Levels of “participation“
Arnstein, ladder of participation, 1969
White et al., Stufenmodell der Partizipation, 2010
How to involve?
National Institute of Health Research
Citizens and patients take part in research studies.
e.g., being recruited in clinical trials, completing questionnaires,
participating in focus groups.
Information & knowledge about research
is provided & disseminated.
e.g., dissemination of research results to public (via media, social media),
raising awareness of research through media, science festivals/open day at
Citizens and patients are actively involved in research.
e.g., as grant holders or co-applicants, identifying research priorities, agenda setting,
members of a project advisory or steering group, co-developing of patient information
or materials, undertaking interviews with participants, carrying out research.
Involvement in the research process
Crowdsourcing on Mental Health
& Accidential injuries
(OIS Center 2015, 2018)
Crowd research @MIT
designing & conducting
interviews with/by youth
(Powers & Tiffany, 2006)
gamified approach Alzheimer
(Wired, 2017, SciStarter 2019)
public & patient