Principles of plant disease management


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Principles of plant disease management

  1. 1. Principles Plant Disease Management Reshma Ranjan M.Sc.(PBG) Plant Breeding And Genetics
  2. 2. Introduction  Disease- A diseases is the impairment of the normal physiological functioning of a plant or plant part, caused by the continued irritation of a primary factor or factors.  Loss due to disease range from: A few to 30 %  In case of sever infection: 100% crop failure
  3. 3. How A disease Develop…….  Development of any disease depends on a close interaction among three diverse factors: • The Host • The pathogen • The environment
  4. 4.  Measures taken to prevent incidence of a disease, reduce the amount of inoculum that initiates the spreads of disease and finally minimises the loss caused by the disease have traditionally being called as control measures.  Plant disease management is the eminent process in crop production.  A disease can be managed by eliminating interaction between ◦ A susceptible host ◦ A virulent pathogen ◦ In suitable environmental condition What is Control Measures……
  5. 5. PRINCIPLES OF PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT 1) AVOIDANCE 2) EXCLUSION 3) ERADICATION 4) PROTECTION 5) RESISTANT VARIETIES 6) THERAPY H. H. Whetzel included four general disease control principles, Exclusion, Eradication, Protection, Re sistance
  6. 6. Avoidance Avoiding disease by altering planting time, or planting in areas where inoculum is ineffective due to environmental condition or rare or absent. Avoidance can be carried out by:- Choice of geographical areas Selection of field Selection of seed and planting material Choice of time of showing Disease escaping varieties Modification of cultural practices
  7. 7. Exclusion Preventing the inoculum from entering or establishing in the field or area where it does not exist.  Seed treatment  Inspection  Certification  Quarantine (Federal or State)  Cleaned farm equipment Cleaning farm equipment
  8. 8. Eradication This principle aims at eliminating a pathogen after it is introduced into an area but before it has become well established or widely spread. It can be applied to  individual plants,  seed lots,  fields or regions It is generally not effective over large geographic areas
  9. 9. Eradiation can be done by……  Destroying weeds that are reservoirs of various pathogens or insect vectors of disease,  Biological control of plant pathogen  Crop rotation  Soil treatment  Heat and chemical treatment Elimination of potato cull piles Weed Control
  10. 10. Crop Rotation Soil Treatment Burning of infected residues crop Propane flaming
  11. 11. Protection Preventing infection by creating a chemical toxic barrier between the plant surface and pathogens.  Chemical treatment  Chemical control of insect vector  Modification of environment or environment condition  Modification of host nutrition
  12. 12. Protection can be done by…… Bananas are covered with plastic sleeves Raised planting bedsGround sprayers
  13. 13. Resistant Varieties Preventing infection or reducing effect of infection by managing the host through improvement of resistance in it by genetic manipulation or by chemotherapy.  Selection and hybridisation of disease resistance  Mutation for disease resistance
  14. 14. Susceptible and resistant plant to papaya ringspot virus Susceptible and resistant plant
  15. 15. Therapy of disease plant Reducing severity of disease in an infected individual by chemicals.  Chemotherapy  Tree Surgery  Heat Therapy