education," Thorndike
will have produced new spellers, math texts,
dictionaries, and textbooks on education and educational
testing.
1930
-- The "Dick and Jane" basal reading series, using
the "look-say" or "whole word" method of reading
instruction, begins. The consequences of using this method
of the "progressive educators" (instead of the highly
successful intensive phonics method) will prove disastrous .
- Humanism: A New Religion by Charles Francis
Potter (signer of the 1933 Humanist Manifesto) is
published, in which he proclaims : "Education is thus a
most powerful ally of humanism . What can the theistic
Sunday schools, meeting for an hour once a week, and
teaching only a fraction of the children, do to stem the
tide of a five-day program of humanistic teaching?" The
next year, Curtis Williford Reese will have published
Humanist Religion ; and in the June-July 1961 Free Mind
(membership bulletin of the American Humanist
Association), one reads that Reese "was long President
of the American Humanist Association. In 1917, when
he and John Dietrich compared notes after a talk that
Dr. Reese gave in Des Moines, they decided that what
Dietrich was calling `Humanism' and Reese `The
Religion of Democracy' were the same . At that moment
Humanism as a movement was born."
1931
Common Sense and the Child by Ethel Mannin is
published, in which she writes positively about permissive
education, and comments : "Parents, nurses, and teachers
are the natural enemies of the child because they are the
destroyers of its freedom . They represent authority from
the beginning."
New Russia's Primer is translated into English by
Dewey disciple George Counts (Columbia University
Teachers College) and Nucia Lodge. Counts states that the
book "purposes to explain to children the nature of a
planned economy and to introduce them to the entire subject
of social planning . All of this it does admirably. . ..It
presents the major provisions of the Five-Year Plan with
extraordinary clarity and charm. .. . It reveals the temper of
the revolutionary movement and the large human goals
towards which it is consciously tending . No one can read
the last chapter without being moved by the great social
vision which presumably animates and lends significance to
the program of construction. Millions of boys and girls
growing to manhood and womanhood in the Soviet Union
have no doubt already caught the vision and are ordering
their lives by it. . ..To American readers and students of
education the little book should prove both suggestive and
challenging.. ..It is literally fascinating .. ..The revolutionary
struggle has generated a great system of planning organs
through which society is endeavoring to shape its own
future. Perhaps the most challenging feature of the little
book, therefore, has to do with the relation of education to
social planning . . ..1 sincerely trust that this little book will
contribute to a better understanding on the part of the
American people of the greatest social experiment of
history." Counts says he received the book from a Russian
friend in November 1930, and it is "a document of rare
quality." It was originally written in Russian by a Soviet
engineer M . Ilin, and denounces the U . S . while boasting
of the Soviets' "new socialist order ."
1932
- Toward Soviet America, by William Z. Foster
(head of the American Communist Party) is published
with Foster projecting that "Class ideologies of the past
will give place to scientific materialist philosophy .
Among the elementary measures the American Soviet
government will adopt to further the cultural revolution
are the following: the schools, colleges, and universities
will be coordinated and grouped under the National
Department of Education and its state and local
branches. The studies will be revolutionized, being
cleansed of religious, patriotic, and other features of the
bourgeoisie ideology. The students will be taught on the
basis of Marxian dialectical materialism,
internationalism, and the general ethics of the new
socialist society.. ..The churches will remain free to
continue their services, but their special tax and other
privileges will be liquidated. Their buildings will revert
to the State. Religious schools will be abolished and
organized religious training for minors prohibited .
Freedom will be established for anti-religious
propaganda. ...Science will become materialistic....God
will be banished from the laboratories as well as from
the schools."
- April: Progressive Education publishes a paper,
presented by George Counts to the Progressive Education
Association in Baltimore in February, in which he professes
that "changes in our economic system will, of course,
require changes in our ideals."
- Dare the School Build a New Social Order?, by
George S. Counts is published, in which he declares that
"the teachers should deliberately reach for power and
then make the most of their conquest" so that they could
"influence the social attitudes, ideals, and behavior of
the coming generation.. . . Our major concern
consequently should be.. .to make certain that every
Progressive school will use whatever power it may
possess in opposing and checking the forces of social
conservatism and reaction .. ..The growth of science and
technology has carried us into a new age where
ignorance must be replaced by knowledge, competition
by cooperation, trust in Providence by careful planning,
and private capitalism by some form of socialized
economy. ...Capitalism's days are numbered. .. .It will
have to be displaced altogether. .. or changed so
radically...that its identity will be completely lost .... A
planned, coordinated, and socialized economy . ..would
involve severe restrictions on personal freedom... . If
property rights are to be diffused in an industrial
society, natural resources and all important forms of
capital will have to be collectively owned ."
Education and the Social Crisis by Dr. William
Kilpatrick is published describing how "progressive
educators" hope to "bring the new day" to education in the
U. S. : "On the newer social basis we must make over our
whole traditional system, elementary, secondary and
higher.. . .More specifically, the school should give,
eventually, say one-third of its time to avowedly socially
useful activities. . . .Next, another third, possibly, of school
time should be given to the study of social life and
institutions . The beginning may be along two lines, one
already made familiar by the unified social science of Dr .
Harold Rugg. . . . "
John Dewey is made honorary president of the
NEA.
1933
- The Great Technolo2v by Harold Rugg is
published, in which he announces: "A new public mind is
to be created. How? Only by creating tens of millions of
new individual minds and welding them into a new social
mind. Old stereotypes must be broken up and new
`climates of opinion' formed in the neighborhoods of
America. But that is the task of the building of a science of
society for the schools. .. .Basic problems confront us: First
and foremost, the development of a new philosophy of life
and education which will be fully appropriate to the new
social order; second, the building of an adequate plan for
the production of a new race of educational workers ; third,
the making of new activities and materials for the
curriculum.. ..If educational agencies are to be utilized in
the production of a new social order, an indispensable first
step is that of developing a totally new outlook upon life
and education among the rank and file of teachers . . . .
Thus through the schools of the world we shall
disseminate a new conception of government-one that will
embrace all of the collective activities of men ; one that will
postulate the need for scientific control and operation of
economic activities in the interests of all people . . .." Rugg
would author 14 Social Studies textbooks along with
1 7
1 8
teachers' guides, course outlines and student workbooks
used by 5 million American school children in the 1930s .
- Leading educator John Dewey co-authors the first
Humanist Manifesto, which calls for a "synthesizing of all
religions" and "a socialized and cooperative economic
order.'
Dr. John Dewey prrsenu Margaret Songer with American Women's
Association medal at FriendsMp Committee dinner - April 20,1932
(UPI/Bemnann, reprinted with permission) .
Margaret Sanger was *e founder ofPlanned Parenthood who will be
1957 H nraniu of the Year.
- TheShape of Things to Come by Fabian
Socialist H. G. Wells is published . In this book, Wells
predicts that a New World Order in about SO years will
come out of something that will happen in Basra, Iraq,
and he comments that "no revolution could be a real and
assured revolution until it has completely altered the
educational system of the community," the new
education would be "based on a swiftly expanding
science of relationship." It would be "...propaganda
passed necessarily into a training for public service and
a universal public education-to establish a new
complete ideology and a new spirit which would induce
the individual to devote himself and to shape all his
activities to one definite purpose, to the attainment and
maintenance of a progressive world-socialism, using an
efficient monetary system as its normal medium of
relationship." It would be the "New Humanity . ..with a
common consciousness and a common will."
April 11: Rockefeller Foundation president Max
Mason assures trustees that in their program, "The Social
Sciences will concern themselves with the rationalization of
social control,.. .the control of human behavior.' The
Rockefeller Foundation (as well as the Carnegie Institute)
had for some time been funding research regarding eugenics
(term coined by Francis Galton), and in a February 1934
"progress report' by one of the foundation's division heads,
one finds the statement: "Can we develop so sound and
extensive a genetics that we can hope to breed, in the
future, superior men?' (See The Circuit Riders:
Rockefeller Money and the Rise of Modem Science by
Gerald Jonas, 1989 .)
- September 13: The Monroe Evening News
(Monroe, Michigan) publishes an editorial in which it
quotes from an interview in New York with Louis Alber,
director of speaking activities for the National Recovery
Administration of President Roosevelt . In the interview
(widely published on Saturday, September 9), Alber is
quoted by The Monroe Evening News as stating: "The
rugged individualism of Americanism must go, because it
is contrary to the purpose of the New Deal and the N . R. A.
which is remaking America. Russia and Germany are
attempting to compel a new order by means typical of their
nationalism-compulsion . The United States will do it by
moral suasion . Of course we expect some opposition, but
the principles of the New Deal must be carried to the youth
of the nation. We expect to accomplish by education what
dictators in Europe are seeking to do by compulsion and
force....The general public is not informed on the other
parts of the program and the schools are the places to reach
the future builders of the nation.'
1933-1934
Summers: The Institute of International Education
(established in 1919 with a grant from the Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace) holds Moscow
University summer school programs, commented upon by
Dr. John Almack in the San Francisco Examiner (during
October 1942) as follows: 'Many teachers and students
returned challenging everything American, breathing fire
and defiance to property, the profit system, and the
Constitution, and beating the tomtoms for a `new social
order.'.. .They felt they must declare the way [to
revolution], after insuring their own safety, should things
go wrong, by guarantees of 'academic freedom.'"
Edward R. Murrow is the IIE's assistant director,
and John Dewey along with George Counts serve on its
National Advisory Council . In the future, IIE will
emphasize that it assists in the "Green Revolution ."
1934
A CommonFaith by leading "progressive
educator" John Dewey is published, in which he
proclaims: "It is impossible to ignore the fact that
historic Christianity has been committed to a separation
of sheep and goats; the saved and the lost; the elect and
the mass... .Those outside the fold of the church and
those who do not rely upon belief in the supernatural
have been regarded as only potential brothers, still
requiring adoption into the family . I cannot understand
how any realization of the democratic ideal as a vital
moral and spiritual ideal in human affairs is possible
without surrender of the conception of the basic division
to which supernatural Christianity is committed ."
-- Experiment in Autobioaranhv by H. G. Wells (who
authored The Open Conspiracy: Blue Prints for a World
Revolution in 1928 and will author The New World Order
in 1939) is published, in which he declares: "The
organization of this that I call the Open Conspiracy, the
evocation of a greater sounder fellow to the first
Communist essay, an adequately implemented Liberal
Socialism, which will ultimately supply teaching, coercive
and directive public services to the whole world, is the
immediate task before all rational people . I believe this
idea of a planned world-state is one to which all our thought
and knowledge is tending . . ..It is appearing partially and
experimentally at a thousand points . .. . When accident finally
precipitates it, its coming is likely to happen very
quickly.. ..Sometimes I feel that generations of propaganda
and education may have to precede it. .. .Plans for political
synthesis seem to grow bolder and more extensive.. .. The
New Plan in America to the New Plan in Russia and how
are both related to the ultimate World-State? . .. There must
be a common faith and law for mankind . .. .Only after a
huge cultural struggle can we hope to see the world-state
coming into being. The Open Conspiracy has to achieve
itself in many ways, but the main battle before it is an
educational battle."
Who Shall Survive? A New Approach to the
Problem of Human Interrelations by psychiatrist J . L.
Moreno is printed (an expanded version titled Who Shall
Survive? Foundations of Sociometrv . Group Psvchotheranv
and Sociodrama will be printed in 1953). Moreno is the
founder of "sociometry," which utilizes sensitivity training
methods such as role-playing, psychodrama and
sociodrama. Moreno acknowledges in his book that John
Dewey had a great part in preparing the way for
sociometry. And after Dewey reads Moreno's book,
1 9
Dewey will say that sociometry is "the next stage ."
Moreno refers to role-playing as "God-playing" to develop
"social shock methods which may well become scientific
methods of social action . -
Fifty years later, Jacqueline Lawrence will testify
on June 7, 1984, before the Subcommittee on Education,
Arts and Humanities of the U . S. Senate Committee on
Labor and Human Resources, regarding psychodrama being
used for attitudinal change. Her testimony includes the
following: "one example is for the concept that we must
prune away defective persons in order to improve the
quality of life for the remainder of the group . This drama
involves murder. Many variations are found . I first came
across this psychodrama theme in a federally funded home
economics curriculum guide containing the exercise,
`Whom Will You Choose?' It goes as follows: 11 people
are in a bomb shelter with provisions sufficient to last 11
persons two weeks or 6 persons a month . The group is told
that 5 persons must be killed. They are instructed to accept
the situation as fact, that is, to concern themselves with
life/death choices, not with attacking the logic or probability
of the situation. A profile is given of each person in the
shelter. Problem people, such as the athlete who eats too
much, the religious type with `hang-ups,' the pregnant or ill
are generally killed . Survivors tend to be those trained in
medicine, engineers, and pacifiers.
It can readily be seen that once a student has acted
out the murders, he has resolved the dilemma and by his
action agreed to the concept of murder . From this point
on, it will not be difficult for him to accept and justify
murder in any number of situations. The student will no
longer hold the same commitment to his previously held
conviction that murder is illegal and unjustifiable . One
student I know played out the life/death exercise in five
different classes in one school term--in mathematics,
geography, English, biology and social studies .
The life/death exercises have shocked students .
Many have refused to participate, while others have broken
down emotionally and even fled the classroom. Such
survival exercises have been written into federally funded
programs since 1971 . Why have educators held onto this
strategy with such tenacity for so many years? Will it
prepare the child's eventual acceptance of the concept found
in totalitarian societies that in order to have a planned,
productive society we must prune away the defective?"
After reading Moreno's book, President Franklin
Roosevelt will tell Moreno in Hyde Park one day that
"When I am back in Washington, I will see where your
ideas can be put to use." Moreno's sociometric groupings
will be taken up in the 1950s and early 1960s by Hilda
Taba when she will develop a social studies curriculum that
will become widely used in the U . S. Receiving
considerable federal funds while at San Francisco State
College, she will develop the "Thinking Project," which
will de-emphasize subject matter and facts in favor of
2 0
carefully selected information that would lend itself to
analysis and discussion--this will become known as "critical
thinking "
-- March 3 : The Cleveland Plain Dealer quotes L .
Thomas Hopkins of Teachers College's Lincoln School :
" .. .The present secondary school should be thoroughly
reorganized . Present subjects should be discarded, and the
curriculum reorganized around pressing social
problems. . .the learner will select and direct his own
education under the guidance of the teacher . Present
requirements for admission to college will be abandoned,
thus removing the pressure for learning much useless
information. . .No uniform rigid standards will be imposed.
Standards will be fixed by the learning group, or by the
individual for himself.. . ."
- July: At the 72nd Annual Meeting of the NEA,
held in Washington, DC, in a report titled "Education
for the New America," Willard Givens (who will become
executive secretary of the National Education Association
in 1935, will hold the position for seventeen years, and
then will take over the education program of the
Supreme Council thirty-third degree of the Scottish Rite)
says: "A dying laissez-faire must be completely
destroyed and all of us, including the `owners,' must be
subjected to a large degree of social control ... .An
equitable distribution of income will be sought . ...[And]
the major function of the school is the social orientation
of the individual . It must seek to give him
understanding of the transition to a new social order ."
Givens had submitted a report with similar language at
the NEA Convention in Cleveland, Ohio, on March 1,
1934.
- October: An editorial in The Social Frontier
advocates "the freedom of the teaching profession to utilize
education in shaping the society of tomorrow ."
-- October: The Social Frontier, publishes "Can
Education Share in Social Reconstruction?" in which John
Dewey proclaims that schools will "take an active part in
determining the social order-or disorder-of the future,
according as teachers and administrators align themselves
with the older so-called `individualistic' ideals-which in
fact are fatal to individuality for the many--or with the
newer forces making for social control of economic forces ."
Conclusions and Recommendations (the last of
a 17-volume study concerning American education, with
George Counts serving as director of research) of the
Commission on Social Studies of the American Historical
Association is published. The work of the Commission
was financed ($340,000) by the Carnegie Corporation,
and the document states that "the age of individualism
is dosing and a new age of collectivism is emerging .. .a
corresponding enlargement of the functions of
government.. .a society in which individual property
rights will be altered and abridged."
Commenting on the document in The New
Re ublic article "A New Education for a New America"
(July 29, 1936), British Socialist Professor Harold Laski
remarks: "The commission realizes that our education
for individualism in a society where individualism will
no longer work adequately, simply will not do. ...They
see that the old America is dead. .. .Professors Counts'
and Curti's volumes (for the Commission) presuppose
that to realize a society in which, effectively, the
privileges and power associated with individual
ownership will be virtually abrogated ... .Their demands
involve a considerable increase in the volume of
taxation,. .. and a content of teaching which frankly
admits that the age of government control has
arrived. ...For, at bottom, and stripped of its carefully
neutral phrases, the report is an educational program
for a socialist America. Such a program on any wide
scale could be implemented in a society only where
socialism was the accepted way of life; for it is a direct
criticism of the ideals that have shaped capitalist
America; the ideals, also, that American capitalists still
stoutly hold. To them it says in effect: What you think
are the safeguards of America are the things we believe
will work disaster for it . We ask you to allow the
schools to be used for the destruction of those
safeguards. We want to fill them with teachers who will
analyze critically all the things for which you stand . We
want to create in the schools a new generation which will
realize that your ideals, your purposes, your methods,
are both dangerous and obsolete. ...When the business
men translate this request into concrete terms, what
does it mean? Radicals in the schools . .. .The fight for
the possession of the schools is every whit as
fundamental as the fight for the right to religious
belief...."
- December: NEA Journal editor Joy Elmer Morgan
writes an editorial calling for government control of
corporations.
1936
- June: James M. Shields, supervising principal of
elementary schools in Winston-Salem, NC, is quoted in The
Social Frontier as saying : "It fairly staggers one to
consider the tremendous task ahead in revision of our
existing instructional literature if it is to be of any use at all
in a collectivist society . Hardly a public school textbook
now in use but is saturated with the profit psychology. "
Earl Browder, speaking at the ninth national
convention of the Communist Party in the U . S., proclaims:
"Whoever wins the youth, wins the future of America ."
1938
- March 1: In George Mosse's Nazi Culture (1966),
in the chapter "The Key : Education of Youth," it would be
after March 1, 1938 that "a centralized censorship comes
into existence, to be exercised by a Nazi party commission
in collaboration with the Ministry of Education. The
textbooks were increasingly National Socialist, the teachers
were regimented. . . .The Nazis did make changes in the
school system.. . .The individual states were abolished.. . .The
Nazis attempted to unify the school system, as they `meshed
the gears' of all other activities in the Third
Reich. . . .Changes in curriculum brought all schools closer
together. . . .Social pressures aided the Nazis in getting rid of
the influence of the older generation .. . .Inspector of National
Political Educational Institutions, SS leader Heissmeyer's
ideal boy was to subordinate his qualities completely to the
service of the Third Reich . . . .Character building rather than
book learning" would be a much desired educational ideal,
but "'character' did not mean self-reliance and
independence, but a steeling of oneself for service and
obedience in the name of the Volk and the Fuhrer ." All
totalitarians, whether Nazis or Fascists or Communists,
consider national service and the nationalization of
education to be extremely important .
- June 29: The New York Herald Tribune covering
the NEA Convention in New York City reports: "Dr.
Goodwin Watson, Professor of Education at Teachers
College, Columbia University, begged the teachers of the
nation to use their profession to indoctrinate children to
overthrow `conservative reactionaries' directing American
government and industry . . .. (He) declared that Soviet Russia
was one of `the most notable international achievements of
our generation.'"
July 1 : Dr. John Tildsley writes in The Social
Frontier concerning John Dewey et al : "The Frontier
Thinkers are primarily Social Reformers, New World
Makers. . . .As I see it they are no longer school masters,
they are just emotionalized social reformers. The world
needs both. . .but. . . why employ the very expensive machinery
of the school for an end that is not education but merely
conversion?.. .The extreme Frontier Thinkers . . .plan to
establish the collectivist society by exploiting (not really
educating) the children through the agency of the teachers
and enrolling them in a movement approved by probably
not five per cent of the parents. Such a plan is both
immoral and impracticable. . ..
2 1
In the fervor of their devotion to one cause, the
collectivist society, they have lost sight of the cause to
which (because of the positions they hold) they are
supposed to give the full measure of devotion--the growing
of children.. .."
Between this year and 1941, Harold Rugg and
James Mendenhall produce Pupil's Workbooks of Directed
Study, which will be used by perhaps 5 million students in
1940, and according to the Teacher's Guide for the
workbooks: "Of the 315 pupils, 88% said that the
following statement was true, 'My country is
unquestionably the best country in the world .' Now the
attitude thus expressed is one that we decidedly do not want
to develop in our classes . . . .The United States is not a land
of opportunity for all our people. . . ."
1939
- Autumn: The Southern Review publishes an article
by Dr. Howard Roelofs, who explains: "Their
[Progressivists] hope is that somehow through suggestion,
guidance, study trips, and the like, teachers and children
will move spontaneously and eagerly from whatever life
problems happen first to appear, to those others which in
fact are inseparable from economic abundance and the rest .
Worries of parents, family quarrels, a hungry child, current
problems confronting the community, will provide of
themselves initial points of contact for the children, and
feeling will do the rest . .. .The study of these will generate
the study of all the auxiliary techniques required for a
solution from milking a cow to the mathematics and
managerial principles of large scale industry . Finally,
genuine solutions, technical and moral will somehow
emerge and at once be joyfully adopted. . . .
Not all who teach, not even all who teach teachers
to teach, accept this new doctrine ; but those who do have
captured control of most of the prominent schools of
education, notably Teachers College at Columbia
University. These men and women, through the system of
training and licensing . . .have thus an unusual opportunity to
propagate their ideas and to further the appointment of their
most eager converts to positions in the public schools. All
these leaders and converts are militant, energetic, with the
fervor of fanatics. .. . (Emphasizing method over knowledge)
gives to the Schools of Education a strangle hold over the
licensing of teachers. .. .A single fact is sufficient to exhibit
the extent and character of their control. The great
majority of instructors and professors in our colleges and
universities, the staffs of the Schools of Education
excluded, are in practice, debarred from teaching in the
public schools."
2 2
-- "Theory of Valuation," an essay by John Dewey is
published concerning the formation of values. This work
will form a partial basis upon which Louis Raths will
develop his 7-part valuing process, and Raths will introduce
the term, "values clarification," in the late 1950s while
teaching at New York State University . Raths will use
situation ethics techniques like the "fallout shelter" scenario
where students have to decide who would live and die in a
hypothetical situation .
- The New York City Board of Education institutes
a 15-week sex education training program for public school
teachers.
- The School-Health Coordinating Service is begun
with support by the Rockefeller Foundation, the General
Education Board, and the State (N.C.). Its work is carried
out through training of teachers in colleges, summer
conferences for school and health workers with
accompanying "child demonstration" schools, and In-
Service or on-the-job programs. A number of teachers
attending from States surrounding N. C. are aided by
Rockefeller Fellowships. These summer conferences and
"child demonstration" schools will be interrupted some
years later due to the polio epidemic . (For the next in a
series of steps toward more and more government
interference in "the family," see related "1967" entry in this
chronology.)
- The National Education Association (NEA)
publishes A Golden Treasury From The Bible, Personal
Growth Leaflet No . 22, containing many important Biblical
passages. Two years later, the NEA will publish The
American Citizens Handbook emphasizing American
patriotism and citizenship. These are in contrast to later
NEA publications and resolutions emphasizing humanistic
principles and globalism or world citizenship.
1940
- The NEA begins promoting the "Building
America" social studies texts, which a California Senate
Investigating Committee on Education will later condemn
for its subtle support for Marxism or Socialism contrary to
American values .
1941
- That Men May Understand by Harold Rugg is
published, in which he describes the Kilpatrick Discussion
Group, composed of himself, William Kilpatrick, George
Counts and others. Rugg frequently acted as chairman of
the discussions which occurred regularly throughout the
1930s, and states that by 1932 "we had become a fairly
cohesive group, taking our stand together for the general
conception of the welfare state.. . ."
February 22: The New York Times prints
Benjamin Fine's (Times Education Editor) interview with
Dr. Ralph Robey commenting upon textbooks : "By and
large, the textbooks commonly used by the 7 million
secondary school children of America are poorly written. . . .
There is a notable tendency to play down what this country
has accomplished and to place the emphasis on
defects.. . .What you get is a critical attitude that is
destructive in its influence."
-- The American Humanist Association is founded by
Edwin Wilson, one of the original 34 signers of the 1933
Humanist Manifesto, who while helping to write the
document called it an "educational instrument meant to
shake up some thinking."
--
	
An Exveriment in the Development of Critical
by Edward Glaser is printed . It is one of the first
books concerning "critical thinking," and follows the
psychodrama and sociometry work of Rumanian psychiatrist
Jacob Moreno in the early part of the century .
1942
- October 13 : The San Francisco Examiner
publishes an article by Dr . John Almack, in which he
comments concerning Progressive Education : "Even under
favorable conditions, it will take us a quarter of a century
to restore American education to the level it held before the
Progressive onslaught.
It is wrong not to utilize human experience to the
fullest extent, not only to teach values and desirable
practices but to expose failure, neglect and wrong
motives. . ..
The Progressive policy of deprecating our history
and of putting it on the scrap heap has materially weakened
national unity and broken the continuity of the social
process. .. .
The cult is also wrong in its play upon experience
and activity as ways to education . All the hordes of
ignorant and uneducated who have trod the earth stand forth
in mute testimony to the fallacy that experience is enough
to develop civilized and ethical men .*
- The American Institute for Character Education is
incorporated. In the Institute's "Character Education and
the Teacher: A Handbook," one will find the familiar term
"clarifying values," and AICE's program will not be based
exclusively upon Judeo or Christian values, but rather upon
ethical concepts shared by major world religions and
cultures.
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Chronology of education-dennis_laurence_cuddy_ph_d-1994-143pgs-edu

  • 1. Chronology of Education Rith Quotable Quotes ....................... I > c Individual Initiative WW04 Change Agents Cooperative Learnin Dennis Lawrence Cuddy, Ph.D.
  • 2. A CHRONOLOGY OF EDUCATION WITH QUOTABLE QUOTES By Dennis Laurence Cuddy, Ph .D .
  • 3. First Printing (tabloid), 1993 Second Printing (updated tabloid), 1993 Third Printing (updated, bound volume), 1994 Published in the United States by Pro Family Forum, Inc . P . 0 . Box 1059 Highland City, Florida 33846 Copyright ® 1994 by Dennis Laurence Cuddy, Ph .D . V3.1
  • 4. Dedicated to the Memory of JO-ANN K . ABRIGG who was the founder of the Committee For Positive Education in 1972 with the Purpose of "promoting education which will teach basic skills, instill our heritage and once again promote the virtues of achievement, competition and individuality," and FRANCES J . REILLY who had a faithful devotion to her family and friends, and was always willing to help others, especially those who cared about and tried to protect the minds and souls of children by alerting parents about the increasing undermining of our educational system .
  • 5. CONTENTS Introduction Page 1 Concluding Remarks Page 113 Index Page 115 1750 - 1800 Page 3 1801 - 1850 Page 5 1851 - 1900 Page 7 1901 - 1950 Page 11 1951 - 2000 Page 28
  • 6. A CHRONOLOGY OF EDUCATION WITH QUOTABLE QUOTESm If someone told the American people today that he or she and those with the same philosophy or ideology were going to destroy the values parents were instilling in their children, and that these same people were going to take control of the country there would be a tremendous and swift reaction by the American public . However, when almost the same things were said by Humanists Sidney Hook and H. J. Blackham, the public hardly reacted at all. In the January/February, 1977 issue of The Humanist, Hook (signer of the 1973 Humanist Manifesto) wrote that "human beings can be influenced to examine critically their religious beliefs only by indirection, (by which) I mean the development of a critical attitude in all our educational institutions that will aim to make students less credulous to claims that transcend their reflective experience ." And in the September/October 1981 issue of The Humanist, Blackham (a founder of the 4 million member International Humanist and Ethical Union) proclaimed that if schools teach dependence on one's self, "they are more revolutionary than any conspiracy to overthrow the government. " These are not isolated quotations, and the following chronology concerning what has happened in the area of education from the 18th century to the present will begin with a historical perspective . In 1762, Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote Emile concerning his philosophy of "permissive education ." He followed this with his Social Contract, which gave impetus to the French Revolution, from which sprang the idea that "philosopher kings" or elitists should rule the masses through social engineering and a Socialist form of government. Education would be non-sectarian, and in the United States, Horace Mann (father of public education in the U. S .) and later John Dewey (father of "progressive education" in the U . S.) would adopt this same non- sectarian philosophy. In the early part of the current century, Dewey and his "progressive" disciples published many works furthering their cause, and were given a great By Dennis Laurence Cuddy, Ph .D. Introduction deal of financial support from various tax-exempt foundations. After the Second World War, UNESCO added an international dimension to the picture. And by the early 1950s "progressive educators" (largely from Teachers College, Columbia University) had obtained key positions in Colleges of Education and as school superintendents and principals around the nation, from which they could appoint teachers to their liking . By the early 1960s, sufficient "progressive" teachers were in place throughout the land, so that education in general shifted from an emphasis on the cognitive academic basics to the affective domain of feelings and relationships . The monumental Elementary and Secondary Education Act became law in 1965 with a tremendous amount of federal dollars for "innovative" programs. With all of this "innovation," school discipline became lax, and grade inflation along with social promotions soon followed in a major way . By the early 1970s, National Education Association presidents such as Catherine Barrett were so emboldened that they began to talk of de-emphasizing academic basics in favor of teachers becoming philosophical "change agents." Comprehensive sex education was brought into schools more and more at this time, and because teachers had bought a "don't impose morality" approach to education, it was non-morally-based sex education . No one seemed to ask why, if school prayer had to be discontinued because that was government promoting religion, shouldn't non-morally-based sex education also be prohibited because it promoted immoral sexual activities . Toward the end of the decade of the 1970s, NEA presidents were talking even more openly about their political power, and resolutions were passed at their annual conventions which went far beyond the realm of education (e.g., resolutions supporting abortion rights) . For many years, spokespersons for the NEA had been promoting the
  • 7. 2 teaching of world citizenship, and by the beginning of the 1990s, the New World Order was on its way. More and more citizens are speaking out against the disastrous trend in American education, but when they express their concerns, they are usually met by "progressive educators" with comments like "your problem is just an isolated example ." In order to demonstrate that the problems with American education have not only been going on for many years, but are also by no means just isolated examples, the following chronology is offered . It contains many quotations by the "progressives" themselves as well as others who clearly show what in reality has transpired.
  • 8. 1762 Emile by Jean Jacques Rousseau (whose Social Contract influenced the French Revolution) is published promoting permissive education that is child-centered, and in which a teacher "should avoid strict discipline and tiresome lessons" (Encyclopaedia Britannica). Rousseau (1712-1788) and Pestalozzi (1746-1827) believe the "whole child" should be educated by "doing," and that religion should not be a guiding principle in education. Rousseau feels that the educational ideal is one teacher to one child, but he also believes in benefits from "group" education for which he refers people to Plato's Republic. 1776 - May 1: The Illuminati is founded by Adam Weishaupt, who will state as part of his conspiratorial plan: "We must win the common people in every comer . This will be obtained chiefly by means of the schools, and by open, hearty behavior. Show condescension, popularity, and toleration of their prejudices, which we at leisure shall root out and dispel ." 1783 - Noah Webster's "Blue-backed Speller" is written, teaching principles of religion and morality in addition to the English language. It will sell over 100 million copies in a century, and during that time will often be accompanied by The New England Primer (first printed in Boston in 1690, the first textbook ever printed in America), used by the Founding Fathers to teach reading and Bible lessons in schools. 1787 Congress passes the Northwest Ordinance, Article 3 of which reads: "Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged." 1750 -1800 1796 -- September: President George Washington delivers his "Farewell Address" before Congress, and states: "Let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion . Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle." This statement by President Washington is extremely important, since in the future the public schools of the nation will increasingly teach humanistic morality rather than the principles of the Judeo or Christian religion upon which education during the early years of the nation had been based. 1798 - Proofs of a Conspiracy by University of Edinburgh Professor John Robison is printed describing Weishaupt's Order of the Illuminati, which Professor Robison says still subsists. From German documents regarding the IIluminati, Robison writes: ". ..the discernment of the pupils in matters is learned by questions which are given to them from time to time to discuss. These are managed with delicacy and circumspection, that the timid may not be alarmed . In like manner, the political doctrines of the Order are inculcated with the utmost caution. After the mind of the pupil has been warmed by the pictures of universal happiness, and convinced that it is a possible thing to unite all the inhabitants of the earth in one great society, and after it has been made out, in some measure to the satisfaction of the pupil, that a great addition of happiness is gained by the abolition of national distinctions and animosities, it may frequently be no hard task to make him think that patriotism is a narrow-minded monopolising sentiment .. . .The Order was to govern the world. . . (saying) 'We must acquire the direction of education.' The pupils are convinced that the Order will rule the world. . . .And, as necessary preparations for all this, they intended to root out all religion and ordinary morality, and even to break the bonds of domestic life, by destroying the veneration of marriage-vows, and by taking the education of children out of the hands of the parents. This was all that the Illuminati could teach." 3
  • 9. 4 1800 National Education in the United States of America by Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours is written at the request of Vice-President Thomas Jefferson after the author had surveyed education in the United States, about which he wrote: "The United States are more advanced in their educational facilities than most countries. They have a large number of primary schools ; and as their paternal affection protects young children from working in the fields, it is possible to send them to the school-master---a condition which does not prevail in Europe . Most young Americans, therefore, can read, write and cipher. . . .England, Holland, the Protestant Cantons of Switzerland, more nearly approach the standard of the United States, because in those countries the Bible is read ; and in that form of religion the sermons and liturgy in the language of the people tend to increase and formulate ideas of responsibility.. .. In America, a great number of people read the Bible.. . ." Du Pont was arrested by Robespierre in 1794 and almost executed. He opposed the Jacobin Party of the French Revolution, and arrived in New York in January 1800. He dates the completion of this book done at Jefferson's request as June 15, 1800, and the first edition is printed in French at Paris. His son, Victor Marie Du Pont will become director of the Bank of the United States . Gustavus Myer in History of the Great American Fortunes (1936) remarks that "under the surface, the Rothschilds long had a powerful influence in dictating American financial laws . The law records show that they were the power in the old Bank of the United States." This bank, which will exist from 1816 to 1836, will be abolished by President Andrew Jackson, who will warn: "The bold effort the present bank had made to control the government, the distress it had wantonly produced. ..are but premonitions of the fate that awaits the American people should they be deluded into a perpetuation of this institution or the establishment of another like it." Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours' other son, Eleuthere Irenee, will found E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co. gunpowder firm. And almost 200 years later, in the early 1990s, Edgar Miles Bronfman (chairman and CEO of Seagram Co. Ltd., and Council on Foreign Relations member) will be Director of E . I. Du Pont de Nemours and his brother, Charles Rosner Bronfman (co-chairman of Seagram Co. Ltd.), will be on the Board of Directors of E. I. Du Ppnt de Nemours, while on page 8A of The New York Times, March 22, 1993, there will be a photograph of "President Clinton speaking with Sheila Bronfman, a family friend." When in high school, Bill Clinton will readily participate in the DeMolays, and in 1988, he will be inducted into the DeMolay International Hall of Fame. According to a Masonic publication, "more than 3,000,000 young men have knelt at the altars of DeMolay around the world" since its founding in 1919 . The organization will be named for Jacques DeMolay, Grand Master of the Knights Templar, which was a powerful military and religious organization established around 900 years ago, and which was accused of plotting to control the existing civilized Western world. After Jacques DeMolay and many other Knights Templar were executed, it is possible that many of the remaining Templars merged with the Knights of St . John of Jerusalem, according to historical research . The father of Charles and Edgar Bronfman, whose name will be Samuel Bronfman, will be a Mason and member of the Order St. John of Jerusalem ( comdr. br.).
  • 10. 1806 Pestalozzi's educational ideas begin to be printed in journals and textbooks in the U . S., and begin to be used in some school programs, especially in New England where they will be viewed favorably by the intelligentsia of Horace Mann's day . (See History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United States by Will Monroe, 1907 .) 1823 - Thomas H. Gallaudet begins teaching his children with the "look-say" or "whole word" method, and will later found a college for the deaf. This method of reading instruction developed by Gallaudet will increasingly replace the highly successful intensive phonics method . 1829 - The Working-Men's Party is founded in New York by Orestes Brownson, Robert Dale Owen, and Frances Wright who joined Owen at his New Harmony, Indiana, commune in 1828. After Brownson converted to Christianity, he revealed (in The Works of Orestes Brownson their plan in establishing the Working-Men's Party: "The great object was to get rid of Christianity, and to convert our churches into halls of science . The plan was not to make open attacks upon religion, although we might belabor the clergy and bring them into contempt where we could ; but to establish a system of state-we said national---schools, from which all religion was to be excluded, in which nothing was to be taught but such knowledge as is verifiable by the senses, and to which all parents were to be compelled by law to send their children . Our complete plan was to take the children from their parents at the age of twelve or eighteen months, and to have them nursed, fed, clothed, and trained in these schools at the public expense ; but at any rate, we were to have godless schools for all the children of the country ....The plan has been successfully pursued. .. and the whole action of the country on the subject has taken the direction we sought to give it... .One of the principal movers of the scheme had no mean share in organizing the Smithsonian Institute ." The connection between The Working-Men's Party, Robert Owen (founder of the New Harmony commune, and father of Robert Dale Owen), Pestalozzi 1801 -1850 5 and Horace Mann ("Father of American public education") is very important. In Horace Mann: Educational Statesman (1937), Heidelberg College (Ohio) Professor of Education, E.I.F. Williams will write : "The 'workingmen's movement' was an organization of the liberals in opposition to the conservative order. ...Its members were the radical wing of the Jacksonian democracy....In 1831 a large convention (of the Working-Men's Party) made up of farmers and workmen was held in Boston. ...Leaders such as Horace Mann (in Massachusetts) .. .urged their cause. Education was advanced as the surest and best method of advancing their aspirations .. ..Labor leaders were enthusiastic about education in tax-supported schools.. ..Education soon took first place among the reforms they demanded. They urged the necessity of an 'equal, universal, republican system of education .' . ..Reform was the watchword of the day... .More than two hundred communists' Utopias were established... .For two or three decades they centered the attention of the country on socialistic and communistic schemes for human betterment . One of the most famous of the communities was established at New Harmony, Indiana, by Robert Owen, the Scotch reformer. In his opening address at New Harmony in 1825, he had stated, `I am come to this country to introduce an entire new order of society; to change it from the ignorant selfish system, to an enlightened social system, which shall gradually unite all interests into one and remove all cause for contest between individuals .' Owen brought William McClure, 'father of American geology,' to organize his school. He first introduced the Pestalozzian system into the United States.. ..Later the Pestalozzian movement spread to other sections (of the country), and among its enthusiastic champions were Horace Mann.. .. Very soon (after New Harmony) another society based on Owen's principles was begun at Yellow Springs, Ohio, where Antioch College was to be founded." Horace Mann would be president of Antioch College from 1853 to his death on August 2, 1859. E.I.F. Williams will continue to write : "The French slogans of Eaalitd and Fraternitd had intrenched themselves in the thinking of western Europeans who transferred them to America ." - Frances Wright (after joining Robert Dale Owen at the New Harmony, Indiana, commune) becomes, according to Samuel Morison's, Henry Steele Commager's and
  • 11. 6 William Leuchtenburg's college textbook A Concise History of the American Republic, vol. 1, "a lecture-platform apostle of woman's rights, free inquiry in religion, free marital union, birth control, and a system which she called 'National, Rational, Republican Education, Free for All at the Expense of All, Conducted under the Guardianship of the State,' apart from the contaminating influence of parents. " 1836 -- The complete set of McGuffey Readers first begins to be printed. Developed by William H . McGuffey, and based upon a direct, intensive and systematic phonics approach to reading instruction, these Readers emphasize Biblical principles such as "Trust in the Lord, and do good" (Psalm 37:3). In the next 75 years, 122 million copies will be sold. 1837 -- Horace Mann ("Father of American public education" who was greatly influenced by Rousseau and Pestalozzi) establishes the first "normal" (public) school in the U. S., as part of his effort to promote non-sectarian education. He believes in character education without creeds. Lawrence Cremin in Transformation of the School (1961) says: "For Mann the essence of the moral act was free self-choice." Like Rousseau, Mann believes that education in groups can have a beneficial socialization effect. 1840 The first American edition of the second volume of Alexis De Tocqueville's Democracy in America is published. In a later translation by George Lawrence, Tocqueville remarks concerning potential despotisms that democracies might face: "I do not expect their leaders to be tyrants, but rather schoolmasters." In the original Henry Reeve translation, Tocqueville further stated regarding such a despotism: "it would degrade men without tormenting them.. . .As for the rest of (one's) fellow citizens, he is close to them, but he does not see them ; he touches them, but he does not feel them; he exists only in himself and for himself alone. . . . Above this race of men stands an immense and tutelary power, which takes upon itself alone to secure their gratifications and to watch over their fate. That power is absolute, minute, regular, provident, and mild. It would be like the authority of a parent . . . .It provides for their security, foresees and supplies their necessities, facilitates their pleasures, manages their principal concerns, directs their industry. . ..After having thus successively taken each member of the community in its powerful grasp and fashioned him at will, the supreme power then extends its arm over the whole community . It covers the surface of society with a network of small complicated rules, minute and uniform. .. .The will of man is not shattered, but softened, bent, and guided. . . .It does not tyrannize, but it compresses, enervates, extinguishes, and stupefies a people, till each nation is reduced to nothing better than a flock of timid and industrious animals, of which the government is the shepherd. . . .It is vain to summon a people who have been rendered so dependent on the central power to choose from time to time the representatives of that power; this rare and brief exercise of their free choice . .. .will not prevent them from gradually losing the faculties of thinking, feeling, and acting for themselves, and thus gradually falling below the level of humanity." Doesn't this sound like late 20th century America? 1844 -- The U.S. Supreme Court announces its decision in Vidal v. Girard's Executors. In this case, a Philadelphia school had taken the position that it would teach students morality, but not Christianity . However, the High Court ruled against the school, saying : "Why may not the Bible, and especially the New Testament. . .be read and taught as a divine revelation in the (schools)-its general precepts expounded. ..and its glorious principles of morality inculcated? Where can the purest principles of morality be learned so clearly or so perfectly as from the New Testament?"
  • 12. 1857 Kindergartens begin in the U . S. in Watertown, NY, and spread rapidly. They were developed in Europe by Friedrich Froebel (Universal German Education Institution, 1816) and are based upon the principle of learning through play (doing), which will be supported by John Dewey. (See The Kindergarten in American Education by Nina Vandewalker, 1923 .) The National Education Association (NEA) is founded, but until 1870 it is called the National Teachers Association. In the 20th century, it will become officially a "labor union." 1860 Education: Intellectual. Moral, and Physical by Herbert Spencer is published expressing his belief that the ideal education is complete preparation for living, including the maintenance of proper social and political relations . In this regard, he believes science is most important, and almost 9 years before Darwin's The Origin of Species (1859), Spencer wrote Social Statics (1851) giving an evolutionary thesis of human development that would later be called "Social Darwinism ." 1864 - John Swett, California State Superintendent of Public Instruction, declares: "The vulgar impression that parents have a legal right to dictate to teachers is entirely erroneous ....The only persons who have a legal right to give orders to the teacher are his employers, namely the committee in some states and in others the directors or trustees....If his conduct is approved of by his employers, the parents have no remedy against him or them." (Quoted in Z. Montgomery's 1886 Poison Drops) 1865 - American Association of School Administrators is founded as a professional organization for leaders of U.S. education systems and those in other parts of the world. 1851 -1900 1869 Charles Eliot is appointed president of Harvard University and delivers his inaugural address, in which he remarks: "The very word `education' is a standing protest against dogmatic teaching . The notion that education consists in the authoritative inculcation of what the teacher deems true may be logical and appropriate in a convent or a seminary for priests, but it is intolerable in universities and public schools, from primary to professional ." Eliot will this year have the results of his 2-year study of education in Europe published as "The New Education: Its Organization" in The Atlantic Monthly. He will remain president of Harvard until 1909, and in 1912 he will be a vice-president of the First International Congress on Eugenics. In Volume 23 of The Atlantic Monthly is printed "The New Education" by Charles Eliot, who stresses the pure and applied sciences, modem European languages, and mathematics. He is influenced by Herbert Spencer in this regard, and further explains his ideas in Educational Reform (1898). 1879 -- Wilhelm Wundt establishes the first laboratory in experimental psychology at the University of Leipzig (Pavlov will study there in 1884). The first of his American students is G . Stanley Hall, who will be John Dewey's mentor at Johns Hopkins University (where Dewey receives his doctorate in 1884). Educational experimentalists James McKeen Cattell, Charles Judd and James Earl Russell will also receive their doctorates from Wundt. At Columbia University, Russell (Dean of Teachers College) will hire Edward Lee Thorndike, who will have studied under Judd and psychologist William James, the latter of whom also influenced John Dewey and supervised the completion of G . Stanley Hall's doctorate at Harvard University before Hall went to Leipzig . 1883 - G. Stanley Hall (influenced by Wilhelm Preyer; see Die Seele des Kindes, Leipzig 1882) establishes his laboratory at Johns Hopkins University, and the next year his monograph "The Contents of Children's Minds" will be 7
  • 13. 8 published based upon questionnaire data. He believes curriculum should be determined by such data . - Talks on Teaching by Francis Parker is printed . Parker (whom John Dewey would call "the father of Progressive Education") had studied in Europe the ideas of Pestalozzi, Froebel and Herbart (Pestalozzi concerning method, Froebel pertaining to views of the child, and Herbart regarding the doctrine of concentration), synthesizing them into a scientific pedagogy . 1884 -- The Fabian Society is founded at the beginning of the year, not long after the death of Karl Marx . Unlike the openly revolutionary Socialistic or Communistic goals of Marxism, Fabians plan to achieve Socialist governments more gradually. To accomplish their aims, they produce a number of tracts, research pamphlets, books and other publications. A few of these will be listed here, and when reading them, one should reflect upon their similarity to what is happening in the United States today (e.g., school- based clinics, Hillary Clinton's national health plan, etc .): Tracts The Workers' Political Programme (1890) State Education at Home and Abroad (1894) The Workers' School Board Programme (1894) The Secret of Rural Depopulation (1904) Public Service Versus Private Expenditure (1905) Socialism and the Churches (1908) The Case for School Nurseries (1909) What a Health Committee Can Do (1910) The Case for School Clinics (1911) A National Medical Service (1911) Robert Owen, Idealist (1917), refer to Owen earlier in this chronology . The Teacher in Politics (1918) International Co-operative Trade (1922) Co-operative Education (1923) Nursery Education (1941) Disarmament-the Way Ahead (1957) Research Pamphlets An International Monetary Agreement (1933) Nurseries and Nursery Schools (1944) Books and Other Publications A Public Medical Service (1919) The Decay of Capitalist Civilisation (1923) 1885 -- June: The examination for admission to Jersey City High School is given (printed in the Hudson Dispatch of Union City, NJ, and reprinted in Phyllis Schlafly's Education Reporter, September 1993) and contains items such as the following : "Define Algebra, an algebraic expression, a polynomial . Make a literal trinomial." "Write a sentence containing a noun used as an attribute, a verb in the perfect tense potential mood, and a proper adjective." And "What caused the War of 1812? Who was president during that war? What was the result of it?" (Note that in a 1986 assessment of 17-year-old juniors by the National Assessment of Educational Progress, over 40 % did not know that World War I occurred sometime between 1900 and 1950. And in a 1992 assessment, NAEP found that only 6 % of American high school graduates are ready for college math.) 1886 Poison Drops in the Federal Senate : The School Question from a Parental and Non-Sectarian Standpoint by Zachary Montgomery (nominated for U. S. Attorney- General) is published. He informs that after about two hundred years of public education in Massachusetts, the 1860 census figures showed that state to have one native white criminal to every 649 people, while Virginia, which always left the educational control of children to their parents, had only one criminal to every 6,566 inhabitants . Moreover, the aggregate figure for suicides in six northeastern states where the states controlled education was one to every 13,285, but in six mid-Atlantic and southern coastal states where parents controlled education, the aggregate for suicides was one to every 56,584. Why? Montgomery found that there were two causes--first, the loss of parental authority and home influence over children, through and by means of a state-controlled system of education; and second, a neglect of moral and religious education and training . After reading Montgomery's analysis, letters of support were sent to him by such individuals as John LeConte (president of the California State University) and George Washington (grand-nephew and nearest living relative to President Washington) . 1889 G. Stanley Hall becomes president of Clark University, which becomes a center for research and writing on child development. Two years later, he will The Nationalisation of Banking (1934) Regionalism (1949)
  • 14. establish the journal Peda¢oeical Seminary (a fitting title, since the "progressive educators" seemed to be establishing a "religion" of education). He will further describe his theories in Adolescence (1904) and Educational Problems (1911). 1890 - Mrs. Emmons Blaine gives Francis Parker $1 million to endow a private teacher-training school that would be called the Chicago Institute (which would become part of the new School of Education at the University of Chicago). 1892 The Elements of General Method by Charles McMurry is published describing how the American "progressive educator" followers of German philosopher and educator Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) want to develop a scientific approach to pedagogy and psychologize the teaching of subject matter . (See also Charles De Garmo's Herbart and the Herbartians, 1896.) The New York College for the Training of Teachers receives its permanent charter as Columbia University's Teachers College, where John Dewey will have a tremendous influence (as well as at the University of Chicago). 1894 - Talks on Pedaaogics by Francis Parker is published, in which he paraphrases Froebel: "The spontaneous tendencies of the child are the records of inborn divinity. .. . We are here, my fellow-teachers, for one purpose, and that purpose is to understand these tendencies and continue them in all directions, following nature ." His educational philosophy seems to be most like that of Rousseau. - The Deweys move to Chicago and enroll John Dewey's son, Fred, in Miss Flora Cooke's first grade class at Cook County Normal School run by Francis Parker (G . Stanley Hall once wrote to Parker that he visited Cook County annually "to set my educational watch"). The next year, Dewey's daughter, Evelyn, will do likewise . 1895 - The Fabian Socialists establish the London School of Economics (which Mick Jagger of the Rolling Stones would later attend) as part of their plan to further Socialism . Beatrice Webb was a founder of the Fabians and in Beatrice Webb:ALife 1858-1943, she is quoted as saying : "We can now feel assured that with the London School of Economics as a teaching body, the Fabian Society as a propagandist organisation, the London City Council Progressives as an object lesson in (our) electoral success, our books as the only elaborate and original work in economic fact and theory, no young man or woman who is anxious to study or to work in public affairs can fail to come under our influence." Addresses and Proceedings is published by the NEA, in which its Committee of Fifteen declares: "Modern education emphasizes the opinion that the child, not the subject of study, is the guide to the teacher's efforts. " 1896 - January: The Dewey School, an educational laboratory, opens at the University of Chicago (behavioral psychologist John Watson will receive his doctorate under Dewey at the University of Chicago in 1903) . Dewey begins his experimental "Laboratory School," beginning with 16 pupils (including his 2 children) and 2 teachers . (By 1902 the school would grow to 140 students, 23 instructors and 10 assistants .) Dewey is the school's director, his wife is its principal, and Ella Flagg Young (later to become Chicago's first woman Superintendent of Schools) is supervisor of instruction. Mrs. Young had suggested the name "Laboratory School" to Dewey, who referred to her as "the wisest person in school matters with whom he has come in contact in any way ." 1897 My Pedaaoaic Creed by John Dewey ("Father of Progressive Education," honorary president of the National Education Association in 1932, and co-author of the 1933 Humanist Manifesto) is published, in which he states: "I believe the true center of correlation on the school subjects is not science, nor literature, nor history, nor geography, but the child's social activities . . . .! believe that the school is primarily a social institution .. . .The teacher's business is simply to determine, on the basis of larger experience and riper wisdom, how the discipline of life shall come to the child.. . .All the questions of the grading of the child and his promotion should be determined by reference to the same standard. Examinations are of use only so far as they test the child's fitness for social life. .. ." - The National Congress of Mothers is founded . The name will be changed in 1908 to National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teachers Associations, and again in 9
  • 15. 1 0 1925 to National Congress of Parents and Teachers . Finally in 1976 it becomes known as National PTA- National Congress of Parents and Teachers . 1898 John Dewey writes an essay titled "The Primary Education Fetish," in which he attacks the teaching of reading in the primary grades, saying "It does not follow that because this course was once wise it is so any longer. . ..The plea for the predominance of learning to read in early school life because of the great importance attaching to literature seems to be a perversion ." Similarly, Dewey's psychology mentor at Johns Hopkins University, G. Stanley Hall, proclaimed elsewhere the benefits of illiteracy, stating that "illiterates. . .escape much eye strain and mental excitement.. .and certain temptations ." 1899 The School and Society by John Dewey is published with him revealing that "The relegation of the merely symbolic and formal to a secondary position ; the change in the moral school atmosphere. ..are not mere accidents, they are necessities of the larger social evolution." He approvingly quotes Friedrich Froebel that "the primary root of all educative activity is in the instinctive, impulsive attitudes of children, and not in the presentation and application of external material, whether through the ideas of others or through the senses ." Dewey, a number of years later, also will help to found the Intercollegiate Socialist Society . Dunbar High School (in Washington, DC, and attended by blacks) students score highest in city-wide tests given both black and white schools. This is despite the fact that Dunbar does not have very good physical facilities or financial support; its class sizes are large ; and most of the parents of Dunbar students are unskilled or semi-skilled . However, Dunbar students have parental support and encouragement. -- July 1 : Cecil Rhodes signs his last Will including "Rhodes scholarships" as part of his plan for world domination. The plan was first described in his "Confession of Faith" on June 2, 1877, and began with "On the present day I become a member in the Masonic Order ." According to John Flint in Cecil Rhodes (1974), "then follows the elaboration of the plan for a secret society, composed, like the Jesuit order" (the Illuminati founder Weishaupt did likewise, and Karl Marx also mentioned learning from them in terms of organization) "of dedicated fanatics, supported by men of wealth, attracting and even educating men of talent without means, placing its members in all the colonial legislatures, feeding and acquiring ownership of newspapers (`for the press rules the mind of the people')." In 1993, Rhodes scholar Bill Clinton (who along with wife, Hillary, will serve on a Rhodes Scholarship Selection Committee) will become President of the United States. In that regard, Christopher Hitchens will write in The Nation (December 14, 1992) about how Clinton has surrounded himself with other Rhodes scholars, and "a Rhodesian formation imparts a definite sense of knowing what is best. ..for others. It has helped bestow a patina of refinement on the raw exercise of power, and has shaped the contours of the permanent party of government as it exists in law, lobbying, business, intelligence, diplomacy and the military. . ..In (George Bush's) establishment heart, he must have realized that nothing is more calculated than a Rhodes background to assure a smooth and equable transition ."
  • 16. 1901 Nicholas Murray Butler becomes president of Columbia University. He had helped organize Teachers College there, and would be a major figure in organizing the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace . 1902 The General Education Board, established by John D. Rockefeller, Sr., is chartered. In Raymond Fosdick's memorial history of the Board, he indicates that it will be part of John D . Rockefeller, Jr.'s effort toward "this goal of social control ." 1904 John Dewey leaves the University of Chicago and joins the Department of Philosophy at Columbia University. He begins to lead the "Progressive Education" movement . In Dr. Milo McDonald's American Education-The Old, The Modern and The "New" (1952), one reads: "Dewey favored and taught the desirability of extending the kindergarten (Froebelian) idea to the elementary school and to the high school as well . He advocated the theory of the freedom of untrammeled self-expression to be granted the learner; he favored the dominance of the 'whole child' in the classroom. Dewey conceived of education as an informal process of learning from which all restraint was to disappear, and not as a formal process directed by a trained teacher leading the learner toward good personal character; . . . according to Dewey the teacher was to follow the child who, by reason of his natural inclination, would be directed toward the personal goals he should achieve by co-operation with others in the efforts of humanity to achieve an ideal social democracy .. . .The work that has been done in this, the first half of the twentieth century, in the name of education and the relationship of that work to the attempt to build in this country a new social order of socialistic design is the work of those who have been closely associated with Dr. Dewey at Teachers College.. ..The degeneration of the schools of the United States throughout the past fifteen years is directly related to his instrumentalistic philosophy, to his theories of the relativity of ideas, to his exaggerated pragmatism and to his influence and that of his associates at Teachers College in 1901 -1950 directing American education toward the values which atheistic socialism approves ." 1905 - September 12: The Intercollegiate Socialist Society is organized by Upton Sinclair, Jack London, Clarence Darrow and others. It will establish its permanent headquarters at the Rand School of Social Science in 1908, and its name will later be changed to the League for Industrial Democracy . (John Dewey will be the LID's president in 1935 .) -- The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is founded . 1906 -- June 30: The National Education Association (NEA) becomes federally chartered or incorporated (H.R. 10501), (Public, No . 398) . 1908 -- July: The Hibbert Journal, includes an article, "Religion and Our Schools," by John Dewey, which reveals: "Our schools...are performing an infinitely significant religious work . They are promoting the social unity out of which in the end genuine religious unity must grow....Religion. ..associated with .. . dogmatic beliefs.. .we see.. .disappearing ... .It is increased knowledge of nature which has made supra-nature incredible, or at least difficult of belief... .We take note of the decay of cohesion and influence among the religiously organised bodies of the familiar historic type....It may be that the symptoms of religious ebb as conventionally interpreted are symptoms of the coming of a fuller and deeper religion . .. .It is the part of men to labour persistently and patiently for the clarification and development of the positive creed of life implicit in democracy and in science, and to work for the transformation of all practical instrumentalities of education till they are in harmony with these ideas." The article is also reprinted in Dewey's Education Todav (1940). 11
  • 17. 12 - Eleven-year-old Avis Carlson passes a test in a one-room schoolhouse in Kansas, which she recalls in her book Small World. Long Gone: A Family Record of an Era (1977): "The orthography quiz asked us to spell twenty words, including elucidation and animosity . . . . An arithmetic question asked us to find the interest on an eight percent note for nine hundred dollars running two years, two months, six days. .. .In reading, we were required to tell what we knew of the writings of Thomas Jefferson . . .and give the meanings of words such as panegyric and eyrie. . ..Among geography's ten questions was, `Name two countries producing large quantities of wheat, two of cotton, two of coal .' . . .In history, we were to `name the principle political questions which have been advocated since the Civil War and the party which advocated each .'" There is simply no comparison between this test and the relatively easy multiple choice nationally standardized tests American students will take years later . - Italian educator Maria Montessori develops the "Montessori method" of teaching relying upon guidance and training of senses rather than rigid control of students' activities. This is supposed to encourage self-education . Her work will be carried by the Theosophical Publishing House. And in Education for a New World, she will write that "The world was not created for us to enjoy, but we are created to evolve the cosmos . .. . Even if two children want the same material, they should be left to settle the problem for themselves unless they call for the teacher's aid." Thus one can see elements of "permissive education" and the "new age" in Montessori . In fact, she will indicate that her "new education" would result in a "new age," to use her words. And she believes that forcibly removing a misbehaving child from a group would be violating his or her "individual liberty." 1910 - The U. S. Census Bureau reports that illiteracy among those 10 to 20 years of age is down to 4 .7 % from 7.6 % in 1900. The nation is well on its way to wiping out illiteracy, until the "progressive educators" succeed in establishing the "look-say" or "whole word" method of reading instruction in most schools, replacing the previously successful intensive phonics method . - Educational publisher Edwin Ginn founds the World Peace Foundation (formerly the International School of Peace). One of the first books published by the foundation will be The First Book of World Law (1911) with chapters on "The World Judiciary," "The World Executive," and "The Universal Postal Union." 1912 -- The National Education Association (NEA) begins to promote the training of teachers in sex education and sex hygiene. 1913 - The National Education Association (NEA) establishes the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education, which has a membership including several "young rebels" of the era. The Commission will produce a report in 1918 containing seven cardinal principles or objectives for the education of every American boy and girl, including "ethical character." - Occasional Letter, No. 1 is published by the General Education Board (founded 1902). It is by Frederick Gates (appointed by John D . Rockefeller as chairman of the Board), who remarks that "In our dream, we have limitless resources, and the people yield themselves with perfect docility to our molding hand. The present educational conventions fade from our minds; and, unhampered by tradition, we work our own good will upon a grateful and responsive rural folk ." 1914 - Walter Scott, the secretary of the New England Education League, succeeds in having a bill introduced in Congress (H.R. 12247) "to create an international board of education and a fund for international or world education ." 1915 - Rockefeller's General Education Board (GEB) meets with Charles Eliot and Abraham Flexner present. Flexner claims that Eliot initiates a conversation about a possible "model school," and that therefore Eliot is the real founder of the Lincoln School . In Flexner's autobiography, I Remember (1940), though, it seems clear that the idea for such a school originated in his own experience when he organized a school as a young man in Louisville, Kentucky . At the GEB meeting, Eliot states: "I have long wanted some such experiment; now I should regard it as a calamity if we, having in our service the one man best fitted to organize such a school, should fail to give him and the country a chance." The "one man," Flexner, developed his essay "A Modem School" (see American Review of Reviews, vol. 53, 1916), influenced by Dewey and Eliot . His utilitarian school would be organized around science, industry, aesthetics and civics . Modem European languages would be in, and much of conventional math
  • 18. would be out. On January 1, 1917, the GEB agreed to meet the costs of the school, and on September 24, 1917, the school will come into existence as the Lincoln School of Teachers College. Harold Rugg would be one of the teachers in the secondary division, and in his Foundations for American Education (1947), he would say their motto was "Try anything once and see if it works ." The Lincoln School would be similar in many ways to Dewey's "Laboratory School . " By 1916, Dewey would become the recognized leader of the "progressive educators, " otherwise known as "Frontier Thinkers." The National Association of Directors of Educational Research is formed, and leading "progressive educator" Harold Rugg will become its president in 1921 . The organization's name will change in 1930 to the American Educational Research Association (AERA) . The "Educational Trust" known as the Cleveland Group (because its first meeting is in Cleveland) meets for the first time. Among the members of the Group are: George Strayer (professor at Teachers College and NEA president 1918-1919), Elwood Cubberly (dean of Stanford University's School of Education), Walter Jessup (president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching), William H. Kilpatrick (professor at Teachers College), James Angell (colleague of John Dewey and trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation), Leonard Ayers (director of the Russell Sage Foundation), Abraham Flexner (director of the Rockefeller Institute), Paul Hanus (established Harvard University's Graduate School of Education with the help of Rockefeller's General Education Board), Frank Spaulding (received his Ph.D. from Leipzig and became a member of Rockefeller's General Education Board), Paul Monroe (founded the World Federation of Education Associations), Edward Thorndike (colleague of John Dewey), and leader of the "Educational Trust" Charles Judd (colleague of John Dewey) who received his Ph.D. from Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig in 18% . In David Tyack's and Elisabeth Hansot's Managers of Virtue (1982), Judd is quoted as urging the Cleveland Conference to attempt "the positive and aggressive task of. ..a detailed reorganization of the materials of instruction in schools of all grades. ..." Tyack and Hansot will also write: "There were `placement barons,' usually professors of educational administration in universities such as Teachers College, Harvard, University of Chicago, or Stanford who had an inside track in placing their graduates in important positions . One educator commented after spending a weekend with Cubberly in Palo Alto that 'Cubberly had an educational Tammany Hall that made the Strayer-Engelhardt Tammany Hall in New York look very weak'....[And] one principal recalled 'Strayer's Law' for dealing with disloyal subordinates was `Give 'em the ax . 1" This is the beginning of a plan to use the "credentialing process" to control education . Around the turn of the century, the molders of society established tax-exempt foundations to which they would donate large sums of money, thus avoiding the payment of taxes on those funds . These foundations, in turn, would promote the world view or ideology of their benefactor by providing scholarships or grants to individuals who were "politically correct" in their thinking. Through this funding, these scholars would be able to have their works published and thereby establish credentials enabling them to receive appointments to the government or as university departmental chairmen (who could appoint faculty members, who in turn could select graduate students, who would become school superintendents and principals, who would hire school faculty, who would teach students the "politically correct" way of thinking). 1916 - Democracy and Education by John Dewey is printed, in which he writes: "From a social standpoint, dependence denotes a power rather than a weakness; it involves interdependence. There is always a danger that increased personal independence will decrease the social capacity of an individual. In making him more self-reliant, it may make him more self-sufficient .. . . It often makes an individual so insensitive in his relations to others as to develop an illusion of being really able to stand and .act alone-an unnamed form of insanity which is responsible for a large part of the remedial suffering of the world ." 1917 Columbia University's Lincoln School is established at the urging of Abraham Flexner (who wanted to call it "The Modern School") of Teachers College, and it is funded by Rockefeller's General Education Board (GEB). The New York Times calls the School a "radical and dangerous" experiment, and the Congressional Record includes the concerns of several Congressmen that the GEB might come to control education in the U. S. Regarding Flexner, years later (1966) Professor Carroll Quigley's Trazedv and Hope will be published while Bill Clinton (future U. S. president who considered Quigley his hero) is at Georgetown University where Quigley is a professor. In the book, Quigley not only describes how the Rhodes scholarships (Clinton will become a Rhodes scholar) were part of Cecil Rhodes secret plan for world dominion, but he also will write: ". ..there grew up in the 20th century a power structure between London and 1 3
  • 19. 1 4 New York which penetrated deeply into university life, the press, and the practice of foreign policy . . . . For example, it set up in Princeton a reasonable copy of the Round Table Group's chief Oxford headquarters. The copy was called the Institute for Advanced Study and was organized by Abraham Flexner of the Carnegie Foundation and Rockefeller's General Education Board." 1918 The Science of Power by Benjamin Kidd is printed, in which the author declares : "The main cause of those deep dividing differences which separate peoples and nationalities and classes from each other and which prevent or stultify collective effort in all its most powerful forms. . .could all be swept away if civilization put before itself the will to impose on the young the ideal of subordination to the common aims of organized humanity. . ..It can only be imposed in all its strength through the young. So to impose it has become the chief end of education in the future . Oh, you blind leaders who seek to convert the world by laboured disputations! Step out of the way or the world must fling you aside. Give us the Young. Give us the Young and we will create a new mind and new earth in a single generation ." Kidd quotes Masonic Carbonari leader Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) in this regard: "Your task is to form the universal family. . ..Education, this is the great word which sums up our whole doctrine ." (From Mazzini's On the Duties of Man.) Kidd refers to Mazzini's distinction that "education is addressed through emotion to the moral faculties in the young and instruction to the intellectual (faculties)," and Kidd claims "Power centres in emotion ." 1919 - The Progressive Education Association is founded and organized by John Dewey (though he will not become a member in its early years). The New School for Social Research is founded in New York City. Among its co-founders are John Dewey and economist Charles Beard. Professors will include W. E. B. DuBois, ACLU founder Roger Baldwin, and humanist Corliss Lamont (1977 Humanist of the Year) . Lecturers will include Erich Fromm (1966 Humanist of the Year) and Margaret Mead . Norman Cousins will be a sponsor of the Norman Thomas Endowment at the School, and the Endowment's members will include Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, John Kenneth Galbraith, Julian Huxley, Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, Gunnar Myrdal and several members of Congress. -- The third volume of Arthur Calhoun's A Social History of the American Family is published. Calhoun's volumes serve for a number of years as prominent social service textbooks, and in the 3rd volume one finds : "The new view is that the higher and more obligatory relation is to society rather than to the family ; the family goes back to the age of savagery while the state belongs to the age of civilization . The modern individual is a world citizen, served by the world, and home interests can no longer be supreme . .. .As soon as the new family, consisting of only the parents and the children, stood forth, society saw how many were unfit for parenthood and began to realize the need of community care." As one continues to read Calhoun's third volume, one is amazed at the accuracy of his projections into the future. He projects that ". ..as familism weakens, society has to assume a larger parenthood . The school begins to assume responsibility for the functions thrust upon it.. ..The juvenile court is developed as a protection to the young, and parents are called to account for disregard of juvenile delinquency.. ..The kindergarten grows downward toward the cradle and there arises talk of neighborhood nurseries... .Social centers replace the old time home chimney....The child passes more and more into the custody of community experts .. ..In the new social order, extreme emphasis is sure to be placed upon eugenic procreation....It seems dear that at least in its early stages, socialism will mean an increased amount of social control. ...There will be an increase of legislation designed to check the mating of the unfit and the procreation of undesirable citizens.. ..We may expect in the socialist commonwealth a system of public educational agencies that will begin with the nursery and follow the individual through life ... .Those persons that experience alarm at the thought of intrinsic changes in family institutions should remember that in the light of social evolution, nothing is right or valuable in itself ." 1920 - The Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite of Freemasons holds a special session at Colorado Springs, Colorado, and draws up a comprehensive plan for education in the U. S. It recommends the careful selection of school personnel, trustees, and those supervising textbooks and libraries in order to exclude "sectarian propaganda," and the plan urges the establishment of "a national department of public education headed by a secretary appointed as a member of the president's cabinet ." The recently founded Lincoln School (funded by the General Education Board) moves to its new site near its
  • 20. parent institution, Teachers College. Four of John D. Rockefeller, Jr.'s five sons attend school there, but in Jules Abels' The Rockefeller Billions (1965), one reads : " .. .Laurance (Rockefeller) gives startling confirmation as to `Why Johnnie (sic) Can't Read .' He says that the Lincoln School did not teach him to read and write as he wishes he now could. Nelson (Rockefeller), today, admits that reading for him is a `slow and tortuous process' that he does not enjoy doing but compels himself to do . This is significant evidence in the debate that has raged about modem educational techniques ." 1921 The Psychological Corporation is founded with "progressive educators" G . Stanley Hall, Charles Judd, Edward Thorndike and other "Deweyites" as Directors . In the November 1923 edition of The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, the Corporation's president, James McKeen Cattell (another "progressive educator" Deweyite) wrote "The Psychological Corporation" in which he revealed that "the Corporation is not so much concerned with arranging specific contracts for work by it or under its auspices, as in promoting the extension of applied psychology . . ..To get the best kind of people and to put them in the situations in which they will behave in the way best for themselves and for others, is more fundamental than any other enterprise of society . It is necessary to organize means by which this work can be accomplished.. ..Psychology is concerned with the causes of conduct and its control." The Intercollegiate Socialist Society changes its name to the League for Industrial Democracy, and its first president is Robert Morss Lovett (signer of the first Humanist Manifesto), editor of The New Republic. Its field secretary is Paul Blanshard (a leading humanist), and in 1926 one of its directors will be Louis Budenz (editor of The Daily Worker). John Dewey will become its president in 1941, and Reinhold Niebuhr its treasurer. 1922 March 27: The New York Times quotes New York City Mayor John Hylan speaking in Chicago on March 26: "The warning of Theodore Roosevelt has much timeliness today, for the real menace of our republic is this invisible government which like a giant octopus sprawls its slimy length over city, State and nation. Like the octopus of real life, it operates under cover of a self-created screen . It seizes in its long and powerful tentacles our executive officers, our legislative bodies, our schools, our courts, our newspapers and every agency created for the public protection ." (emphasis added) -- Propaganda Through the Schools is published by the International Federation of League of Nations Societies . 1925 -- The International Bureau of Education (formerly the Institut Jean-Jacques Rousseau) begins with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It will be part of UNESCO . -- July 10-21: The Scopes "monkey trial" takes place regarding the teaching of the theory of evolution in public schools in Tennessee. The defense for the teaching of this theory is largely conducted by famed attorney Clarence Darrow, who was a founder of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society. The evolutionists' argument is basically that this theory should not be censored from the public schools. Fabian Socialist and first head of UNESCO Sir Julian Huxley will later claim that humanism's "keynote, the central concept to which all its details are related, is evolution." Huxley will be 1962 Humanist of the Year, at a time when the theory of evolution will be taught as "fact" in many schools around the nation . Interestingly, in a role reversal of 1925, most evolutionists years later will censor the scientific evidence against evolution from textbooks and school classes. 1926 The National Association for Nursery Education is founded. After 1964, its name will be changed to National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), and in 1993 the organization will have a budget of $5,000,000. The NAEYC will state that it is "open to all individuals interested in serving and acting on behalf of the needs and rights of young children ." 1927 The National Congress of Parents and Teachers incorporates the NEA's seven cardinal principles in its permanent platform, stating that it has "become increasingly apparent that these (cardinal principles) are the objectives not only of high school, but of all education ." The American School Health Association is founded and in 1930 will begin publishing the Journal of School Health. The ASHA will later promote sexuality education within comprehensive school health education . For example, in the May 1992 issue of the Journalof School Health, Melinda Ribar will describe a teaching 1 5
  • 21. 16 technique where students act out the parts of ovum, sperm, etc. in the fertilization and implantation process. 1928 Because "progressive educators" are embracing Socialism, it is relevant to note that in this year, Fabian Socialist George Bernard Shaw's The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism is published, in which he reveals that " .. .under Socialism you would not be allowed to be poor. You would be forcibly fed, clothed, lodged, taught, and employed whether you liked it or not. If it were discovered that you had not character and industry enough to be worth all this trouble, you might possibly be executed in a kindly manner. .. ." In Shaw's words, the Fabian Socialists set out to "Educate, Agitate, Organize." This expression is almost identical to the words "Advocate, Organize, Agitate" used in The Change Agent's Guide to Innovation in Education (look under 1973 in this chronology) . A Sociological Philosophy of Education by Ross Finney is published, in which the author explains : "The young mind is as absorbent as blotting paper . The ideas of other people exert an insistent pressure even upon adults unless we are already possessed of ideas with which they seem to conflict. As a young child's mind is so meagerly equipped as yet with knowledge, it can offer no such resistance. Accordingly, it absorbs whatever cognitive material happens to be extant in its social environment . .. .It is the business of teachers to run not merely the school, but the world.. . ." 1929 Elementary Principles of Education by Edward Thorndike and Arthur Gates is published in which one reads: "Traditionally the elementary school has been primarily devoted to teaching the fundamental subjects, the three R's, and closely related disciplines.... Artificial exercises, like drills on phonetics, multiplication tables, and formal writing movements, are used to a wasteful degree. Subjects such as arithmetic, language, and history include content that is intrinsically of little value. ..." Pursuing "progressive education," Thorndike will have produced new spellers, math texts, dictionaries, and textbooks on education and educational testing. 1930 -- The "Dick and Jane" basal reading series, using the "look-say" or "whole word" method of reading instruction, begins. The consequences of using this method of the "progressive educators" (instead of the highly successful intensive phonics method) will prove disastrous . - Humanism: A New Religion by Charles Francis Potter (signer of the 1933 Humanist Manifesto) is published, in which he proclaims : "Education is thus a most powerful ally of humanism . What can the theistic Sunday schools, meeting for an hour once a week, and teaching only a fraction of the children, do to stem the tide of a five-day program of humanistic teaching?" The next year, Curtis Williford Reese will have published Humanist Religion ; and in the June-July 1961 Free Mind (membership bulletin of the American Humanist Association), one reads that Reese "was long President of the American Humanist Association. In 1917, when he and John Dietrich compared notes after a talk that Dr. Reese gave in Des Moines, they decided that what Dietrich was calling `Humanism' and Reese `The Religion of Democracy' were the same . At that moment Humanism as a movement was born." 1931 Common Sense and the Child by Ethel Mannin is published, in which she writes positively about permissive education, and comments : "Parents, nurses, and teachers are the natural enemies of the child because they are the destroyers of its freedom . They represent authority from the beginning." New Russia's Primer is translated into English by Dewey disciple George Counts (Columbia University Teachers College) and Nucia Lodge. Counts states that the book "purposes to explain to children the nature of a planned economy and to introduce them to the entire subject of social planning . All of this it does admirably. . ..It presents the major provisions of the Five-Year Plan with extraordinary clarity and charm. .. . It reveals the temper of the revolutionary movement and the large human goals towards which it is consciously tending . No one can read the last chapter without being moved by the great social vision which presumably animates and lends significance to the program of construction. Millions of boys and girls growing to manhood and womanhood in the Soviet Union have no doubt already caught the vision and are ordering their lives by it. . ..To American readers and students of education the little book should prove both suggestive and challenging.. ..It is literally fascinating .. ..The revolutionary struggle has generated a great system of planning organs
  • 22. through which society is endeavoring to shape its own future. Perhaps the most challenging feature of the little book, therefore, has to do with the relation of education to social planning . . ..1 sincerely trust that this little book will contribute to a better understanding on the part of the American people of the greatest social experiment of history." Counts says he received the book from a Russian friend in November 1930, and it is "a document of rare quality." It was originally written in Russian by a Soviet engineer M . Ilin, and denounces the U . S . while boasting of the Soviets' "new socialist order ." 1932 - Toward Soviet America, by William Z. Foster (head of the American Communist Party) is published with Foster projecting that "Class ideologies of the past will give place to scientific materialist philosophy . Among the elementary measures the American Soviet government will adopt to further the cultural revolution are the following: the schools, colleges, and universities will be coordinated and grouped under the National Department of Education and its state and local branches. The studies will be revolutionized, being cleansed of religious, patriotic, and other features of the bourgeoisie ideology. The students will be taught on the basis of Marxian dialectical materialism, internationalism, and the general ethics of the new socialist society.. ..The churches will remain free to continue their services, but their special tax and other privileges will be liquidated. Their buildings will revert to the State. Religious schools will be abolished and organized religious training for minors prohibited . Freedom will be established for anti-religious propaganda. ...Science will become materialistic....God will be banished from the laboratories as well as from the schools." - April: Progressive Education publishes a paper, presented by George Counts to the Progressive Education Association in Baltimore in February, in which he professes that "changes in our economic system will, of course, require changes in our ideals." - Dare the School Build a New Social Order?, by George S. Counts is published, in which he declares that "the teachers should deliberately reach for power and then make the most of their conquest" so that they could "influence the social attitudes, ideals, and behavior of the coming generation.. . . Our major concern consequently should be.. .to make certain that every Progressive school will use whatever power it may possess in opposing and checking the forces of social conservatism and reaction .. ..The growth of science and technology has carried us into a new age where ignorance must be replaced by knowledge, competition by cooperation, trust in Providence by careful planning, and private capitalism by some form of socialized economy. ...Capitalism's days are numbered. .. .It will have to be displaced altogether. .. or changed so radically...that its identity will be completely lost .... A planned, coordinated, and socialized economy . ..would involve severe restrictions on personal freedom... . If property rights are to be diffused in an industrial society, natural resources and all important forms of capital will have to be collectively owned ." Education and the Social Crisis by Dr. William Kilpatrick is published describing how "progressive educators" hope to "bring the new day" to education in the U. S. : "On the newer social basis we must make over our whole traditional system, elementary, secondary and higher.. . .More specifically, the school should give, eventually, say one-third of its time to avowedly socially useful activities. . . .Next, another third, possibly, of school time should be given to the study of social life and institutions . The beginning may be along two lines, one already made familiar by the unified social science of Dr . Harold Rugg. . . . " John Dewey is made honorary president of the NEA. 1933 - The Great Technolo2v by Harold Rugg is published, in which he announces: "A new public mind is to be created. How? Only by creating tens of millions of new individual minds and welding them into a new social mind. Old stereotypes must be broken up and new `climates of opinion' formed in the neighborhoods of America. But that is the task of the building of a science of society for the schools. .. .Basic problems confront us: First and foremost, the development of a new philosophy of life and education which will be fully appropriate to the new social order; second, the building of an adequate plan for the production of a new race of educational workers ; third, the making of new activities and materials for the curriculum.. ..If educational agencies are to be utilized in the production of a new social order, an indispensable first step is that of developing a totally new outlook upon life and education among the rank and file of teachers . . . . Thus through the schools of the world we shall disseminate a new conception of government-one that will embrace all of the collective activities of men ; one that will postulate the need for scientific control and operation of economic activities in the interests of all people . . .." Rugg would author 14 Social Studies textbooks along with 1 7
  • 23. 1 8 teachers' guides, course outlines and student workbooks used by 5 million American school children in the 1930s . - Leading educator John Dewey co-authors the first Humanist Manifesto, which calls for a "synthesizing of all religions" and "a socialized and cooperative economic order.' Dr. John Dewey prrsenu Margaret Songer with American Women's Association medal at FriendsMp Committee dinner - April 20,1932 (UPI/Bemnann, reprinted with permission) . Margaret Sanger was *e founder ofPlanned Parenthood who will be 1957 H nraniu of the Year. - TheShape of Things to Come by Fabian Socialist H. G. Wells is published . In this book, Wells predicts that a New World Order in about SO years will come out of something that will happen in Basra, Iraq, and he comments that "no revolution could be a real and assured revolution until it has completely altered the educational system of the community," the new education would be "based on a swiftly expanding science of relationship." It would be "...propaganda passed necessarily into a training for public service and a universal public education-to establish a new complete ideology and a new spirit which would induce the individual to devote himself and to shape all his activities to one definite purpose, to the attainment and maintenance of a progressive world-socialism, using an efficient monetary system as its normal medium of relationship." It would be the "New Humanity . ..with a common consciousness and a common will." April 11: Rockefeller Foundation president Max Mason assures trustees that in their program, "The Social Sciences will concern themselves with the rationalization of social control,.. .the control of human behavior.' The Rockefeller Foundation (as well as the Carnegie Institute) had for some time been funding research regarding eugenics (term coined by Francis Galton), and in a February 1934 "progress report' by one of the foundation's division heads, one finds the statement: "Can we develop so sound and extensive a genetics that we can hope to breed, in the future, superior men?' (See The Circuit Riders: Rockefeller Money and the Rise of Modem Science by Gerald Jonas, 1989 .) - September 13: The Monroe Evening News (Monroe, Michigan) publishes an editorial in which it quotes from an interview in New York with Louis Alber, director of speaking activities for the National Recovery Administration of President Roosevelt . In the interview (widely published on Saturday, September 9), Alber is quoted by The Monroe Evening News as stating: "The rugged individualism of Americanism must go, because it is contrary to the purpose of the New Deal and the N . R. A. which is remaking America. Russia and Germany are attempting to compel a new order by means typical of their nationalism-compulsion . The United States will do it by moral suasion . Of course we expect some opposition, but the principles of the New Deal must be carried to the youth of the nation. We expect to accomplish by education what dictators in Europe are seeking to do by compulsion and force....The general public is not informed on the other parts of the program and the schools are the places to reach the future builders of the nation.' 1933-1934 Summers: The Institute of International Education (established in 1919 with a grant from the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace) holds Moscow University summer school programs, commented upon by Dr. John Almack in the San Francisco Examiner (during October 1942) as follows: 'Many teachers and students returned challenging everything American, breathing fire and defiance to property, the profit system, and the Constitution, and beating the tomtoms for a `new social order.'.. .They felt they must declare the way [to revolution], after insuring their own safety, should things go wrong, by guarantees of 'academic freedom.'" Edward R. Murrow is the IIE's assistant director, and John Dewey along with George Counts serve on its
  • 24. National Advisory Council . In the future, IIE will emphasize that it assists in the "Green Revolution ." 1934 A CommonFaith by leading "progressive educator" John Dewey is published, in which he proclaims: "It is impossible to ignore the fact that historic Christianity has been committed to a separation of sheep and goats; the saved and the lost; the elect and the mass... .Those outside the fold of the church and those who do not rely upon belief in the supernatural have been regarded as only potential brothers, still requiring adoption into the family . I cannot understand how any realization of the democratic ideal as a vital moral and spiritual ideal in human affairs is possible without surrender of the conception of the basic division to which supernatural Christianity is committed ." -- Experiment in Autobioaranhv by H. G. Wells (who authored The Open Conspiracy: Blue Prints for a World Revolution in 1928 and will author The New World Order in 1939) is published, in which he declares: "The organization of this that I call the Open Conspiracy, the evocation of a greater sounder fellow to the first Communist essay, an adequately implemented Liberal Socialism, which will ultimately supply teaching, coercive and directive public services to the whole world, is the immediate task before all rational people . I believe this idea of a planned world-state is one to which all our thought and knowledge is tending . . ..It is appearing partially and experimentally at a thousand points . .. . When accident finally precipitates it, its coming is likely to happen very quickly.. ..Sometimes I feel that generations of propaganda and education may have to precede it. .. .Plans for political synthesis seem to grow bolder and more extensive.. .. The New Plan in America to the New Plan in Russia and how are both related to the ultimate World-State? . .. There must be a common faith and law for mankind . .. .Only after a huge cultural struggle can we hope to see the world-state coming into being. The Open Conspiracy has to achieve itself in many ways, but the main battle before it is an educational battle." Who Shall Survive? A New Approach to the Problem of Human Interrelations by psychiatrist J . L. Moreno is printed (an expanded version titled Who Shall Survive? Foundations of Sociometrv . Group Psvchotheranv and Sociodrama will be printed in 1953). Moreno is the founder of "sociometry," which utilizes sensitivity training methods such as role-playing, psychodrama and sociodrama. Moreno acknowledges in his book that John Dewey had a great part in preparing the way for sociometry. And after Dewey reads Moreno's book, 1 9 Dewey will say that sociometry is "the next stage ." Moreno refers to role-playing as "God-playing" to develop "social shock methods which may well become scientific methods of social action . - Fifty years later, Jacqueline Lawrence will testify on June 7, 1984, before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the U . S. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources, regarding psychodrama being used for attitudinal change. Her testimony includes the following: "one example is for the concept that we must prune away defective persons in order to improve the quality of life for the remainder of the group . This drama involves murder. Many variations are found . I first came across this psychodrama theme in a federally funded home economics curriculum guide containing the exercise, `Whom Will You Choose?' It goes as follows: 11 people are in a bomb shelter with provisions sufficient to last 11 persons two weeks or 6 persons a month . The group is told that 5 persons must be killed. They are instructed to accept the situation as fact, that is, to concern themselves with life/death choices, not with attacking the logic or probability of the situation. A profile is given of each person in the shelter. Problem people, such as the athlete who eats too much, the religious type with `hang-ups,' the pregnant or ill are generally killed . Survivors tend to be those trained in medicine, engineers, and pacifiers. It can readily be seen that once a student has acted out the murders, he has resolved the dilemma and by his action agreed to the concept of murder . From this point on, it will not be difficult for him to accept and justify murder in any number of situations. The student will no longer hold the same commitment to his previously held conviction that murder is illegal and unjustifiable . One student I know played out the life/death exercise in five different classes in one school term--in mathematics, geography, English, biology and social studies . The life/death exercises have shocked students . Many have refused to participate, while others have broken down emotionally and even fled the classroom. Such survival exercises have been written into federally funded programs since 1971 . Why have educators held onto this strategy with such tenacity for so many years? Will it prepare the child's eventual acceptance of the concept found in totalitarian societies that in order to have a planned, productive society we must prune away the defective?" After reading Moreno's book, President Franklin Roosevelt will tell Moreno in Hyde Park one day that "When I am back in Washington, I will see where your ideas can be put to use." Moreno's sociometric groupings will be taken up in the 1950s and early 1960s by Hilda Taba when she will develop a social studies curriculum that will become widely used in the U . S. Receiving considerable federal funds while at San Francisco State College, she will develop the "Thinking Project," which will de-emphasize subject matter and facts in favor of
  • 25. 2 0 carefully selected information that would lend itself to analysis and discussion--this will become known as "critical thinking " -- March 3 : The Cleveland Plain Dealer quotes L . Thomas Hopkins of Teachers College's Lincoln School : " .. .The present secondary school should be thoroughly reorganized . Present subjects should be discarded, and the curriculum reorganized around pressing social problems. . .the learner will select and direct his own education under the guidance of the teacher . Present requirements for admission to college will be abandoned, thus removing the pressure for learning much useless information. . .No uniform rigid standards will be imposed. Standards will be fixed by the learning group, or by the individual for himself.. . ." - July: At the 72nd Annual Meeting of the NEA, held in Washington, DC, in a report titled "Education for the New America," Willard Givens (who will become executive secretary of the National Education Association in 1935, will hold the position for seventeen years, and then will take over the education program of the Supreme Council thirty-third degree of the Scottish Rite) says: "A dying laissez-faire must be completely destroyed and all of us, including the `owners,' must be subjected to a large degree of social control ... .An equitable distribution of income will be sought . ...[And] the major function of the school is the social orientation of the individual . It must seek to give him understanding of the transition to a new social order ." Givens had submitted a report with similar language at the NEA Convention in Cleveland, Ohio, on March 1, 1934. - October: An editorial in The Social Frontier advocates "the freedom of the teaching profession to utilize education in shaping the society of tomorrow ." -- October: The Social Frontier, publishes "Can Education Share in Social Reconstruction?" in which John Dewey proclaims that schools will "take an active part in determining the social order-or disorder-of the future, according as teachers and administrators align themselves with the older so-called `individualistic' ideals-which in fact are fatal to individuality for the many--or with the newer forces making for social control of economic forces ." Conclusions and Recommendations (the last of a 17-volume study concerning American education, with George Counts serving as director of research) of the Commission on Social Studies of the American Historical Association is published. The work of the Commission was financed ($340,000) by the Carnegie Corporation, and the document states that "the age of individualism is dosing and a new age of collectivism is emerging .. .a corresponding enlargement of the functions of government.. .a society in which individual property rights will be altered and abridged." Commenting on the document in The New Re ublic article "A New Education for a New America" (July 29, 1936), British Socialist Professor Harold Laski remarks: "The commission realizes that our education for individualism in a society where individualism will no longer work adequately, simply will not do. ...They see that the old America is dead. .. .Professors Counts' and Curti's volumes (for the Commission) presuppose that to realize a society in which, effectively, the privileges and power associated with individual ownership will be virtually abrogated ... .Their demands involve a considerable increase in the volume of taxation,. .. and a content of teaching which frankly admits that the age of government control has arrived. ...For, at bottom, and stripped of its carefully neutral phrases, the report is an educational program for a socialist America. Such a program on any wide scale could be implemented in a society only where socialism was the accepted way of life; for it is a direct criticism of the ideals that have shaped capitalist America; the ideals, also, that American capitalists still stoutly hold. To them it says in effect: What you think are the safeguards of America are the things we believe will work disaster for it . We ask you to allow the schools to be used for the destruction of those safeguards. We want to fill them with teachers who will analyze critically all the things for which you stand . We want to create in the schools a new generation which will realize that your ideals, your purposes, your methods, are both dangerous and obsolete. ...When the business men translate this request into concrete terms, what does it mean? Radicals in the schools . .. .The fight for the possession of the schools is every whit as fundamental as the fight for the right to religious belief...." - December: NEA Journal editor Joy Elmer Morgan writes an editorial calling for government control of corporations. 1936 - June: James M. Shields, supervising principal of elementary schools in Winston-Salem, NC, is quoted in The Social Frontier as saying : "It fairly staggers one to consider the tremendous task ahead in revision of our existing instructional literature if it is to be of any use at all in a collectivist society . Hardly a public school textbook now in use but is saturated with the profit psychology. "
  • 26. Earl Browder, speaking at the ninth national convention of the Communist Party in the U . S., proclaims: "Whoever wins the youth, wins the future of America ." 1938 - March 1: In George Mosse's Nazi Culture (1966), in the chapter "The Key : Education of Youth," it would be after March 1, 1938 that "a centralized censorship comes into existence, to be exercised by a Nazi party commission in collaboration with the Ministry of Education. The textbooks were increasingly National Socialist, the teachers were regimented. . . .The Nazis did make changes in the school system.. . .The individual states were abolished.. . .The Nazis attempted to unify the school system, as they `meshed the gears' of all other activities in the Third Reich. . . .Changes in curriculum brought all schools closer together. . . .Social pressures aided the Nazis in getting rid of the influence of the older generation .. . .Inspector of National Political Educational Institutions, SS leader Heissmeyer's ideal boy was to subordinate his qualities completely to the service of the Third Reich . . . .Character building rather than book learning" would be a much desired educational ideal, but "'character' did not mean self-reliance and independence, but a steeling of oneself for service and obedience in the name of the Volk and the Fuhrer ." All totalitarians, whether Nazis or Fascists or Communists, consider national service and the nationalization of education to be extremely important . - June 29: The New York Herald Tribune covering the NEA Convention in New York City reports: "Dr. Goodwin Watson, Professor of Education at Teachers College, Columbia University, begged the teachers of the nation to use their profession to indoctrinate children to overthrow `conservative reactionaries' directing American government and industry . . .. (He) declared that Soviet Russia was one of `the most notable international achievements of our generation.'" July 1 : Dr. John Tildsley writes in The Social Frontier concerning John Dewey et al : "The Frontier Thinkers are primarily Social Reformers, New World Makers. . . .As I see it they are no longer school masters, they are just emotionalized social reformers. The world needs both. . .but. . . why employ the very expensive machinery of the school for an end that is not education but merely conversion?.. .The extreme Frontier Thinkers . . .plan to establish the collectivist society by exploiting (not really educating) the children through the agency of the teachers and enrolling them in a movement approved by probably not five per cent of the parents. Such a plan is both immoral and impracticable. . .. 2 1 In the fervor of their devotion to one cause, the collectivist society, they have lost sight of the cause to which (because of the positions they hold) they are supposed to give the full measure of devotion--the growing of children.. .." Between this year and 1941, Harold Rugg and James Mendenhall produce Pupil's Workbooks of Directed Study, which will be used by perhaps 5 million students in 1940, and according to the Teacher's Guide for the workbooks: "Of the 315 pupils, 88% said that the following statement was true, 'My country is unquestionably the best country in the world .' Now the attitude thus expressed is one that we decidedly do not want to develop in our classes . . . .The United States is not a land of opportunity for all our people. . . ." 1939 - Autumn: The Southern Review publishes an article by Dr. Howard Roelofs, who explains: "Their [Progressivists] hope is that somehow through suggestion, guidance, study trips, and the like, teachers and children will move spontaneously and eagerly from whatever life problems happen first to appear, to those others which in fact are inseparable from economic abundance and the rest . Worries of parents, family quarrels, a hungry child, current problems confronting the community, will provide of themselves initial points of contact for the children, and feeling will do the rest . .. .The study of these will generate the study of all the auxiliary techniques required for a solution from milking a cow to the mathematics and managerial principles of large scale industry . Finally, genuine solutions, technical and moral will somehow emerge and at once be joyfully adopted. . . . Not all who teach, not even all who teach teachers to teach, accept this new doctrine ; but those who do have captured control of most of the prominent schools of education, notably Teachers College at Columbia University. These men and women, through the system of training and licensing . . .have thus an unusual opportunity to propagate their ideas and to further the appointment of their most eager converts to positions in the public schools. All these leaders and converts are militant, energetic, with the fervor of fanatics. .. . (Emphasizing method over knowledge) gives to the Schools of Education a strangle hold over the licensing of teachers. .. .A single fact is sufficient to exhibit the extent and character of their control. The great majority of instructors and professors in our colleges and universities, the staffs of the Schools of Education excluded, are in practice, debarred from teaching in the public schools."
  • 27. 2 2 -- "Theory of Valuation," an essay by John Dewey is published concerning the formation of values. This work will form a partial basis upon which Louis Raths will develop his 7-part valuing process, and Raths will introduce the term, "values clarification," in the late 1950s while teaching at New York State University . Raths will use situation ethics techniques like the "fallout shelter" scenario where students have to decide who would live and die in a hypothetical situation . - The New York City Board of Education institutes a 15-week sex education training program for public school teachers. - The School-Health Coordinating Service is begun with support by the Rockefeller Foundation, the General Education Board, and the State (N.C.). Its work is carried out through training of teachers in colleges, summer conferences for school and health workers with accompanying "child demonstration" schools, and In- Service or on-the-job programs. A number of teachers attending from States surrounding N. C. are aided by Rockefeller Fellowships. These summer conferences and "child demonstration" schools will be interrupted some years later due to the polio epidemic . (For the next in a series of steps toward more and more government interference in "the family," see related "1967" entry in this chronology.) - The National Education Association (NEA) publishes A Golden Treasury From The Bible, Personal Growth Leaflet No . 22, containing many important Biblical passages. Two years later, the NEA will publish The American Citizens Handbook emphasizing American patriotism and citizenship. These are in contrast to later NEA publications and resolutions emphasizing humanistic principles and globalism or world citizenship. 1940 - The NEA begins promoting the "Building America" social studies texts, which a California Senate Investigating Committee on Education will later condemn for its subtle support for Marxism or Socialism contrary to American values . 1941 - That Men May Understand by Harold Rugg is published, in which he describes the Kilpatrick Discussion Group, composed of himself, William Kilpatrick, George Counts and others. Rugg frequently acted as chairman of the discussions which occurred regularly throughout the 1930s, and states that by 1932 "we had become a fairly cohesive group, taking our stand together for the general conception of the welfare state.. . ." February 22: The New York Times prints Benjamin Fine's (Times Education Editor) interview with Dr. Ralph Robey commenting upon textbooks : "By and large, the textbooks commonly used by the 7 million secondary school children of America are poorly written. . . . There is a notable tendency to play down what this country has accomplished and to place the emphasis on defects.. . .What you get is a critical attitude that is destructive in its influence." -- The American Humanist Association is founded by Edwin Wilson, one of the original 34 signers of the 1933 Humanist Manifesto, who while helping to write the document called it an "educational instrument meant to shake up some thinking." -- An Exveriment in the Development of Critical by Edward Glaser is printed . It is one of the first books concerning "critical thinking," and follows the psychodrama and sociometry work of Rumanian psychiatrist Jacob Moreno in the early part of the century . 1942 - October 13 : The San Francisco Examiner publishes an article by Dr . John Almack, in which he comments concerning Progressive Education : "Even under favorable conditions, it will take us a quarter of a century to restore American education to the level it held before the Progressive onslaught. It is wrong not to utilize human experience to the fullest extent, not only to teach values and desirable practices but to expose failure, neglect and wrong motives. . .. The Progressive policy of deprecating our history and of putting it on the scrap heap has materially weakened national unity and broken the continuity of the social process. .. . The cult is also wrong in its play upon experience and activity as ways to education . All the hordes of ignorant and uneducated who have trod the earth stand forth in mute testimony to the fallacy that experience is enough to develop civilized and ethical men .* - The American Institute for Character Education is incorporated. In the Institute's "Character Education and the Teacher: A Handbook," one will find the familiar term "clarifying values," and AICE's program will not be based exclusively upon Judeo or Christian values, but rather upon ethical concepts shared by major world religions and cultures.