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  1. 1. Motherboard & System Software
  2. 2.  This lesson will show you how motherboards work, how to identify various kinds of motherboards, the importance of chipsets, and how to install and troubleshoot motherboards. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to do the following:  Explain how motherboards work  Identify the types of motherboards and chipsets  Upgrade and install motherboards  Troubleshoot motherboard problems
  3. 3. Motherboard and It’s Classification What is Motherboard?  Motherboard is the main component of the CPU  Backbone of the Computer Functions of Motherboard  It integrates all Hardware components into one system  Allows all parts of your computer to receive power and communicate with one another.
  4. 4. Computing Systems Week 2 - Hardware 4 CPU Socket USB Audio Keyboard & Mouse (PS/2) Expansion Slots (PCI or PCI Express) Expansion Slot (AGP or PCI Express) Disk drive connectors Power supply connector RAM slots Serial Port Parallel Port
  5. 5. Motherboard and It’s Classification  Speed  Upgrade Capabilities  Size and shape (form Factor) Specifications
  6. 6. Motherboard and It’s Classification Processor socket Memory slot PCI slots ATX Power connector PCIe slot SATA connector PATA/IDE connector Components of Motherboard
  7. 7. Motherboard and It’s Classification CMOS Battery ISA Slot AGP Slot Components of Motherboard
  8. 8. Motherboard and It’s Classification I/O Ports PS/2 Port VGA Port Serial Port Audio Port Parallel Port USB Port Ethernet Port I/O Ports
  9. 9. Motherboard and It’s Classification Classification of Motherboard Integrated Motherboard Non-Integrated Motherboard
  10. 10. Motherboard and It’s Classification Integrated Motherboard  Components are in built in the motherboard.  Designed for simplicity. Draw backs  When one component in the board is broken or stops working you have to replace the whole board  Cheaper to produce but more expensive to repair.
  11. 11. Motherboard and It’s Classification Non-Integrated Motherboard  The major assemblies like Video circuitry, disk controllers, and accessories are installed on the Computer as expansion cards.  Can easily Identify the Non-integrated motherboards by their expansion slots usually occupied by one of the components. Expansion card
  12. 12.  A. Three primary characteristics  1. Form factor determines size of the motherboard and general location of the parts.  2. Chipset defines the type of processor and RAM supported.  3. Built-in components determine functionality and expandability of the system.  B. The motherboard contains traces or wires through which the data and commands flow. Motherboards typically have traces on multiple layers of the board.
  13. 13.  C. Form factors 1 What is a form factor? a)Industry standardized shapes and layouts b)Allows standardization of cases and power supplies. Cases are designed so that when the motherboard is properly mounted, motherboard connectors are available externally. 2. AT motherboards are old-style form factors and currently obsolete. Each features a large keyboard plug and two connectors called P8 and P9 from the power supply. 3. AT motherboard (about 12×13 inches in size) was followed by the Baby AT (about 8.5×13 inches in size). 4. A number of different form factors appeared and quickly disappeared, including the Slimline LPX (sometimes referred to as Low-Profile Extensions) and the NLX. a)The LPX features a case height of about 4 inches and has a limited number of expansion slots mounted on a central riser card. b)The LPX, also small, provides better support for CPUs, AGP video, USB, and large amounts of RAM. NLX: New Low Profile eXtended LPX: Low Profile eXtension
  14. 14.  6. The ATX form factor  a) In 1995, Intel introduced a new form factor called ATX. Roughly the same size as the Baby AT, it mounted at a 90-degree angle relative to the computer’s case. It featured a rear panel with all necessary ports built in. It had a mini-DIN or PS/2 keyboard and mouse port. The position of the power supply allowed for better cooling. The CPU and RAM were more accessible.  b) RAM was closer to the Northbridge and the CPU than on AT boards, allowing the clock speed to be doubled or quadrupled.  c) It incorporates “soft power” features, allowing the operating system software to turn the PC on and off. Instead of a large power cord from the power supply to the on/off switch, the ATX board runs the power through the motherboard itself and uses only a pair of small wires from the motherboard to the on/off switch.  d) It has only a single 20-pin connector, called P1, from the power supply to the motherboard.  e) A number of variations of the ATX have been produced, including the microATX and the FlexATX.
  15. 15. 7. BTX form factor designed to be cooler than other boards. a) BTX designed to replace ATX b) MicroBTX designed to replace microATX c) PicoBTX designed to replace FlexATX 8. Some manufacturers produced proprietary motherboards. a) Didn’t follow standards b) Difficult to support BTX: Balanced Technology eXtended
  16. 16.  Chipset varieties 1. The chipset defines many aspects of the motherboard, including the processor type, the type and capacity of RAM, and the kinds of internal and external devices it can support. 2. Modern chipsets consist of two primary chips, the Northbridge and the Southbridge, plus a Super I/O chip to provide legacy support. a) The Northbridge chip on Intel-based motherboards connects the CPU with RAM. On AMD-based motherboards, the Northbridge provides the communication with the video card, but the CPU has an onboard MCC (memory chip controller) chip that communicates with RAM. Northbridge is called memory controller hub (MCH) on some Intel-based systems.
  17. 17.  The PC has become so complex that even the most recent, powerful processors can 't do the entire job of managing the flow of data by themselves.  The CPU has been given help in the form of the chip set, located nearby on the motherboard.  The chip set consists of two microchips, often referred to as the North Bridge and the South Bridge, that act as the administrators to the CPU, or chief executive.  The chip set bridges logical and physical gaps between the CPU and other chips, all the time watching and controlling the input and output of specific components.
  18. 18. Many processor architectures have moved the Northbridge into the CPU package or chip itself Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
  19. 19.  The exact function of the chip set is constantly changing. But in all cases, the bridges determine what kinds of memory, processors, and other components can work with that particular motherboard.  There is an unfortunate trend to replace the names North Bridge and South Bridge with less elegant terms such as Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) and the I/O Controller Hub (ICH), even though their basic purpose is the same.
  20. 20.  The North Bridge and South Bridge together form the computer's chip set, secondary only to the processor in determining the performance and capabilities of a Pc.  The North Bridge chip either provides or controls the computer's graphics, RAM, and the front side bus, the main highway for data connecting graphics and memory to the CPU.  A crucial mechanism in the North Bridge is the memory controller, which constantly renews the memory modules (RAM). Each memory cell with an electrical charge represents a 1 bit. Because the charge begins to dissipate as soon as it's created, the bridge's memory controller endlessly, thousands of times a second, reads each of the millions of cells and writes back the values it read.
  21. 21.  When the CPU needs data from RAM, it sends a request to the North Bridge memory controller. The controller, in turn, sends the request along to memory and tells the CPU how long the processor must wait to read the memory over a speedy connection called the front side bus (FSB).  The North Bridge is also the liaison with the other component for which speed is crucial: the video card. (Some chip sets have video, sound, or other functions built into them, but on chip video is not as fast as a dedicated expansion card).
  22. 22.  The other half of the PC chip set, the South Bridge is in charge of input/output with the disk drives, audio, networking and universal serial port.  The South Bridge primarily handles the routing of traffic between the various input/output (I/O) devices on the system for which speed is not vital to the total performance, such as the disk drives, optical drives, PCI-Express devices, the older PCI bus, and the USB, Ethernet, and audio ports.  It is also responsible for less prominent input/output, such as the real-time clock, interrupt controller, and power management.  Some South Bridge chips incorporate audio capabilities good enough to support Dolby Digital and THX multimedia audio.
  23. 23. PC's Hypothalamus CPU’s brain
  24. 24.  When you first turn on your PC ◦ Your PC requires information  to detect PC components  To find the operating system(floppy disk, hard drive, or a CD-ROM) ◦ This information is stored in the BIOS
  25. 25.  When a computer is turned on, the microprocessor has no idea what to do next as there is nothing at all in the memory to execute, it tries to execute its first instruction and it has to get the instruction from somewhere.  BIOS provides those instructions and it is stored in a BIOS ROM.  The instruction typically located at memory location FFFF0h, or right at the end of the system memory  This process is known as booting, or booting up, which is short for bootstrapping  The whole process is hidden because the only thing displayed by the monitor is the logo of the machine manufacturer or the logo of the bios company.
  26. 26. Power-on Self Test ( POST ) - Takes place right after you power on. It will test computer hardware, ensuring hardware is properly functioning before starting process of loading operating system. If the POST is successful, the BIOS calls INT 19 (Interrupt 19) and then proceeds to look for devices attached to the motherboard. Bootstrap Loader - Process of locating the operating system. If capable operating system located, BIOS will pass the control to it.
  27. 27. 1. Tests the system and prepares the computer for operation based on CMOS settings (installed hardware and the configuration settings from the manufacturer and user) 2. Load the interrupt handlers and device drivers Interrupt handlers - Small pieces of software that act as a translator between the hardware components and the operating system. Device drivers – other pieces of software that identify the base hardware components such as keyboard, mouse, hard drive or floppy drive. 3. Initialize registers and power management
  28. 28.  Once finished, it begins searching for a drive to boot an operating system → the boot order or sequence  Depending on the BIOS setting, the procedure may try to access (in a predefined, customizable order) the first sector (boot sector) of any floppy disk, any hard disk, and any CD-ROM in the system.  BIOS will try to initiate the boot sequence from the first device.  If it does not find the proper files in the device, the startup process will halt and an error message is displayed.
  29. 29.  Most are set to first look for a bootable floppy disk, and if one is not found then proceed to a hard disk, which is usually the C: drive.  Once the drive is identified, it looks for boot information to start the operating system boot process.  If it is searching a hard disk, it looks for a master boot record (MBR) at cylinder 0, head 0, ‘sector zero’, the first sector on the disk.  If a Master Boot Record is found, it is read into memory at location 0000:7c00 and INT 19 jumps to memory location 0000:7c00.  At this point, the BIOS attempts to move control of the computer from the BIOS to the actual operating system.
  30. 30. Configuring BIOS - CMOS Setup  During the initial start up or the boot sequence, you will notice a sentence Press ____ to Enter Setup. Most system use Esc, Del, F1, F2 or combination of keys to enter Setup menu.  This will cause the boot process to be diverted into the CMOS configuration. CMOS contains stored configuration regarding how the system is to be booted.
  31. 31.  It is configuration program that allows you to configure hardware settings including system settings such as boot sequence, computer passwords, time and date.
  33. 33. • BIOS program continually checks the CPU temperature and voltages, the cooling fans RPM, etc. • If over heating occurs, the PC will shut down automatically. • The PC can also be turned on by for example modem signals, since the power supply is controlled by the motherboard. • The on/off button will turn the PC "down" without turning it completely off.
  34. 34. • Some BIOSes contain a "tattoo", a digital signature placed inside the BIOS by the manufacturer, for example Dell. • Computer manufacturers that distribute original equipment manufactured (OEM) versions of Microsoft Windows and Microsoft application software can use the tattoo to authenticate licensing to the OEM Windows Installation disk and/or system recovery disc containing Windows software. • Dell systems having tattoos do not require entry of the Product Key (the Product Key on the label in fact being invalid), and they bypass Windows Product Activation (a convenience to the user and to Microsoft).
  35. 35. • Apple Macintosh, where the system software originally relied heavily on the ToolBox—a set of drivers and other useful routines stored in ROM based on Motorola's 680x0 CPUs. • These Apple ROMs were replaced by Open Firmware in the PowerPC Macintosh, then EFI (Extensible Firmware Interface) in Intel Macintosh computers.
  36. 36. 1. Large hard drive support. Older BIOS's couldn't see drives larger than 37GB due the 48bit problem. 2. New video card technology such as AGP 8X support, or in older machines 2X to 4X. This includes SLI. 3. Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI ) compatibility 4. CPU support. BIOS companies often release new CPU microcode updates to the motherboard companies who in turn add them to their BIOS's to support newer CPU's 5. Fix problems. A common problem is USB compatibility. There are so many USB devices nowadays and many of them try to use the same interrupt request (IRQ). Hence, as the system BIOS is loading, IRQ conflicts can cause USB devices to not be found. 6. Memory support. Newer faster memory can have issues on your motherboard. Might be larger than what was originally tested or approved. A tweak from the motherboard company can fix that.
  37. 37.  Every desktop computer uses an operating system.  The operating system forms a platform for other system software and application software  The most popular operating systems in use today are:  Windows from Microsoft  Mac OS from Apple  UNIX / LINUX
  38. 38. There are three basic elements that make up the major design components of any operating system:  User interface  Kernel  File management system
  39. 39.  A user interacts with the operating system through the user interface.  The user interface is the part of the operating system that can be used to issue commands by either typing them at a command prompt or pointing and clicking the mouse on a graphical user interface (GUI).  Older operating systems integrated the GUI into the kernel but the modern ones have the user interface separating the graphics subsystem from the kernel (like in Linux and Mac OSX).  Many operating systems allow the user to install or create any user interface they desire.  The X Window System in conjunction with GNOME or KDE is a commonly found setup on most Unix and Unix derivative systems.  Graphical user interfaces evolve over time
  40. 40.  This is the core of the operating system.  The kernel is responsible for loading and operating programs or processes, and managing input and output.
  41. 41.  Kernel act as a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level Resources
  42. 42.  The file management system is what the operating system uses to organize and manage files.  A file is a collection of data.  Virtually all of the information that a computer stores is in the form of a file.  There are many types of files, including program files, data files, and text files.  The way an operating system organizes information into files is called the file system.  Most operating systems use a hierarchical file system, which organizes files into directories under a tree structure.  The beginning of the directory system is called the root directory.
  43. 43.  Multiuser: when two or more users can work with programs and share peripheral devices (printer, scanner, fax)  Multitasking: multiple applications operated at the same time  Multiprocessing: more than one CPUs that can be shared  Multithreading: smaller parts of a program are loaded when needed by OS  Real-Time Operating System (RTOS): designed to allow computers to process and respond to the consistent input of information without delay
  44. 44.  File and folder management  An operating system creates a file structure on the computer hard drive where the data can be stored and retrieved  Applications management  Whenever a program is requested the operating system locates it and loads into the primary memory or RAM.  Support for built-in utility programs  The operating system comes with tools for maintenance and repairs. They identify the problem, they find lost files, repair the damaged ones and do backups for your data.  Computer hardware control  Operating systems facilitates the access of programs to the computer hardware through the BIOS and through device drivers.
  45. 45. At the simplest level, an operating system does two things:  It manages the hardware and software resources of the system. In a desktop computer, these resources include such things as the processor, memory, disk space, etc.  The operating system plays the role of the good parent, making sure that each application gets the necessary resources while playing nicely with all the other applications It provides a stable, consistent way for applications to deal with the hardware without having to know all the details of the hardware
  46. 46.  One of the task under Application Management  The heart of managing the processor comes down to two related issues: ◦ Ensuring that each process and application receives enough of the processor's time to function properly. ◦ Using as many processor cycles for real work as possible.  Uses interrupts as an efficient way to communicate with its environments
  47. 47.  This is a signal to a processor indicating that an asynchronous event has occurred.  Here the current sequence of instructions is temporarily suspended, and a sequence appropriate to the interruption is started in its place.  Its purpose is to alert the operating system when any special event occurs so that it can suspend its current activity and deal appropriately with the new situation
  48. 48.  Usually an interrupt gives a signal from a device attached to a computer or from a program within the computer that causes the main program that operates the computer (the operating system) to stop and figure out what to do next.  Almost all personal (or larger) computers today are interrupt-driven - that is, they start down the list of computer instructions in one program (perhaps an application such as a word processor) and keep running the instructions until either  (A) they can't go any further or  (B) an interrupt signal is sensed.  After the interrupt signal is sensed, the computer either resumes running the program it was running or begins running another program.
  49. 49.  Basically, a single computer can perform only one computer instruction at a time. But, because it can be interrupted, it can take turns in which programs or sets of instructions that it performs.  This is known as multitasking. It allows the user to do a number of different things at the same time.  The computer simply takes turns managing the programs that the user effectively starts. Of course, the computer operates at speeds that make it seem as though all of the user's tasks are being performed at the same time.
  50. 50.  A code in operating system that prioritizes the interrupts and saves them in a queue if more than one is waiting to be handled.  The operating system has another little program, sometimes called a scheduler, which figures out which program to give control to next.
  51. 51.  In general, there are hardware interrupts and software interrupts.  A hardware interrupt occurs, for example, when an I/O operation is completed such as reading some data into the computer from a tape drive.  A software interrupt occurs when an application program terminates or requests certain services from the operating system.
  52. 52.  Interrupts alter a program’s flow of control  Interrupt causes transfer of control to an interrupt service routine (ISR) ◦ ISR is also called a handler  When the ISR is completed, the original program resumes execution ◦ Hence, interrupts provide an efficient way to handle unanticipated events
  53. 53. When an operating system manages the computer's memory, there are two broad tasks to be accomplished:  Each process must have enough memory in which to execute, and it can neither run into the memory space of another process nor be run into by another process.  The different types of memory in the system must be used properly so that each process can run most effectively.
  54. 54.  The path between the operating system and virtually all hardware/device that are not on the computer's motherboard goes through a special program called a driver.  Much of a driver's function is to be the translator between the electrical signals of the hardware subsystems and the high-level programming languages of the operating system and application programs.  Drivers take data that the operating system has defined as a file and translate them into streams of bits placed in specific locations on storage devices, or a series of laser pulses in a printer.
  55. 55. Windows Linux (UNIX) Mac
  56. 56.  Single-user, multi-tasking  Similar to Windows since it is the same type of OS  However, when comparison is performed between them in terms of:  Application  Power  Files and Folders  GUI and etc  Result: MAC obtains a slightly better score than Windows  Comparison Website  It is also possible to have BOTH operating systems on the same PC. However, it requires  lots of free hard disk space  emulation software that duplicates (provide an emulation of) the functions of one system with a different system  a faster machine for faster installation time