Class 12th Physics Investigatory Project for CBSE on ERRORS
This is to certify that this Physics investigatory project
titled “ERRORS” for the fulfilment of curriculum
of CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
(CBSE) leading to award of annual examination of the
year is an original work ofis an original work of
“RANJAN LOHIA” a student of Class
– A” of AIR FORCE SR. SEC.
SCHOOL PALAM DELHI CANTT - 10 and
it was done under my supervision and guidance.
This project demonstration is a good hold of student
over the field of interest. His work reveals a high
technical acumen as well as aptitude. This work is
product of his labour and hard work.
I would like to express my special thanks and deep sense of gratitude
to my Physics Teacher Mr. N.C. Ghildiyal sir as well as our Physics
Laboratory Assistant Mr. Mahipal Sehrawat sir and our School
Principal Mrs. Raj Laxmi ma’am who gave me the golden
opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic “To Study the
behaviour and reduction of “Errors” in our daily Life” I am really
thankful to all of them for their incredible suggestions, support and
Secondly I would also like to thank my Mother and Father for
providing me everything I asked to finish the project, my Sister for
giving me her phone, Cousins, Nephews and Friends who helped me
in all arrangement and procedure of the Project & my Father,
Friends, Uncles and Cousin to give me their Vehicles to use in the
Special thanks to my Nishant Tanwar sir.
This work could not have been completed without endless
endeavours precious aids, constant help and inclement of my family
for their time to me encourage during this work.
Thanks to my computer, camera, mobile phone, cars, bikes, scooters,
and printer as well for working with me when I asked.
Thanks to Physics for being my Subject.
5. ERRORS IN CHEMISTRY & PHYSICS
6. ERRORS IN BIOLOGY
b) EVOLUTION AND PRESENCE OF LIFE
7. ERROR ASSOCIATED WITH SPEEDOMETER OF
• SPEED HAZARDS
f) SOURCES OF ERROR
To Study the behaviour and reduction of “Errors” in our
They are everywhere around us, even the whole universe is made up as it looks
like by only a number of errors. Errors are the key to development sometime
but Stop the development in many cases.
Technical, a measure of the estimated difference between the observed or
calculated value of a quantity and its true value.
The word error entails different meanings and usages relative to how it is
conceptually applied. The concrete meaning of the Latin word "error" is
"wandering" or "straying". Unlike an illusion, an error or a mistake can
sometimes be dispelled through knowledge (knowing that one is looking at a
mirage and not at real water does not make the mirage disappear). For
example, a person who uses too much of an ingredient in a recipe and has a
failed product can learn the right amount to use and avoid repeating the
mistake. However, some errors can occur even when individuals have the
required knowledge to perform a task correctly. Examples
include forgetting to collect change after buying chocolate
from a vending machine, forgetting the original document
after making photocopies, and forgetting to turn the gas
off after cooking a meal. Some errors occur when an
individual is distracted by something else.
In statistics, an error (or residual) is not a "mistake" but
rather a difference between a computed, estimated, or
measured value and the accepted true, specified, or
theoretically correct value.
Numerical analysis provides a variety of techniques to represent (store) and
compute approximations to mathematical numerical values. Errors arise from a
trade-off between efficiency (space and computation time) and precision,
which is limited anyway, since (using common floating-point arithmetic) only a
finite amount of values can be represented exactly. The discrepancy between
the exact mathematical value and the stored/computed value is called the
In appellate review, error typically refers to mistakes made by a trial court or
some other court of first instance in applying the law in a particular legal case.
This may involve such mistakes as improper admission of evidence,
inappropriate instructions to the jury, or applying the wrong standard of proof.
ERRORS IN CHEMISTRY &
Measurement is the foundation of all experimental science and technology.
The result of every measurement by any measuring instrument contains some
uncertainty. This uncertainty is called error. Every calculated quantity which is
based on measured values, also has an error. We shall distinguish between
two terms: accuracy and precision. The accuracy of a measurement is a
measure of how close the measured value is to the true value of the quantity.
Precision tells us to what resolution or limit the quantity is measured.
The errors in measurement can be broadly classified as (I) Systematic Errors
and (II) Random Errors.
(I) Systematic Errors
The systematic errors are those errors that tend to be in one direction, either
positive or negative. Some of the sources of systematic errors are:
(a) Instrumental errors that arise from the errors due to imperfect design or
calibration of the measuring instrument, zero error in the instrument, etc. For
example, the temperature graduations of a thermometer may be inadequately
calibrated (it may read 104 °C at the boiling point of water at STP whereas it
should read 100 °C); in a vernier callipers the zero mark of vernier scale may
not coincide with the zero mark of the main scale, or simply an ordinary metre
scale may be worn off at one end.
(b) Imperfection in experimental technique or procedure to determine the
temperature of a human body, a thermometer placed under the armpit will
always give a temperature lower than the actual value of the body
temperature. Other external conditions (such as changes in temperature,
humidity, wind velocity, etc.) during the experiment may systematically affect
(c) Personal errors that arise due to an individual’s bias, lack of proper setting
of the apparatus or individual’s carelessness in taking observations without
observing proper precautions, etc. For example, if you, by habit, always hold
your head a bit too far to the right while reading the position of a needle on
the scale, you will introduce an error due to parallax.
Systematic errors can be minimised by improving experimental techniques,
selecting better instruments and removing personal bias as far as possible. For
a given set-up, these errors may be estimated to a certain extent and the
necessary corrections may be applied to the readings.
(II) Random Errors
The random errors are those errors, which occur irregularly and hence are
random with respect to sign and size. These can arise due to random and
unpredictable fluctuations in experimental conditions (e.g. unpredictable
fluctuations in temperature, voltage supply, mechanical vibrations of
experimental set-ups, etc.), personal (unbiased) errors by the observer taking
readings, etc. For example, when the same person repeats the same
observation, it is very likely that he may get different readings every time.
Random errors occurs in the calculation of the Path of Asteroids i.e. with the
difference of 10^-14 in the calculations can result Meteoroid to be a
Meteorite. As they are in space their displacement, velocities are almost
random so we need very accurate devices in the calculation of their Path. Its
good now we have such kind of accurate devices to measure the accurate path
of space rocks for better prediction.
ERRORS IN BIOLOGY
In biology, a mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of
the genome of an organism, virus, or extra chromosomal DNA or other genetic
elements. Mutations result from damage to DNA which is not repaired or to
RNA genomes (typically caused by radiation or chemical mutagens), errors in
the process of replication, or from the insertion or deletion of segments of
DNA by mobile genetic elements. Mutations may or may not produce
discernible changes in the observable characteristics (phenotype) of an
organism. Mutations play a part in both normal and abnormal biological
processes including: evolution, cancer, and the development of the immune
system, including junctional diversity.
Errors were there in the universe before anything else.
EVOLUTION AND PRESENCE OF LIFE
ERROR ASSOCIATED WITH
SPEEDOMETER OF VEHICLES
I was so curious about the error associated with the Speedometer of any
vehicle I see around me. It’s the most common erroneous product around all
of us, as we think it’s accurate we are wrong because my research about the
error in the Car’s Speedometer gives us very different results.
To calculate the error associated with the Speedometer of number of
A Large Play Ground with at least 150metre Long and 3metre wide Track,
Measuring Tapes ISI Certified, Number of Vehicles to be tested for the error in
Speedometer, 2 Accurate Stopwatch, GPS Tracker Such as Basic NOKIA LUMIA
GPS Speed Indicator, Chalk Power, 1st
Co-Driver, 2 persons for
operating the Stopwatches, Fuel for operating the Vehicles Diesel and Petrol
respectively, Service Details of all Vehicles used in the Experiment.
1. Make a track 150 meter long with 2 sections 1st
line at 50 meter, 2nd
at 150 meter, 3 meter Wide Structure (100 meter for experiment and 50
meter for gaining the constant speed) prepared using ISI Certified
Measuring Tapes use Chalk Powder to highlight the boundaries of the
2. Start the ignition of 1st
Starting up the Vehicle.
3. Start from Point A as in the Fig. RRL_Exp_SS and gain a constant speed
say 40 km/h till the 1st
Line i.e. on Point B.
Driving the Vehicle at Constant Speed i.e. 40km/hr
4. Observers at Point B & C should start their Stopwatches as the Vehicle
Crosses point B very accurately.
Measuring the time for 100m.
5. Observers at Point B & C should stop their Stopwatches as the Vehicle
Crosses point C again very accurately.
A Nice Reading by the Stopwatch for the Experiment.
6. Record the Observations of both Stopwatches.
7. In Meantime the Co-driver should note the Average Velocity of the
Vehicle, between point B & C by the NOKIA LUMIA Speed Indicator.
8. Repeat the Experiment twice for one Vehicle i.e. Step 2 to Step 6.
9. Repeat Step 2 to Step 7 for different Vehicles.
d by GPS
MSGypsy.15 40 9.35 38.4 38.50267 -3.74332
HAviate-r.09 40 9.52 38 37.81513 -5.46218
TSafari.06 40 9.45 38 38.09524 -4.7619
MSSwift.11 40 9.32 38.5 38.62661 -3.43348
MScorpio.13 40 9.54 37.9 37.73585 -5.66038
MSAltok10.12 40 9.2 39 39.13043 -2.17391
MSAltok10.13 40 9.27 38.6 38.83495 -2.91262
Applied For 1850
REClassic.15 40 9.34 38.6 38.5439 -3.64026
Above observation shows that the velocity in the Speedometer of any vehicle
is generally less than the actual one, it is also part of law associated with
Most speedometers have tolerances of some ±10%, mainly due to variations in
tire diameter. Sources of error due to tire diameter variations are wear,
temperature, pressure, vehicle load, and nominal tire size. Vehicle
manufacturers usually calibrate speedometers to read high by an amount
equal to the average error, to ensure that their speedometers never indicate a
lower speed than the actual speed of the vehicle, to ensure they are not liable
for drivers violating speed limits.
In many countries the legislated error in speedometer readings is ultimately
governed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
Regulation 39, which covers those aspects of vehicle type approval that relate
to speedometers. The main purpose of the UNECE regulations is to facilitate
trade in motor vehicles by agreeing uniform type approval standards rather
than requiring a vehicle model to undergo different approval processes in each
country where it is sold.
European Union member states must also grant type approval to vehicles
meeting similar EU standards. The ones covering speedometers are similar to
the UNECE regulation in that they specify that:
The indicated speed must never be less than the actual speed, i.e. it should not
be possible to inadvertently speed because of an incorrect speedometer
The indicated speed must not be more than 110 % of the true speed plus 4
km/h at specified test speeds. For example, at 80 km/h, the indicated speed
must be no more than 92 km/h.
The difference of a few miles per hour can mean the difference between life
and death. The faster someone is driving, the less time they have to stop if
something unexpected happens.
If you kill someone while speeding, you will have to live with the long-term
Speed limits are there for a reason.
• Speed is one of the main factors in fatal road accidents
• In 2013, 3,064 people were killed or seriously injured in crashes where
speed was a factor
• The risk of death is approximately four times higher when a pedestrian is
hit at 40mph than at 30mph
• Fatal accidents are four times as likely on rural “A” roads as urban “A”
• You must not drive faster than the speed limit for the type of road and
your type of vehicle. The speed limit is the absolute maximum and it
doesn’t mean it's safe to drive at this speed in all conditions.
SOURCES OF ERROR
1. Wear and tears in the Tires of the Vehicle
2. Modification done with Wheels, like putting Alloy wheels or any other
aftermarket parts used in wheel associated system.
After market Alloy Wheel in the HR26AP1111 Mahindra Scorpio, a Source of Error.
3. Error due to Parallax.
4. Manual error in operating the vehicle or the time measuring instrument.
5. Manufacturing defect in instruments used.
6. Error in measuring the Track used for the Experiment.
I Completed the Experiment in 5 Days, Total 11 working hours with the help of
my cousins, nephews, parents and teachers and get up to my curiosity about
the error in the speedometer of vehicles.
3 Computer Hours + 1 Litre Diesel + 2Litre Petrol + All Stationary costs me
around 360 Rs. Thanks to my parents for providing me that amount and
helping me in completing the experiment.
Service Records of all vehicles used in Experiment for the Tire age.
http://www.google.com for searching anything associated with Experiment.
http://www.facebook.com for collecting the Service Records of all Vehicles
and Gathering the whole Data in one device.
One Drive for Sharing data i.e. observations over more than 2 devices used.
NOKIA LUMIA 735 for using another Speed Indicator.
Number of Android Devices for the time measuring system (Stopwatch).
Windows 7 Home Basic ®
Microsoft Office 2010 ®
All Vehicles Used for measuring the error in their Speedometer.