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Class 12th Physics Investigatory Project for CBSE on ERRORS

Class 12th Investigatory Physics Project for CBSE on the ERRORS

To Study the behaviour and reduction of “Errors” in our daily Life.

A Nice investigatory project based on the non ending error phenomena.

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Class 12th Physics Investigatory Project for CBSE on ERRORS

  1. 1. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that this Physics investigatory project titled “ERRORS” for the fulfilment of curriculum of CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION (CBSE) leading to award of annual examination of the year is an original work ofis an original work of “RANJAN LOHIA” a student of Class “XIITH – A” of AIR FORCE SR. SEC. SCHOOL PALAM DELHI CANTT - 10 and it was done under my supervision and guidance. This project demonstration is a good hold of student over the field of interest. His work reveals a high technical acumen as well as aptitude. This work is product of his labour and hard work. DATE -
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my special thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my Physics Teacher Mr. N.C. Ghildiyal sir as well as our Physics Laboratory Assistant Mr. Mahipal Sehrawat sir and our School Principal Mrs. Raj Laxmi ma’am who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic “To Study the behaviour and reduction of “Errors” in our daily Life” I am really thankful to all of them for their incredible suggestions, support and guidance. Secondly I would also like to thank my Mother and Father for providing me everything I asked to finish the project, my Sister for giving me her phone, Cousins, Nephews and Friends who helped me in all arrangement and procedure of the Project & my Father, Friends, Uncles and Cousin to give me their Vehicles to use in the Experiment. Special thanks to my Nishant Tanwar sir. This work could not have been completed without endless endeavours precious aids, constant help and inclement of my family for their time to me encourage during this work. Thanks to my computer, camera, mobile phone, cars, bikes, scooters, and printer as well for working with me when I asked. Thanks to Physics for being my Subject. Ranjan Lohia XIIth - A
  4. 4. OBJECTIVE To Study the behaviour and reduction of “Errors” in our daily Life. INTRODUCTION ERRORS They are everywhere around us, even the whole universe is made up as it looks like by only a number of errors. Errors are the key to development sometime but Stop the development in many cases. Technical, a measure of the estimated difference between the observed or calculated value of a quantity and its true value. The word error entails different meanings and usages relative to how it is conceptually applied. The concrete meaning of the Latin word "error" is "wandering" or "straying". Unlike an illusion, an error or a mistake can sometimes be dispelled through knowledge (knowing that one is looking at a mirage and not at real water does not make the mirage disappear). For example, a person who uses too much of an ingredient in a recipe and has a failed product can learn the right amount to use and avoid repeating the mistake. However, some errors can occur even when individuals have the required knowledge to perform a task correctly. Examples include forgetting to collect change after buying chocolate from a vending machine, forgetting the original document after making photocopies, and forgetting to turn the gas off after cooking a meal. Some errors occur when an individual is distracted by something else. In statistics, an error (or residual) is not a "mistake" but rather a difference between a computed, estimated, or measured value and the accepted true, specified, or theoretically correct value.
  5. 5. Numerical analysis provides a variety of techniques to represent (store) and compute approximations to mathematical numerical values. Errors arise from a trade-off between efficiency (space and computation time) and precision, which is limited anyway, since (using common floating-point arithmetic) only a finite amount of values can be represented exactly. The discrepancy between the exact mathematical value and the stored/computed value is called the approximation error. In appellate review, error typically refers to mistakes made by a trial court or some other court of first instance in applying the law in a particular legal case. This may involve such mistakes as improper admission of evidence, inappropriate instructions to the jury, or applying the wrong standard of proof. ERRORS IN CHEMISTRY & PHYSICS Measurement is the foundation of all experimental science and technology. The result of every measurement by any measuring instrument contains some uncertainty. This uncertainty is called error. Every calculated quantity which is based on measured values, also has an error. We shall distinguish between two terms: accuracy and precision. The accuracy of a measurement is a measure of how close the measured value is to the true value of the quantity. Precision tells us to what resolution or limit the quantity is measured. The errors in measurement can be broadly classified as (I) Systematic Errors and (II) Random Errors. (I) Systematic Errors The systematic errors are those errors that tend to be in one direction, either positive or negative. Some of the sources of systematic errors are: (a) Instrumental errors that arise from the errors due to imperfect design or calibration of the measuring instrument, zero error in the instrument, etc. For example, the temperature graduations of a thermometer may be inadequately calibrated (it may read 104 °C at the boiling point of water at STP whereas it
  6. 6. should read 100 °C); in a vernier callipers the zero mark of vernier scale may not coincide with the zero mark of the main scale, or simply an ordinary metre scale may be worn off at one end. (b) Imperfection in experimental technique or procedure to determine the temperature of a human body, a thermometer placed under the armpit will always give a temperature lower than the actual value of the body temperature. Other external conditions (such as changes in temperature, humidity, wind velocity, etc.) during the experiment may systematically affect the measurement. (c) Personal errors that arise due to an individual’s bias, lack of proper setting of the apparatus or individual’s carelessness in taking observations without observing proper precautions, etc. For example, if you, by habit, always hold your head a bit too far to the right while reading the position of a needle on the scale, you will introduce an error due to parallax. Systematic errors can be minimised by improving experimental techniques, selecting better instruments and removing personal bias as far as possible. For a given set-up, these errors may be estimated to a certain extent and the necessary corrections may be applied to the readings.
  7. 7. (II) Random Errors The random errors are those errors, which occur irregularly and hence are random with respect to sign and size. These can arise due to random and unpredictable fluctuations in experimental conditions (e.g. unpredictable fluctuations in temperature, voltage supply, mechanical vibrations of experimental set-ups, etc.), personal (unbiased) errors by the observer taking readings, etc. For example, when the same person repeats the same observation, it is very likely that he may get different readings every time. Random errors occurs in the calculation of the Path of Asteroids i.e. with the difference of 10^-14 in the calculations can result Meteoroid to be a Meteorite. As they are in space their displacement, velocities are almost random so we need very accurate devices in the calculation of their Path. Its good now we have such kind of accurate devices to measure the accurate path of space rocks for better prediction.
  8. 8. ERRORS IN BIOLOGY MUTATION In biology, a mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extra chromosomal DNA or other genetic elements. Mutations result from damage to DNA which is not repaired or to RNA genomes (typically caused by radiation or chemical mutagens), errors in the process of replication, or from the insertion or deletion of segments of DNA by mobile genetic elements. Mutations may or may not produce discernible changes in the observable characteristics (phenotype) of an organism. Mutations play a part in both normal and abnormal biological processes including: evolution, cancer, and the development of the immune system, including junctional diversity. Errors were there in the universe before anything else. EVOLUTION AND PRESENCE OF LIFE
  9. 9. ERROR ASSOCIATED WITH SPEEDOMETER OF VEHICLES I was so curious about the error associated with the Speedometer of any vehicle I see around me. It’s the most common erroneous product around all of us, as we think it’s accurate we are wrong because my research about the error in the Car’s Speedometer gives us very different results.  AIM To calculate the error associated with the Speedometer of number of Vehicles.  REQUIREMENTS A Large Play Ground with at least 150metre Long and 3metre wide Track, Measuring Tapes ISI Certified, Number of Vehicles to be tested for the error in Speedometer, 2 Accurate Stopwatch, GPS Tracker Such as Basic NOKIA LUMIA GPS Speed Indicator, Chalk Power, 1st Driver, 2nd Co-Driver, 2 persons for operating the Stopwatches, Fuel for operating the Vehicles Diesel and Petrol respectively, Service Details of all Vehicles used in the Experiment.  PROCEDURE 1. Make a track 150 meter long with 2 sections 1st line at 50 meter, 2nd line at 150 meter, 3 meter Wide Structure (100 meter for experiment and 50 meter for gaining the constant speed) prepared using ISI Certified Measuring Tapes use Chalk Powder to highlight the boundaries of the track. Fig. RRL_Exp_SS
  10. 10. 2. Start the ignition of 1st Vehicle. Starting up the Vehicle. 3. Start from Point A as in the Fig. RRL_Exp_SS and gain a constant speed say 40 km/h till the 1st Line i.e. on Point B. Driving the Vehicle at Constant Speed i.e. 40km/hr
  11. 11. 4. Observers at Point B & C should start their Stopwatches as the Vehicle Crosses point B very accurately. Measuring the time for 100m. 5. Observers at Point B & C should stop their Stopwatches as the Vehicle Crosses point C again very accurately. A Nice Reading by the Stopwatch for the Experiment. 6. Record the Observations of both Stopwatches. 7. In Meantime the Co-driver should note the Average Velocity of the Vehicle, between point B & C by the NOKIA LUMIA Speed Indicator. 8. Repeat the Experiment twice for one Vehicle i.e. Step 2 to Step 6. 9. Repeat Step 2 to Step 7 for different Vehicles.
  12. 12.  OBSERVATIONS Registration NO. Last Tyre Change before Vehicle Model. Year Velocity in the Speedom eter (km/h) Time Taken to cover 100m (sec) Velocity Calculate d by GPS (km/h) Velocity Calculated Experimen tally (km/h %age error (%) 2100 km MSGypsy.15 40 9.35 38.4 38.50267 -3.74332 23000 km HAviate-r.09 40 9.52 38 37.81513 -5.46218 6500 Km TSafari.06 40 9.45 38 38.09524 -4.7619 11000 Km MSSwift.11 40 9.32 38.5 38.62661 -3.43348 Not known MScorpio.13 40 9.54 37.9 37.73585 -5.66038 14000 km MSAltok10.12 40 9.2 39 39.13043 -2.17391 23000 Km MSAltok10.13 40 9.27 38.6 38.83495 -2.91262 Applied For 1850 km REClassic.15 40 9.34 38.6 38.5439 -3.64026 Above observation shows that the velocity in the Speedometer of any vehicle is generally less than the actual one, it is also part of law associated with speedometers.  RESULT Most speedometers have tolerances of some ±10%, mainly due to variations in tire diameter. Sources of error due to tire diameter variations are wear, temperature, pressure, vehicle load, and nominal tire size. Vehicle manufacturers usually calibrate speedometers to read high by an amount equal to the average error, to ensure that their speedometers never indicate a
  13. 13. lower speed than the actual speed of the vehicle, to ensure they are not liable for drivers violating speed limits. In many countries the legislated error in speedometer readings is ultimately governed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Regulation 39, which covers those aspects of vehicle type approval that relate to speedometers. The main purpose of the UNECE regulations is to facilitate trade in motor vehicles by agreeing uniform type approval standards rather than requiring a vehicle model to undergo different approval processes in each country where it is sold. European Union member states must also grant type approval to vehicles meeting similar EU standards. The ones covering speedometers are similar to the UNECE regulation in that they specify that: The indicated speed must never be less than the actual speed, i.e. it should not be possible to inadvertently speed because of an incorrect speedometer reading. The indicated speed must not be more than 110 % of the true speed plus 4 km/h at specified test speeds. For example, at 80 km/h, the indicated speed must be no more than 92 km/h. SPEED HAZARDS The difference of a few miles per hour can mean the difference between life and death. The faster someone is driving, the less time they have to stop if something unexpected happens. If you kill someone while speeding, you will have to live with the long-term emotional consequences. Speed limits are there for a reason. The facts • Speed is one of the main factors in fatal road accidents • In 2013, 3,064 people were killed or seriously injured in crashes where speed was a factor
  14. 14. • The risk of death is approximately four times higher when a pedestrian is hit at 40mph than at 30mph • Fatal accidents are four times as likely on rural “A” roads as urban “A” roads The law • You must not drive faster than the speed limit for the type of road and your type of vehicle. The speed limit is the absolute maximum and it doesn’t mean it's safe to drive at this speed in all conditions.  SOURCES OF ERROR 1. Wear and tears in the Tires of the Vehicle 2. Modification done with Wheels, like putting Alloy wheels or any other aftermarket parts used in wheel associated system. After market Alloy Wheel in the HR26AP1111 Mahindra Scorpio, a Source of Error.
  15. 15. 3. Error due to Parallax. 4. Manual error in operating the vehicle or the time measuring instrument. 5. Manufacturing defect in instruments used. 6. Error in measuring the Track used for the Experiment. TIME I Completed the Experiment in 5 Days, Total 11 working hours with the help of my cousins, nephews, parents and teachers and get up to my curiosity about the error in the speedometer of vehicles. COST 3 Computer Hours + 1 Litre Diesel + 2Litre Petrol + All Stationary costs me around 360 Rs. Thanks to my parents for providing me that amount and helping me in completing the experiment. BIBLIOGRAPHY Service Records of all vehicles used in Experiment for the Tire age. for searching anything associated with Experiment. for collecting the Service Records of all Vehicles and Gathering the whole Data in one device. One Drive for Sharing data i.e. observations over more than 2 devices used. NOKIA LUMIA 735 for using another Speed Indicator. Number of Android Devices for the time measuring system (Stopwatch). Windows 7 Home Basic ® Microsoft Office 2010 ® All Vehicles Used for measuring the error in their Speedometer.