Cloud101-Introduction to cloud

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Basic introduction to cloud computing. (Draft)

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Cloud101-Introduction to cloud

  1. 1. Cloud-101 Introduction to cloud computing- Ranjan Ghosh
  2. 2. If you cannot explain it simply, you have not understood it … - Albert Einstein
  3. 3. What is covered… • Origins of cloud • Definitions • Models • Layers • Virtualization • SDN • NFV
  4. 4. As old as Computing…. • …. Computing would be someday organized as public utility … utility could become basis of new important industry – John McCarthy - 1961 • Mainframe computer, terminal • X-Windows
  5. 5. Examples of cloud service providers – AWS – Google – Azure – Big-daddy – Rackspace
  6. 6. Facebook launches 'Arctic data centre' in Luleå, Sweden Green buildings will run on 100% renewable energy and use icy conditions to cool heat from servers
  7. 7. Characteristic of cloud • Scalability • Elasticity • Low barrier to entry • Utility
  8. 8. Cloud Applications • Web server • Collaboration • Backup/storage • Business applications • Personal productivity
  9. 9. Definition • Cloud computing refer to running of applications and services on distributed computing resources, using virtualized resources, accessed over common internet protocols.
  10. 10. Definition • “...a standardized IT capability (services, software, or infrastructure) delivered via Internet technologies in a pay-per-use, self- service way.” – Forrester Research • “...a style of computing in which scalable and elastic IT-enabled capabilities are delivered as a service to external customers using Internet technologies.” – Gartner
  11. 11. Definition (NIST) • Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.” NIST – National Institute of Standard and Technology
  12. 12. Model of Cloud • NIST • Jericho forum – Cloud Cube model
  13. 13. Jericho Cube model
  14. 14. Jericho Cube explained Perimeterized/De • Where is the cloud physically located? Proprietary/Open • Use of open technology to implement the cloud • Determines the level of portability Internal/External In/Out sourced • Where is the cloud physically located? • Where is the cloud physically located?
  15. 15. NIST Model
  16. 16. The XaaS… • X = something – Infrastructure – Platform – Software • SPI model
  17. 17. SPI model
  18. 18. Cloud Computing Stack
  19. 19. Cloud Deployment Model • Public • Private – Virtual Private Cloud • Hybrid • Community
  20. 20. Public Cloud (examples)
  21. 21. Data centre • Commodity compute HW – x86 based rack-mounted server blades • Storage – NAS (network attached storage) – SAN (storage area network) • Networking – Carrier & external network – LAN fabric • NAS gateway – SAN fabric – Load Balancing (layer 7) • Infrastructure (cooling, power)
  22. 22. Key concepts • Abstraction • Virtualization
  23. 23. Components of virtualization
  24. 24. Layers of Virtualization
  25. 25. Server Virtualization
  26. 26. Virtualization: OS Based
  27. 27. Virtualization: HW based
  28. 28. Horizontal Scaling
  29. 29. Vertical Scaling
  30. 30. Scaling
  31. 31. Virtualization vs Multi-tenancy Virtualization • Multiple copies of server environment on single instance of HW Multi-tenancy • Multiple users of single application – get to feel they are exclusive users
  32. 32. Architectural Standards • SOA – Service oriented Architecture • Virtualization of platform resources • Web-app frame work • Standardized web services • Autonomic systems • Grid computing • Example – Openstack , Eucalyptus, IEEE-tcsc
  33. 33. HYPERVISOR
  34. 34. • Mechanism to generate virtual server instances (virtual machine monitor) – Bare metal (native, type 1) – Hosted (type 2)
  35. 35. Under the hood • SOAP • WSDL • XML • Openflow • Openstack • OGF-NSI • OpenNaaS
  36. 36. Enablers • Broadband Networks and Internet Architecture • Data Center Technology • Virtualization Technology • Web Technology • Multitenant Technology • Service Technology
  37. 37. SDN Software Defined Networking
  38. 38. Networking (current view)
  39. 39. Networking (SDN view)
  40. 40. Current architecture
  41. 41. The SDN architecture
  42. 42. ALU SDN
  43. 43. Openflow
  44. 44. Benefits of Cloud • Scalability • Reduced CAPEX and OPEX • Availability • Reliability
  45. 45. Characteristics of cloud computing • On-demand usage • Ubiquitous access • Multi-tenancy (and resource pooling) • Elasticity • Measured usage • Resiliency
  46. 46. Challenges • Security • Governance & control • Portability • Legal & compliance (multi country)
  47. 47. NFV Network Function Virtualization
  48. 48. NFV • The issues/problems – Operators have to maintain large, diverse and often proprietary HW to run their services • Power saving and environmental impact – Specialized skill sets are need for operations – New services require power and space to accommodate the HW appliances – EOL of HW means re-starting the procure-design- integrate-deploy cycle – Introduction of services at the speed is not possible
  49. 49. Courtesy: NFV whitepaper
  50. 50. NFV • Solutions – Use IT virtualization technology to deploy/consolidate network equipment • Use high volume servers, dense switches & storage – Any control/data-plane NE can be virtualized (goal) – Can be located in DC, Node or CPE location – SDN & NVF are complimentary, mutually beneficial but not same.
  51. 51. NFV (benefits) • Consolidation of equipment on IT servers • Reduce entry barrier for creation of software based Network elements (network virtual appliance). • Sharing of IT resources across services (no dedicated HW). • Scalable, reduced time to market
  52. 52. NFV (challenges) • Reliability of the Network Virtual Appliance (NVA) • Portability of NVA across different virtual platforms • Coexistence of NVA (different types as well as its legacy version) • Performance – latency, thru-put and overhead.
  53. 53. References • Cloud Computing: Concepts, technology and architecture – Thomas Erl, Zaigham Mahmood, Ricardo Puttini (Prentice Hall ) • Computing Bible – Barrie Sosinsky (John Wiley & Sons)
  54. 54. Backup
  55. 55. Common Symbols (Users) Internet
  56. 56. Common Symbols (IT)
  57. 57. Cloud Types • Deployment model • Service model

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